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Full text of "Bell's New pantheon, or, Historical dictionary of the gods, demi-gods, heroes, and fabulous personages of antiquity : also, of the images and idols adored in the pagan world : together with their temples, priests, altars, oracles, fasts, festivals, games, &c. as well as descriptions of their figures, representations, and symbols, collected from statues, pictures, coins, and other remains of the ancients : the whole designed to facilitate the study of mythology, history, poetry, painting, statuary, medals, &c. &c. and compiled from the best authorities : richly embellished with characteristic prints .."

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1838 TO IB39 


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According to the original plan of publication these wlumes vjould have been 
considerably increased in bulk, and consequently in expence ; to remove therefore this 
objeBion, after some progress was made in the printing, so much of it as bad passed 
under the press was cancelled- for the sake of enlarging the page ; notwithstanding 
which, however, the same number of subjeQs have been engraved as would have ii/- 
jiced for volumes of double the sixe. 

To accommodate the work to ordinary use, it is so contrived, that those who choose 
may bind the whole in one ijolume; while others who prefer a form less bulfy are 
provided with titles to preserve it in two. 

To the Engravings a list of authorities is annexed, that tbetr genuineness may be 
placed beyond the reach of a doubt. 

On an impartial review of the whole, the publisher flatters himself that Artists of 
EVERY Profession, and Scholars of all Denominations, may hence derive an 
abundance of informtUton from the best of sources. 

British Library Strand, JOHN BELL. 

2S AprU, 1790 

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XXAEDE, one of the original three Muses : the 
other two were Melete and Miteme. 

AAIN-EL-GINUM, or thefountain of idols, was an 
ancient city of Africa, in the province of Chaus 
and kingdom of Fez. Tradition relates, that 
the Africans had in the precinfts of it, near a 
fountain, a temple, where persons of both seices 
celebrated, at particular seasons, no6tumaI fe- 
stivals ; in which the woijien abandoned them- 
selves in the dark to such men as chance might 
present. The oflfepring of this intercourse were 
reputed sacred, and brought up by the priests 
of the temple. On this account those who had 
passed the night there, were secluded from their 
husbands for the space of ft year. This temple 
was destroyed by the Mahometans. Ortelius 
calls the city MatdUnona. 

AB, the eleventh month of the civil year of the 
Hebrews, and the fifth of their ecclesiastical 
year, which begins with the month Nisan*. The 
word Ah corresponds to the moon of July, that 
is, of a part of that month and the beginning of 
August. Its duration is thirty days. The Jews 
fasted upon the iirst day of this month on ac- 
count of the death of Aaron,and upon the ninth, 
to commemorate both the burning of Solomon's 
temple by the Ch^deans, and also their second 
temple, by the Romans. The Jews suppcsed 
it to be on the same day that the spies, return- 
ing from Canaan, incited their nation to revolt. 
They fasted also on this day tiecause of the pro- 
hibition of Adrian issued against their abode in 
Jerusalem, or even looking towards it at a di- 
stance to deplore its ruin. -The eighteenth day 
of the same month they fasted, because on Urnt 
night the lamps of the sanctuary went out in the 
timeofAhaz- Qther calamities are represented 
Vol. 1. 


as having be^len the Jews in this month, on 
account of which it may be termed their month 
of fasting. 

ABABIL, a strange, or rather fiibulous bird men- 
tioned in the Koran, concerning the nature and 
qualitiesofwhichfthe Mahometan doAors great* 
ly Aifkr. 

ABADIR, a word compounded of two Phoeneclaa 
terms. It signifies nu^ificent father, a title 
which the Carthagenians^ave to their gods (ftb€ 
first order. It is also applied to the stone which 
Ops or Rhea dressed up &r Saturn to swallow, 
instead of Jupiter ; for the old god, afraid of be. 
ing dethroned by his sons, devoured them to 
secure himself. This stone was called by the 
Greeks jSMruxo*. The same title has been attri- 
buted, but by mistake, to the god Terminus, 

ABAE, a place of Lysia, where (as we learn from 
the Scholiast on the Oedipus Tyrannua) Apollo 
had a temple j and whence he was stiled Abaeus. ■ 

ABANTIAS, or ABANTIADES, a patronymic 
ofDanae,Atalante,and the other grand-children 
of Abas. 

ABARBAREA, <me of the Naiades, whom Buco- 
lion the eldest son of Laomedon married, and 
by whom he had two sonsj Aesepus and Peda- 

ABARIS, was a Scythian, who, for having sung 
the expedition of Apollo to the Hyperboreans, 
was constituted his jn-iest, and received from 
him the spirit of divination, together with an 
arrow, by means of which he could traverse the 
air. He is also said to have fomied, from the 
bones of Pelops, the statue of Minerva, which 
the Trojans purchased of him, and on his word, 
believed to have descended firom heaven. It 
was this statue that was afterwards celebrated 

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under the name of the Palladium. There were 
two others named Aborts, one of which was 
killed by Perseus, and the other by Euryalus. 

ABAS, the son of Hypothoon and Metanira, or, 
according to some, of Celeas and Megwiira. 
Ceres changed him into a lizard, for mocking 
her and her sacrifices. 

ABAS, one of the Centaurs who opposed the La- 
pi thes. 

ABAS, the son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, 
and father of Acrisius and Proetue, was the 
eleventh king of the Argives. 

ABAS, son of Eurydamus, the soothsayer, and 
brother ofPolydius. -Both brothers were slain 
by Diomed in the Trojan war. Also one of the 
companions of Aeneas killed by Lausus, son of 

ABAS, a celebrated soothsayer, to whom a statue 
was erefted by the Lacedem'onians in the tem- 
ple of Delphi, for having rendered signal ser- 
vices to Lysander. 

ABASTER, one of the three horses of Pluto, of 
a black colour. See Metbeus and Nonius. 

ABATOS, an island in the palus of Memphis or 
lake Moeris, famous amongst other things for 
the tomb of Osiris, which was afterwards carried 
to Abydos. This island hath been bysomecon- 
founded with a rock of the same name. 

ABUTTO, an idol or god of the Japanese, emi- 
nent for the cure of many distempers, and also 
for procuring fair winds and quick voyages. 
On the latter account, small pieces of coin tied 
to a stick are thrown by sailors into the sea, as 
an oflering. These offerings his priests pretend 
are wafted to him. In still weather he is said to 
appear himself in a boat to demand this tribute. 

ABDERUS, a favourite of Hercules, who having 
carried off'themareaof Diomedes which lived 
on human flesh, committed them to the care of 
Abderus, and proceeded against the Bistones. 
Having slain many of them, and Diomedes a- 
mongst the rest, Hercules returned from bis ex- 
pedition, but finding that his favourite had 
been torn asunder by the mares, he built a city 
near his tomb in mefnorial of him, and gave it 
the name of Abdera. 

ABELLION, a divinity of the ancient Gauls.— 
Vossius supposes him to be the same with the 
./(/w//(j of the Greeks, and the Bf/«jof the'Cretans. 

ABEONA AND ADEONA, divinities that pre- 

sided over travellers, the one at their going out, 
and the other on their return. 

ABERIDES, the son of Coelus and Vesta ; the 
same with Saturii. 

ASIA, the daughter of Hercules, was sister and 
nurse to Hyllus. A celebrated temple was e- 
re£ted to her in Messenia. She withdrew to the 
city of Ira, which took its name from her, and 
was one of the seven which Agamemnon pro- 
mised Achilles. 

ABLEGMINA, those choice parts of the entrails 
of victims which were offered in sacrifice to the 
gods. In Festus we find the word Ablegamina, 
which Scaliger and others take for a corruption 
of the text. It is apparently derived from Ab- - 
legere, to cull or separate, and formed in imi- 
tation of the Greek KiroXiyni-, which signifies the- 
same. In this sense Ablegamina coincides with 
enroj.iyy.M ; Unless, as others suggest, the word be 
of Latin origin, and derived from albeo, whence 
albegmina, on account of the whiteness of these 
parts. The Ablegmina were otherwise called 
prosiciae,porricia-,proseBa, and prosegmna: they 
seem to have differedfrom strebula, which were 
the like morsels of the fleshy part3,and from aug- 
mentum, which particularly denoted a lobe of 
the liver. Some authors make Ablegmina to 
include all those parts of the vi<aims which were 
offered to the deities ; contrary to the authority 
■ of Festus, who restrains Ablegmina to the esta 
or entrails only. The exta being found good, 
were to be prose6ted or parted ; i. e. the ex- 
tremes or prominent parts cut off as Ableg- 
mina, to be sprinkled with flour, and burnt by 
the priests on the altar, pouring wine on them. 
Tertullian rallies the heathens for thus serving 
their gods with scraps and ofl^s. 

ABLERUS, one of the Trojans, who was killed 
by Archilochus. 

ABORIGENES, the first inhabitants of Italy, w ho 
were brought thither by Saturn from the east. 
Some suppose them to have come from Arcadia 
under the conduft of Oenotrus, and that Virgil 
therefore called them Oenotrians. Others derive 
their name from abborrendagens, an abominable 
race ; others from aberrigenes, a nation of wan- 
derers, &r. 

ABRACADABRA, a magical term, to which, if 
repeated in a particular manner and a certain 
number of times, great effefts are attributed in 

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the cure of fevers and the prevention rf other 
maladieS; Some write the word abrasadabra, 
mistaking the Roman C, equivalent to %., for 
the Greek C or Z. To produce its magical ef- 
feft, the word should be thus written ; 





A B R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


This formula is preserved by Serenus Samoni- 
cus, a phycian of the twelfth century. Scaliger, 
Salmasius and Kircher, have taken great pains 
to discover the sense of the word. Delrio speaks 
of it as a well known formula in magic, which 
was perhaps formed by Serenus, who followed 
the magical superstitions of Basilidas from A- 

ABRASAX, a mystical term of the Basilidians, 
which, on the authority of Tertulian and Je- 
r«n, is supposed to have been a name given by 
tiasiiidas to the supreme Being, as expressive of 
the 36J divine processions which that heretic in 
vented, A signifying 1. p, 2. f, 100. «, 1, v, 200. 
«, 1. f, 60. This notion however is destroyed in 
part by Jerom himself, who hath elsewhere con- 
jeftured the word to be an appellative of Mi- 
thra, the god of the Pemans, and the numeral 
value of the letters that compose it, to he his 
annual revolution of 365 days ; whilst Irenaeus 
affirm^ that the Basilidians represented the Fa- 
ther cf all things as ineffable and without a name ; 
and that the name in question, making the num- 
ber 365, was applied by them as the first of their 
365 heavens, where the prince or chief of their 
365 angels resided. Other solutions have been 
attempted by Wendelin, Basnage, Beausobre 
and others, but all with equal indecision. 

ABRETIA.a nymph which gave her name to My- 
sia, whence Jupiter, who was worshipped there, 
obtained the title Abretanus. 

ABSEUS, a giant, the oiFspring of the Earth and 

ABSYRTUS, «m of Aeetes, king ofColchU, bf 
Hypsea, and brother of Medea and Chalcione^ 
according to some; Apollonius makes him son 
of Asteride, a Scythian nymph. Medea« after 
having assisted Jason in carrying away the 
golden fleece, and accompanied him, was pur- 
sued by her father ; but, to stop his pursuit, 
tore her brother Absyrtus^ who went with her 
in iMCces, and scattered his limbs on the road. 
Aeetes, perceiving the mangled members of his 
son, stopped to gather them up, by which meant 
Medea effected her escape with Jason. Apollo- 
nius, in his ArgonauticB, ascribes the death of 
Absyrtus not to Medea, but to Jason. 

ABUNDANTIA. This deity is represented in 
ancient monuments, under the figure of a wo- 
man with a pleasing aspe£l, crowned with gar< 
lands oS flowers, pouring all sorts of fruitout 
of a horn which she holds in her right hand, 
and scattering grain with her left, taken pro- 
miscuously from a sheaf of com. On a medal 
of Trajan she is represented with two cornu- 
copias. She is most usually called by the name 
ofCopia, in the Poets, and that of Abundantia 
on medals, on some of which she is seated on a 
chair, not unlike the Roman chair, only its two 
sides are wrought into the shape of cornucopias, 
to denote the charaiSer of this goddess, who 
was the giver of other things as well as provi- 
sion, and that at all times and in all places. — 
The horn is said to have belonged to Achelous, 
or according to others to the goat Amalthea. — 
This goddess was saved with Saturn when Jupi- 
ter dethroned him. 

ABYDOS, a city of Asia on the Hellespont and 
the country of Hero and Leander. There was 
another of the same name in Aegypt, where 
stood the famous temple of Osiris, and where 
Memnon in common resided. 

ABYLA, a mountain of Africa, and Calfe in 
Spain on the Straits of Gibraltar were called the 
pillars of Hercoles. It is pretended that Her- 
cules, finding these two mountains in one, dis- 
joined them, and thus united the Mediterranean 
with the ocean. 

ACACAI.IS, daughter of Minos the first king of 
Crete, by Ithone daughter of Liftius, and sister 
to Lycastus. Apollonius makes her the mother 
of Amphithemis or Garamas by Apollo, to 
whom, according to IXodorus, she was married. 
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Philacides and Philander are said also to have 
been the ofl%pring of this union. Some authors 
make her the wife of Miletus king of Caria, and 
others his mother by Apollo. 

ACACESIUS : Mercury waa thus called from his 
foster-father Acacus the son of Lycaon, who 
was founder of the city Acacesium. 

ACADINUS, a fountain in Sicily, consecrated to 
the Palic brothers who were particularly ho- 
noured in that island. To this fountain was at- 
tributed the marvellous faculty of discovering 
the truth of oaths. The words being inscribed 
on tablets of wood and thrown into the water, ' 
would sink if the oath they contained were false, 
but swim if it were true. 

ACALET OR PERDIX, nephew of Dedalus, in- 
vented both the saw and the compass. Dedalus 
through jealousy precipitated him from a lofty 
tower, but Minerva in compassion changed him 
to a partridge. 

ACALIS OR ACASIS. See Acacalis. 

ACAMARCH IS, a nymph, daughter of the Ocean. 

ACAMAS, son of Theseus, and brother of Demo- 
phoon, followed the rest of the Grecian princes 
to the siege of Troy. He was deputed with 
J)iomedes, to the Trojans, to solicit the restora- 
tion of Helena. This embassy, though abortive 
as to Helena, was however successful to Acamas; 
for Laodice, king Priam's daughter, fell despe. 
rately in love with him, and was constrained, 
against every refleflion which honour or infamy 
could suggest, to reveal her passion to Philobia, 
wife of Perseus, and to beg her assistance. Phi- 
lobia, touched with compassion, intreated her 
husband to contrive that the wishes of Laodice 
might be gratified. Perseus, jntying the lady, 
uid desirous also of obliging his wife, insinuated 
himself into the friendship of Acamas, and ob- 
tained a visit from him in the city of Dardanus, 
of which he was governor. Laodice failed not 
to go thither, attended by some Trojan ladies. 
A splendid feast -was prepared, at the conclusion 
ofwhich,Per9eu8 introduced Acamas to Laodice 

as one of the king's concubines. Laodice, 

highly satisfied with her gallant, took leave of 
him, and, at the end of nine months, was de- 
livered of a son, whom she committed to the 
care of Aethra, grandmother by the father's 
side to Acamas. The shild was named Muny- 
thus. Tzetzes relates that thii Acamas had a | 


remarkable adventure with Phyllis, daughter of 
the king of Thrace ; but most authtJrs ascribe 
this adventure not to Acamas, but to Demo- 
phoon his brother. Acamas was one of the he- 
roes concealed in the wooden horse, at the tak- 
ing of Troy. One of the tribes of Athens was 
called Acamantides, by aj^intment of the Ora- 
cle. Acamas is said to have founded a city in 
Phrygia Major, to which he gave the name of 
Acamantium. He made war against the Solymi. 
Authors are not agreed whether Acamas was son 
to Phaedra or Ariadne. A leader of the Dar- 
dan troops under Aeneas, distinguished by thi> 
name, was sl^n by Ajax. 

ACANTHO. The Pagan theology, which ad- 
mitted five different suns, makes Acanto mo- 
ther of the fourth. 

ACANTHUS, a boy who was changed into the 
plant of that name, or, according to others, into 
a bird. 

and sons of Alcmeon and Callirhoe. Their mo- 
ther obtained from Jupiter, that they should 
instantaneously acquire their full growth, to en- 
able them to avenge the death of their father, 
whom the brothers of Alphesibeus had killed. 

ACACIS, daughter of Minos, See Acacalis. 

ACAMUS with PYROUS. were leaders of the 
Thracian troops, in support of Priam and Troy. 

ACASTA, a nymph, daughter of the Ocean and 

ACASTUS, son of Peleas, king of Thessaly, was 
a celebrated hunter, and famous Tor throwing 
the javelin. Critheis his wife, who by some 
was also called Hyppolyte, to avenge herself on 
Peleus for indifference to her passion, accused 
him to her husband of attempting her honour. 
Acastus dissembling his resentment, took Pe- 
leus a hunting on Mount Peleon, and having 
deprived him of his weapons, left him exposed 
to wild beasts and centaurs. Chiron or Mercu- 
ry, however, having rescued him from their at- 
tacks, he with the aid of the Argonauts avenged 
himself of the cruelty of Acastus and the ca- 
lumny of Cretheis. 

ACCA, sister and companion of Camilla, queen 
of the Volsci. Besides this Acca there was v 

ACCA LAURENTIA, wife toFaustulus the shep- 
herd of Numitor, and nurse to Romulus and 
Remus. She a represented as not lew conapi- 

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caooa for the beauty of her person than her sa- 
laciousness of manners, which procured her 
the name of Ijtpa or She-wolf. Hence perhaps 
arose the tradition that Romulus and Remus 
were suckled by a wolf Divine honours were 
decreed her by the Romans, and a festival in- 
stituted under the name of Laurentalia, which, 
according to Varro, was celebrated in April ; 
or, as Ovid says, in December. This difference 
as to time^ may, however, be accommodated 
by Plutarch. He mentions a festival, in honour 
of a courtezan of the same name, who having 
married a rich old man, bequeathed her estate 
to the people by wiU. These feasts were called 

ACELUS, a son of Hercules, who gave his name 
to a city of Lycia. 

ACERSECX>MES, a name given to Apollo by 
the Greeks, equivalent to the intonsus, or uncut, 
of the Romans, applied to the hair of that God. 
In Juvenal it is used simply as an epithet, and 
without any reference to Apollo. 

pollo, as the god of medicine, importing a de- 
liverer from evil : — also the surname of Teles- 

ACESTES, king of Sicily, and son of the river 
Crinisus and Egesta, daughter of Hippotas.— 
Being on the side of his mother of Trojan de- 
scent, he went to the assistance of the Trojans, 
but retired from the devastations of the Greeks 
to Sicily, where he built several cities. He re- 
ceived Aeneas with kindness, and buried An- 
chises on Mount Eryx. 

ACETES, the commander of aTyrian vessel, who 
opposed, but ineffectually, the attempt of his 
companions to carry off Bacchus, in hopes of 
obtaining a ransom, whom, without knowing, 
they found on the sea shore. The god having 
discovered himself, made Acetes his priest, and 
converted flie rest into dolphins. 

I'here was another Acetes, son of the Sun and 
Persa, who gave his daughter in marriage to 

Acetes y/aaal&o the nameof the groom of Evander, 
king of Italy. 

ACHAEA, a surname of Ceres and Pallas. 

ACH AEMENES, son of Aegeus, gave his name 
to a part of Persia. 

ACHAEMENIDES, one of the companions of 

Ulysses, who escaped from Polyphemus, and was 
kindly received by Aeneas. 

ACHAEUS. SeeAcbeus. 

ACHAIA, a country of Greece to the south of 
Macedonia ; more particularly Peloponesus ; 
but sometimes used for Greece at large. Hence 
the epithets Acbaiais, Acbivm, Acbaeus, Acbaeas, 
Acbeis, to signify Graecian, 

ACHAMANTYS, one of the daughters of Da- 

ACHATES, the friend and faithful companion 
of Aeneas. 

ACHELOIA, Callirhoe, daughter of Achelous. 

ACHELOIDES: the Sirens were thus called from 
Achelous their father. 

ACHELOUS, son of Oceanus, andTerra, wrestled 
with Hercules for no less a prize than Deianira, 
daughter of king Oeneus, who was betrothed to 
them both, but aa Achelous had the power of 
assuming all shapes, the contest was long du- 
bious : first, he turned himself into a serpent, 
then into a bull ; but Hercules plucking one of 
his horns of^ forced him to submit. Achelous 
purchased his horn by giving in exchange fcjr 
it the horn of Amalthea, daughter of Harmo- 
dius, which became the cornucopia, or horn of 
plenty. This; Hercules having filled with a 
variety of fruits, consecrated to Jupiter. Some 
explain this fable, by saying, that Achelous is a 
river in Greece, whose course winds like a ser- 
pent, and its stream roars like the bellowing of 
a bull. This river divided itself into two chan- 
nels, but Hercules, by confining the water of 
one, broke off one of the horns, and when the 
. circumjacent lands were thus drained, they be- 
came fertile ; so that Hercules is said to have 
received the horn of plenty. The Achelous is 
frequently described personally, and Mr.Spence 
observes, in his Polymetis, that any figure of 
this river would be easy to be distinguished from 
all his brother river-gods, by his having lost one 
of his horns, if his crown of reedsor willows did 
not hide that defeft. 

ACHEMON, OR ACHMON, one of the Ecropi- 
ans, was brother of Bassalus or Passalus. As 
they were of an oppressive disposition, and con- 
stantly insulted every one they met, their mo- 
ther Senonis, an enchantress, cautioned him to 
beware of Melampygus, or black-tail. Soon 
after finding Hercules asleep beneath a tree by 

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his armour, they began to abuse him, but the 
hero having caught them, fastened them by the 
heels like rabbits, and hanging them on his 
club, carried them at his shoulder. As they 
were dangling in this plight with their heads 
downward, they perceived that Hercules be- 
hind was black: and hairy, and hence reminded 
each other of their mother's precaution. The 
hero entertained at the conceit, laughed hearti- 
ly, and set them free. 

ACHERQIS, an epithet given by Homer to the 
white poplar, as consecrated to the infernal gods, 
from its growing on the banks of Acheron. 

ACHERON, according to some was the son of 
Titan and Terra, that is, the sun and the earth ; 
or, as others affirm, of Ceres, without a father. 
He was precipitated into hell for having fur- 
nished the Titans with water, in their attack 
upon Jupiter. His waters became slimy and 
bitter. This is one of the rivers which departed 
souls have to pass. There were several rivers 
of the same name ; one in Epirus, one in Elis, 
a third in Italy, a fourth in Bithynia, &c. 

ACHERUSA, a- cavern on the borders of the 
Euxine, supposed to communicate with hell, 
and through which Cerberus was said to have 
been dragged into light by Hercules. 

ACHERUSI A, a morass near Heliopolis in Egypt, 
situated between that city and the burial place 
belonging to it, and which could only be passed 
in a boat. As funeral honours were granted 
to those alone who had lived well, the boatman 
in the Egyptian language called Charon, was 
forbidden to ferry over the bodies of the wicked. 
Hence the fable of Charon and his boat. 

ACHEUS, son of Xuthus, third son of Hellen, 
son of Deucalion by Creusa, daughter of Erec- 
theus king of Athens, and brother of lion, from 
whom the Achaians and lonianswere afterwards' 
called. There was another Acheus, sumamed 
Callicon, who was remarkable for his adls of 
insipience. Amongst others is mentioned his 
taking a round earthen pot for a pillow, which 
when he found uneasy to him, he stuffed with 
straw to render more commodious. 

ACHILLEA, an island in the Euxine, so called 

from Achilles, to whom it was given by Thetis 

and Neptune. Divine rites were therepaid to 

this hero, and his memory was honoured with a 

■ temple and an oracle. There was a fountain of 

the same name near Miletus, which was so called 
from Achilles having bathed himself in it. The 
festivals celebrated in Laconia to the honour of 
Achilles were also called Achillea. 
ACHILLES ; there were many of this name. The 
first so called had no other mother but Terra 
or the earth. He did Jupiter a signal service ; 
for, having sheltered the goddess Juno in his 
cave when she fled from the amorous pursuits 
of Jupiter, Achilles addressed her in such per- 
suasive language. she consented to admit 
the god as her husband. Jupiter, in return for 
the favour, promised that, from that period, all 
persons of his name should be celebrated in the 
world : Chiron had one Achilles for his tutor, 
which made him bestow that name on his pupil , 
the son of Thetis. The inventor of ostradsm 
among the ancients was called Achilles. A son 
of Jupiter and Lamia bore the same name, who 
was so exquisitely handsome, that by the judg- 
ment of the god Pan, he won the prize of beauty 
from all his rivals ; but Venus was so exaspe- 
rated at this decision, that she made Pan fall in 
love with Echo, and wrought such a change in 
his whole person, as to render him a most 
frightful object. Another Achilles, son of Gala- 
taea, was born with white hiur. We are told of 
fifty-four others, all of whom, but two, were in 
high renown. WhatfoUows relates to that Achil- 
les who acquired the greatest glory. Achilles 
was the oflfepring of a goddess. Thetis bore him 
to Peleus king of Thessaly, and was so fond of 
him, that she charged herself with his educa- 
tion. By day she fed him with ambrosia, and 
by night, covered him with celestial fire, to 
render him immortal. She also dipped him in 
the waters of Styx, by which his whole body 
became invulnerable, except that part of his 
heel by which she held him. She afterwards 
committed him to the care of Chiron the cen- 
taur, who fed him with honey, and the marrow 
of lions and wild boars ; whence he~ obtained 
that strength of body and greatness of soul, 
which qualified him for martial toil. When the 
Greeks undertook the siege of Troy, Calchas the 
diviner, and priest of Apollo, foretold, that the 
city should not be taken without the help of 
Achilles. Thetis his mother, who knew that 
Achilles, if be went to the siege of Troy, would 
never return, clothed bim in female apparel. 

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and concealed him among the maidens at the 
court of Lycomedea, king of the island of Scy- 
ro8. But this stratagem proved ineffectual ; for 
Calchas having informed the Greeks where A- 
chilles lay in disguise, they deputed Ulysses to 
the court of Lycomedes, where, under the ap- 
pearance of a merchant, he was introduced to 
the king's daughters, and while they were stu- 
diously intent on viewing his toys, Achilles em- 
|>Ioyed himself in examining an helmet, which 
the cunning politician had thrown in his way. 
Achilles thus detefled, was prevailed on to go 
to Troy, after Thetis had furnished him with 
impenetrable armour made by Vulcan. During 
this hero's stay at the court of Lycomedes, \it 
so far insinuated himself into the affeflions of 
Deidamia, the king's daughter, that she bore 
him a son called Pyrrhus. To the siege of Troy 
Achilles led the troops ofThessaly, in fiftyshijs, 
md there distinguished himself by a number of 
heroic anions ; but being disgusted with Aga- 
memnon for the loss of Briseis, he retired from 
the camp, and resolved to have no further con- 
cern in the war. In this resolution he conti- 
nued inexorable, till news was brought him 
that Heflor had killed his friend Patroclus, 
whose death he severely avenged ; for he not 
only slew Hetflor, but fastened the corpseto his 
chariot, dragged it round the walls of Troy, 
offered a thousand indignities to it, and. sold it 
. at last to Priam his father. Authors are much 
divided on the manner of Achilles's death ; some 
relate that he was slain by Apollo, or that this 
g©d enabled Paris to kill him, by direfting the 
arrow to his heel, the only part in which he 
was vulnerable. Others again say, that Paris 
murdered him treacherously, in the temple of 
Apollo, whilst treating about his marriage with 
tolyxena, daughter to king Priam. Didtys in- 
forms us, that Achilles having seen this princess 
in the temple of Apollo, serving Cassandra her 
sister at a sacrifice, fell in love with her, and 
asked her from Heftor, \vho3e answer was, that 
if he would abandon the Greeks, and betray 
their army, his request should be granted ; an 
answer at which Achilles wjs greatly incensed. 
He adds, that when Priam went to demand the 
body of Heftor, he took Polyxena with him, to 
move the heart of his enemy. This expedient 
produced the. desired effedt, and was the cause 

also of Achilles's death ; for Priam having ob- 
served that he was still in love with liis daugh- 
ter, invited him to the temple of Apollo, under 
pretext of celebrating their marriage, where, 
whilst Deiphobus was embracing him, Paris 
killed him. Dares of Phrygia gives much the 
same accoimt ; only he adds, that Achilles de- 
fended himself a long time, and sold his life 
dear. The blow of Paris cut the tendon of his 
heel, which has since been named the tendon of 
Achilles. Though this tradition concerning the 
death of Achilles be commonly received, yet 
Homer plainly enough insinuates that Achilles 
died fighting for his country, and represents 
the Greeks as maintaining a bloody battle about 
his body, which lasted a whole day. Achilles 
having been lamented by Thetis, the Nereids, 
and the Muses, was buried on the promontory 
of Sigaeum ; and after Troy was captured, the 
Greeks endeavoured to appease his manes by 
sacrificing Polyxena on his tomb, as his ghost 
had requested. The oracle at Dodona, decreed 
him divine honourii, tfnd ordered annual vi6tims 
to be offered at the place of his sepulture. In 
pursuance of this,, the Theasalians brought hi- 
ther yearly two bulls, one black, the other white, 
crowned with wreaths of flowers, and water 
from the river Sperchius. It is said, that Alex- 
ander, seeing his tomb, honoured it by {facing 
a crown upon it, at the same time crying out, 
" that Achilles was happy in having, during 
" his life, such a friend as Patroclus, and, after 
" his death, a poet like Homer." 
As, to represent an object beautiful, is the pri- 
mary aim of the imitative arts, so in the con- 
figuration of young heroes by the ancients, the 
speflator is left unable to decide on their sex. 
Such was the beauty of Achilles, that he re- 
muned undiscovered in a female habit-amongst 
the daughters of Lycomedes, and accordingly 
is thus represented on a bas-relief of the villa 
Pamfili, and on another of the Belvedere, en- 
graved as a head-piece to Winkelmann's Monu- 
ments of Antiquity: 
ACHIROE, a grand-daughter of Mars. 
ACHLYS, the goddess of obscurity and dark- 
new, of whom Hesiod has given a formidable 
ACHOR, OR ACHORUS, one of the gods of flies. 
According to Pliny, the Cyrenians offered vic- 

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tims to the god Achor, for their deliverance 
from these inserts, which sometimes occasioned 
contagious distempers in their country. This 
author remarks, that they died after ofifering 
sacrifice to that idol. These were not the only 
people who acknowledged a fly-destroying 
god ; the Greeks had likewise their Jupiter 
and their Hercules Myodes, Myagron, or Fly- 
hunter. If we believe Pausanias, the origin of 
the worship they paid to that divinity was this ; 
Hercules being molested by these inserts while 
he was about to oKr sacrifice to Olympian 
Jupiter in the temple, offered a viftim to that 
god under the name of Myagron, upon which 
all the flies flew away beyond the river Alpheus. 
Pliny asserts, that it was the constant praAice, 
as often as they celebrated the Olympic games, 
to sacrifice to the god, Myodes, lest the flies 
should disturb the solemnity. See Baal-Zebubj 
Myagrus, Myiagrus, Myodes. 

ACIDALIA, a title of Venus as the goddess that 
occasioned inquietudes. She is said by others 
to have received this appellation from Acidalus, 
a fountain in Orchomenos, a city of Boeotia, in 
which the Graces were accustomed to bathe 
with her. 

ACIS, son of Faunus and Simoethis, a beautiful 
shepherd of Sicily, being beloved by the Nereid 
Galataea, daughter of Nereus and Dons, pro- 
voked the enmity of Polyphemus the giant. 
One day as the lovers were sitting together un- 
der a rock by the sea-side, Polyphemus saw them 
from afar, and run toward them. Galataea 
plunged into the sea, and Acis fled, as fast as 
his fears would permit. Polyphemtis pursued, 
with the fragment of a rock, which he hurled 
at the unfortunate Acis. The rock criwhed 
him in its fall, split into several pieces, and 
sprouted forth in new-created reeds. Upon 
his death Acis was turned into the river which 
was afterwards called by his name. Acis was 
also called Acilius and Acithius. 

ACIT AN I ,a people that worshi ppedMars radiated. 

ACMENES, Nymphs of Venus. 

ACMON, according to the Greek theogony, had 
an existence before heaven, whom the Latins 
call Coelus, and the Greeks Uranus. Acmon 
is taken for the father of Coelus, or Uranus, by 
Phurnutus, Hesychius, and Simmius of Rhodes, 
his scholiast; and the same Acmon i« thesoq 

of Manes in Polyhistor and Stephanus. It is not 
clear whether this Acmon were the same with-- 
the Scythian leader of the like name, said to be 
son of Paneus, who, according to Stephanus, 
settled in the countries watered by the Ther- 
modon and Iris, and built the city Acmonia. 
The restless disposition of Acmon, or rather 
the desire of extending his conquests, prompted 
him to enter Phrygia, where he built another 
city, which he likewise called Acmonia ; and 
having made himself master of Phoenicia and 
Syria, died by overheating himself in hunting, 
and was deified under the name of Tbe Most 
High. He is the same with theHypsistos <^ 
Sanchoniatho. Acmon was also the name of 
one of the Dactvli Idaei, which, see ; and of 
an hero in the Aeneid, son of Clytius, and bro- 
ther of Mnestheus. 

ACMON IDES, one of the Cyclops. 

ACOETES had formerly been armour-bearer to 
Evander king of Arcadia, and afterwards at- 
tended his son Pallas as guardian, when he 
joined Aeneas against the Rutilians. 

Of the fisherman Acoetes, Ovid has given an ex- 
quisite description in the Sd book of the Meta- 
morphoses, fable 8. 

ACONTES, one of the fifty sons of Lycaon. 

ACONTEUS, a hunter converted to stone by 
the head of Medusa, at the nuptials of Perseus 
and Andromeda. Also, a Latin chief killed by 
Tyrrhenus, in the Aeneid^ 

ACOR. See Acbor. 

ACRAEA, daughter of Asterion, and one of Ju- 
no's nurses. Also, an appellation given to se- 
veral goddesses, as was Acraeus to Jupiter and 
others, from their having temples erefted te 
them on mountains, Ax^ signifying a summit. 

ACRAEPHIUS, a surname of Apollo. 

ACRAEUS. See Acraea. 

names of Bacchus. 

ACR ATUS, pure wine : was made a god by the 

ACRIBY A, a name of Juno, either because she 
was worshipped at Acropolis, or in the fortress 
of Corinth ; or rather perhaps at Acriba. 

ACRISIUS, king of Argos, being ttdd by the 
oracle that he should be killed by his grand- 
child, immured his daughter Danae in a brazen 
tow£r> where no man could approach her ; but 




Jiipiterchanging himself into a shower of gold, 
visited her through the roof. This intercourse 
gave birth to Perseus. Acrisius, on hearing of 
his daughter's disgrace, caused both her and the 
infant to be shut up in a chest, and cast into the 
sea; whence, being thrown on the isle of Seri- 
phus, they were taken up by Ktftys, brother 
of Polydetftes, king of the island, who happen- 
ing to be then fishing, and finding them alive, 
took them out of the chest, and treated them 
kindly. Some say Polydeftes married Danae, 
and afterwards dispatched Perseus, when grown 
up, against Medusa ; whilst others relate, that 
the mother and child were saved by a fisherman 
and presented to Pilumnus king of Daunia, who 
having married Danae, brought up her son, 
whom he called Perseus. Perseus, after a va- 
riety of adventures, had the misfortune, as the 
oracle had foretold, to kill his grandfather; for, 
according to some, being reconciled to Acri- 
sius, and playing with htm at quoits, a game 
which he had invented, his quoit bruised the 
king on the foot, which mortifying, caused his 
■death. Others say, that after Perseushad killed 
Medusa, he carried to Argos her head, which 
Acrisius looking upon was turned into stone. 
Banier relates this story in the following 
manner. Acrisius, who had but one daughter 
named Danae, having learned from the oracle 
that one day his grandson was to bereave him of 
his life and crown, shut her up in a tower of 
brass, and would give ear to no proposal of mar- 
riage for her. In the mean time, Praetus his 
brother, being desperately in love with his 
niece, found a way, by means 'of money, to 
corrupt the fidelity of the keepers of the ja-in- 
cess, and having entered through the roof into 
the place where she was imprisoned, made her 
the mother of Perseus. Those who relate tiye 
histbry of this adventure, to palliate the dis- 
grace which this intrigue intailed upon the royal 
family, gave out that Jupiter, enamoured of 
Danae, had transformed himself into a shower 
of gold, which was the more probable as Prae- 
tus, if we may believe Vpssius, took upon him 
the surname of Jupiter. Pausanias mentions ' 
that tower, or rather that i^partment of brass, 
in which Danae had been shut up, and assures " 
us,thatitsubsisted,tillthereignof Pterelaus the 
tyrant of Argos, who demolished it_, *iding 

that even in hia time some remains were still to 
be seen of the subterraneous palace, of which 
Danae's chamber made a part. The princess 
being delivered of Perseus, Acrisius ordered 
her to be exposed upon the sea with her child 
in a pitiful barge, which after being a long 
time driven at the mercy of the w inds, stopped 
near the little island of Seriphus, one of the Cy- 
clades, in the Aegean sea. Polydeftes, who was 
king of the island, being apprized of it, gave 
a favourable reception to the mother and the 
child, and took great-care of the education of 
the young prince; but falling in love afterwards 
with Danae, and afraid of Pereeus, now grown 
up, he sought a pretext for dismissing him, and 
to make his expedition the longer, ordered him 
to go and fetch the head of Medusa, one of the 
Gorgons. Our hero, havingcut ofl^the head of 
Medusa, and penetrated into Ethiopia, where 
he rescued Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus 
and Cassiopeia, from the monster to which she 
was exposed, married her, carried her to Seri- 
phus, and having put Polydedles to deatli, went 
with her and his mother into Greece, where he 
- slew Praetus, who not content with his own in- 
heritance, which was the city of Tyrinthia, My- 
dea, aiid all the coast of Argolis, had dethroned 
Acrisius. Perseus i-e-established his grandfa- 
ther in his dominions, but as he was endeavour- 
ing to shew his dexterity in playing at quoits, 
unfortunately killed him. This event is related 
by Pausanias in the following manner. Acri- 
sius having learned that Perseus was not far 
from Argos, and knowing the reputation he 
had acquired by many signal exploits, was de- 
sirous to see this prince, and for that end re- 
■ paired to Larissa iipoH the river Peneus. Per- 
seus on his side, no less full of impatience to 
.embrace his grandfather, and to ingratiate him- 
iself with him, failed not in coming to Larissa. 
There Perseus was willing to shew his address ; 
but so uni'ortunate was he, that having thrown 
his quoit with all his forcCj it .hit Acriaus such 
a fatal blow as to occasion his death. Thiw the 
predifiionformerlygiven him was accomplished, 
without his being able to evade it, by all the cru- 
elty he had exercised towards his daughter and 
his grandson. Perseus having repaired to Ar- 
TgtB, where he deeply regretted the parricide 
which he had thus apcideatally committed, in- 

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■ duced Mcgapenthes, the son of Praetus, to ex- 
change kingdoms with him, and built My. 
cenae, which became the capital of his domi- 
nions. Acrisiiis was magnificently interred by 
Perseus without the gates of Argos. 

ACRISONEIS, Danae, the daughter of Acrisius. 

ACRISIONIADES, Perseus, grandson of Acri; 
si us. 

ACRON, one of Aeneas's chiefs, killed by Mezen- 
tius. He was of Greek origin, but had deserted 
to Aeneas. There was of this name a king of 
Cenina, whom Romulus put to death for in- 
vading his territories, and consecrated his spoil 
to Jupiter Feretrius. 

ACRONEUS,oneofthe competitors in the games 
described in the eighth Odyssey. 

ACTAEA, Orithyia, thus called because she was 
an Athenian. Also one of the Nereids. 

ACT AEON, sonof Aristaeus and Autonoe, daugh- 
ter of Cadmus king of Thebes, was passionately 
fond of hunting. Happening one day, in the 
midst of the chace, to discover Diana bathing 
with her nymphs, the goddess was so incensed 
at his intrusion, that, by sprinkling him with 
water, she transformed him into a stag, which 
his own dogs, mistaking for their game, pur- 
sued and tore in pieces. Though the catastro- 
phe of Aftaeon be expressed in a poetical man- 
ner it is not the less real, whether slain by his 
own dogs, turned mad as some authors' will 
have it, or that having shewn a disregard for the 
goddess, he had been reckoned impious, as we 
learn from Diodorus and Euripides, the latter 
of whom adds, that he was going to eat of the 
meat offered in sacrifice to Diana, and with in- 
supportable pride preferred himself to her. This 
Ovid describes, to exemplify a vain curiosity. 
The poet Stesichonis, as we read in Pausanias, 
added to this dismal adventure, that Diana her- 
self bad covered Aflaeon with the skin of a deer, 
which provoked his dogs to fall upon and de- 
stroy him ; and that, as a pimishment for hav- 
ing designed to marry Semele, his near rela- 
tion : a circiimstance not told by Ovid. Ac- 
cording to Pausanius, Aftaeon was honoured 
with religious worship after his death, being 
acknowledged for a hero by the Orchomenians. 

given to Apollo, from the prtmiontory of Ac- 
tiura consecrated to him. 

ACTIA AND ACTIACA. See Gams, Jciiait. 

ACTIAS, i.e. Atbcniatt, a name of Orithyia. 

ACTINUS, a son of the Sun, was a skilful astro- 

ACTOR. This, like Achilles, was the name of 
several persons in fabulous story. One of the 
companions of Hercules in war with the Ama- 
zons was so called, who having received a wound, 
would have returned home, but died by the 
way. It w as also the name of the grandsire of 
Patroclus; for Menaetius, father of Fatrocius, 
was son of Aftorand Aegina. This Aftor, ac- 
cording to some writers, was a native of Locris, 
but settled in the island Oenone after having 
married Aegina, daughter of the river Asopus, 
and there begot Menaetius. Others say he was 
a Thessalian, son to Myrmidon, who was the 
ofepring of Jupiter, and that the nymph Ae- 
gina having had a son by Jupiter called Aeacus, 
went into Thessaly, where Aftor married her. 
He had several children by her, who conspired 
against him ; which obliged him to drive them 
out of the kingdom, and to bestow it on Peleiis, 
together with his daughter Polyniele, better 
known by th« name of Thetis, of which marri- 
age Achilles was bom. Peleus w as son to Aea- 
cus, and consequently grandson to Aegina : he 
fled to Phthia, w here Aftor reigned after hav- 
ing killed bis brother Phocus. There was one 
A(5lar eon of Hyppasus, who went in the Argo- 
nautic exi>edition. Another who was son to 
Neptune and Agamede, daughter of Augeas. 
Another was son of Axeus, and father of Asty- 
ochia, by whom the god Mars had two sons, 
^^ho, at the siege of Troy, commanded the 
forces of AspledcMi and Orchomenes, cities of 
Boeotia. Another Aflor, son to Phorbus, built 
a city in Elis, bis native country, and called it 
Hyrmine, after his mother's name. Augeas 
king of Elis, who, according to some writers, 
was his brother, associated him and his two 
sons in his kingdom. The names of these two 
sons were Eurytus and Cleatus, and poetically 
Molionides, from their mother Molione. Last- 
ly, there was one Aflor among the Aurunci,' 
whohas'been described as an hero of the firsti-ank. 

ACTORIDES, a patronymicof Patroclus, grand- 
son of After. 

ACUS, son of Vulcan by Aglaia, one of the 

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ADAD^ the deity of tbe Syrian*, signifying in 
their language, one. They gave him to wife 
the goddess Adargyris, and they mdant by 
them the sun and the earth ; for they piftured 
Adad with rays shooting downward, and Adar- 
gyris with rays shooting upward, to shew that 
all earthly productions were owing to the sun. 
Some are of opinion that the true name of this 
deity was Hadad, and that he is the Ben- 
hadad of Scripture, the second of the name; 
who, according to Josephus, was honoured 
with divine worship after his death. 

ADAMANT AEA, a nurse of Jupiter, perhaps 
the same as Amalthaea. 

ADAMAS, son of Ajsius, was killed by Merion 
before Troy. 

ADARGATIS. The same with Adad. 

ADE, an idol of the Banians, with four arms. 
Purchas thinks there is some affinity between 
this deity and Adam, on whom the Rabbins 
have bestowed four arms, two sexes, and in- 
deed a duplicate of every thing ; he being, ac- 
cording to their notion, both male and female. 

ADEPHAGIA, the Sicilians acknowledged the 
goddess of Gluttony, and, if we may believe 
Aelian, she had a temjde wherein was placed the 
statue of Ceres. 

ADES, OR HADES. See Hell. 

among the Romans were a kind of inferior dei- 
ties, added, as assistants to the principal ones, 
to ease them in their fun6lions : thus to Mars 
was adjoined Bellona, to Neptune Salacia, to 
Vulcan the Cabiri, to the Good Genius the 
Lares, to the evil the Lemures, &c. 

ADMA, the name of a Nymph. 

ADMET A, a priestess of Juno, and also a Nymph 
were of this name. See Hercules. 

ADMETUS, king of Pheres, or of Thessaly, was 
son of Pheres, king of one or other of these 
countries, brother of Lycurgus, and cousin to 
Jason. Apollo was reduced to keep his sheep. 
for having killed the Cyclops, who forged the 
thunderbolts with which Aesculapius was slain. 
The god, in return for the kindness he had re- 
ceived from Admetus, made the Parcae or Fates 
consent not to cut the thread of his life, if 
any one could be found who would die in his 
stead ; but none being found, Alcestes, his 
vcife, daughter of Pelias, freely offered herself I 

to save her husband. It is said that Proserpine, 
moved by the tears of Admetus for the loss of 
80 dear a consort, restored Alcestes to life a- 
gain. Admetus was one of the Argonauts in 
the expedition to Colchis, agreeable to the first 
book of Apolonius. 

ADONEUS, the same with the idol Baal, Baalse- 
men, or Bel, which words import tbe Lord 
and the Lord of Heaven, to whom the Chalde- 
ans offered sacriSces, and the Arabians their 
neighbours, according to Strabo and Stej^a- 
nus, daily offerings of incense and other per- 
fumes under the name of Adoneus. See Baal, 
&c. This was a name common to Jupiter, Bac- 
chus, the Sun, Pluto, and most of the other Gods. 

ADONIA, solemn feasts in honour of Venus, and 
in memory of her beloved Adonis. The Adonia 
wei-e observed with great solemnity by most 
nations. Greeks, Phoenicians, Lycians, Sy- 
rians, Egyptians, &c. From Syria they are 
supposed to have passed into India. The pro- 
phet Ezekiel is understood to speak of them. 
They were still observed at Alexandria in the 
time of St. Cyril, and at Antioch in that of 
Julian the apostate, whose aj-rival there during 
the solemnity was taken for an ill omen. The 
Adonia lasted two days, on the fii-st of which 
certain images of Venus and Adonis were car- 
ried with all the pomp and ceremonies practised 

• at funerals ; the women wept, rent their hair, , 
beat their breasts, &c. imitating the cries and 
lamentations of Venus for the death of her pa- 
ramour. This rite, called AA^mocju^, the Sy- 
rians \\ere not contented with observing so far 
as respefled the weeping, but also gave them- 
selves discipline, shaved their heads, &c.— 
Among the Egyptians the queen herself used 
to bear the image of Adonis in procession. 
The women carried along with them shells filled 
with earth, in which grew several sorts of herbs, 
especially lettuces, in memory of Adonis having 
been laid out by Venus upon a bed of lettuce. 
These were called xitwoi, or gardens ; whence 
ASutiit^ Knirst, are proverbially applied to things 
unfruitful, or fading ; because those herbs were 
only sown so long before the festival as to sprout 
forth and be green at that time, and then were 
presently thrown into the water. The flutes 
used upon this day were called rtyffuu, from 
r.yJ>*f, which was the Phoenician name of Ado- 

C 3 

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nis. This sacrifice was termed lueSi^/uc, probably 
' because the days of mourning used to be called 
by that name. The following day was spentin 
every expression of mirth and joy. In memory 
of Venus's having obtained the favour of Pro- 
serpina, that Adonis should return to life, and 
■live with her one half of the year. According 
to Meursius, the two offices of mourning and 
rejoicing, made two distinct feasts, which were 
held at different times of the year, the one six 
months after the other, Adonis being supposed 
to pass half the year with PrcKerpina, and the 
other half with Venus. St. Cyril mentions an 

- extraordinary ceremony pra6lised by the Alex- 
andrians: a letter was written to the women of 
Byblos, to inform them that Adonis was found 
again; this letter was thrown into the sea, 
which, it was pretended, failed not to convey 
it to Byblos in seven days, upon receipt of 
which the Byblian women ceased their mourn- 
ing, simg his praises, and made rejoicings as 
if he were restored to life. The Egyptian 
Adonia are said by some, to have been held in 
memory of the death of Osiris ; by others, of 
his sickness and recovery. Bishop Patrick dates 
their origin from the slaughter of the first born 
under Moses. The Adonia were otherwise 
called Salambo. 

ADONIS, a beautiful young shepherd, son of 
Cinyras king of Cyprus, by his daughter Myrr- 
ha. He used to be much upon Mount Libanus, 
where Venus frequently descended to meet him ; 
but Mars, envying his rival, assumed the shape 
of a wild boar, attacked Adonis when hunting, 
struck him in the^groin with his tusks, and 
killed him. Venus hearing his groans, and 
hastening to his assistance, pricked her foot 
with a thorn, and the blood which issued from 
the wound falling on a rose, turned it from a 
lily to a carnation colour. The goddess laying 
his body on soft lettuces, bewailed his death 
after an unusual manner, and changed his blood, 
which was shed on the ground, into the flower 
called Anemone. Venus, after this, went her- 
self into hell, and obtained of Proserpine that 
Adonis might be with her six months every 
year in the heavens, and that he should remain 
the other 'six months in the infernal regions. 
Others say, that Myrrha (constrained tody from 
her father's anger, who had ignorantly coha- 

bited with her, during the absence of his queen 
to celebrate a festival) retired into- Arabia; 
where she brought forth Adonis, whom the 
Nymphs took into their care, and nursed in the 
caves of that country; and that Adonis growing 
up, repaired to the court of Byblos in Phoeni- 
cia, of which he became the brightest oriia- 
ment ; that he descended into Pluto's kingdom, 
and inflamed Proserpine with the soft passion ; 
and that Venus ascended to heaven, to procure 
his return from Jupiter, but the goddess of hell 
refused to give him back : that the father of the 
gods, puzzled with so nice an affair, referred the 
decision of it to the Muse Calliope, who hoped 
to satisfy the two goddesses by delivering him 
up to them alternately : that the Horae or Hours 
were sent to Pluto to bring back Adonis, who 
from that time continued one six months with 
Veniis, and the other with Proserpina. — Le 
Qerc, after Selden and Marsham, having been 
more inclined to take this fable from Phurnutus 
and other my thologists, than from Ovid, relates 
and explains it thus . Cinyras, the grandfather 
of Adonis, having drank one day to excess, fell 
asleep in an indecent posture: Moror Myrrha, 
his daughter-in-law. Amnion's wife, accompa- 
nied by her son Adonis, having seen him in 
this situation, apprised her husband of it, who 
informed Qnyras, when he became sober, of 
what had happened, which so provoked him, 
that he poured forth imprecations on his daugh- 
ter-in-law and grandson. Here, without going 
any further, says Le Clerc, is the foundation of 
the pretended incest which Ovid speaks of, the 
poet having represented the indiscreet curiosity 
of that princess as a real incest. Myrrha, loaded' 
with her father's curses, retired into Arabia, 
where she abode for some time ; and this again 
is what gave the same poet occasion to say, that 
Arabia was the country where she was delivered 
of Adonis ; because that prince happened to be 
educated there. Sometime after, continues Le 
Clerc, Adonis, with Ammon his father, and 
Myrrha his mother, went into Egypt, where, 
upon Ammon's death, Adonis applied himself 
wholly to the improvement of the Egyptians, 
taught them agriculture, and enafted many ex- 
cellent laws concerning the property of lands. 
Adonis having gone into Syria, was wounded 
in the groin by a boar, in the forest of Mount 

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Libanus^where he had been hunting. Astarte 
or Isis, wife of Adonis, was passionately fond of 
him, and, apprehending his wound to be mortal, 
was so deeply affe^ed with grief, that people 
believed be was actually dead, and Egypt and 
Phoenicia bewailed his loss : however, he reco< 
vered, and their mourning was turned into 
ecstacies of joy. To perpetuate the memory of 
this event, an annual festival was instituted, 
during which they first mourned for the death 
of Adonis, and then rejoiced for his being again 
restored to life. According to the same author, 
Adonis was killed in battle, and his wife pro- 
cured his deification. After the death of Adonis, 
Astarte governed Egypt in peace, and acquired 
divine honours. The Egyptians, whose theo- 
logy was all symbolic^, represented them un- 
der the figure of an ox and a cow, to inform 
posterity that they had taught agriculture. — 
Some authors relate, that Apollo killed Adonis, 
to revenge his son Erymanthus, who had been 
struck blind for having seen Venus bathing, 
the instant she had left the arms of her beloved 
Adonis. Two particulars of a very opposite 
nature have been related of Hercules, with re- 
speft to Adonis; the first, that he had a passion 
for him, and that Venus, out of jealousy, in- 
structed the Centaur Nessus how to insnare 
Hercules ; the second, that this Hero, seei^ig a 
great crowd coming out of a temple in a city 
of Macedonia, was induced to enter it, in order 
to pay his devotions, but upon hearing that 
Adonis was the deity worshipped in it, he ridi- 
culed him. It is difhctUt to conceive why the 
ancients feigned that Venus concealed, or even 
buried her minion under lettuces, since they 
observe that this plant causes impotency. Near 
the city of Byblofl was a river called Adonis, 
which descended 'from Mount Libanus, the 
water of which river became red once a year, 
from a great quantity of vermilion.-coloured 
dust which was carried into it by the winds : 
on this occasion the general cry was, that this 
was the season for bewailing Adonis ; that he 
was then receiving woundson Mount Libanus ; 
and that his blood flowed in that river.— By 
Adonis, the mythologists mean the Sun, who, 
during the signs of the summer, is with Venus ; 
that is, with the earth we inhabit ; but, during 
the rest of the year, is in a manner absent from 

us. Adonis is said to be killed by the boar, 
that is, winter, when his beams are of no force 
to expel the cold, which is the enemy of Adonis 
and Venus, or beauty and fecundity. 
ADORATION, the aft of rendering divine ho- 
nours, or of addressing a being as supposing it 
a god. The word is compounded of ad, to, 
and OS oris, the mouth, and literally signifies to 
apply the hand to the mouth ; manum ad os ad- 
movcre, q. d. to kiss the hand, this being, in the 
east, one of the greatest marks of respeft and 
submission. The Romans pra£tised adoration 
at sacrifices and other solemnities ; in passing 
by temples, altars, groves, &C. at the sight of 
statues, images, and-whatever aught of divmity 
was supposed to reside in. Usually there were 
images of the gods placed at the gates of cities, 
for those who went in or out to pay their re- 
spefts to. The ceremony of Adoration among 
the ancient Romans was thus : The devotee 
having his head covered, applied his right hand 
to his lips, the fore finger resting on his thumb, 
which was ereft, and thus bowing his head, 
turned himself round from left to right. The 
kiss so given was called osculum labratum, for 
ordinarily they were afraid to touch the images 
of their gods themselves with their profane 
lips: some times, however, they woikd kiss 
their feet, or even knees, it being held an in- 
civility to touch their mouth. Saturn, how- 
ever, and Hercules, were adored with the head 
bare; whence the worshipof the last was called 
institutum peregrinum, and ritus Graecankus, as 
departing from the customary Roman method, 
which was to sacrifice and adore with the head 
veiled, and the clothes drawn up to the ears, to 
prevent any interruption of the ceremony by 
the sight of unlucky objefts. The Jewish man- 
ner of Adoration was by prostration, bowing, 
and kneeling. The Christians adopted the Gre- 
cian rather than the Roman method, and ador- 
ed always uncovered. The ordinary posture of 
the ancient Christians was kneeling, but on 
Sundays standing ; and they had a peculiw 
regard to the east, to which point they ordi- 
narily direfled their prayers. The Peraian 
manner of Adoration, introduced by Cyrus, 
wjft by bending "the knee, and falling on the 
face at the jwince's feet, striking the earth with 
the forehead, and kissing the ground. This 





eeremony, Conon the Greek, refused to per- 
fomrto Artaxerxee, and Calisthenes to Alex- 
ander the Great, holding it imiMOus and un- 
lawful.— The Adoration performed to the Ro- 
man and Grecian emperors, consisted in bowing 
or kneeling at the prince's feet, laying hold of 
his purple robe, and presently withdrawing the 
hand, and applying it to the lips. The Phoeni- 
cians adored the winds, on account of the terri- 
ble effefts produced by them; andthe same prac- 
tice WM adopted by most of the other nations, 
Persians, Greeks, Romans, &c. The Persians 
chiefly paid their AdoraUons to the sun and 
fire, and some add, to rivers also. Their mo- 
tive for adoring the sun was the benefits they 
received from that glorious luminary, which 
has indisputably the best {wetension to 'such 
homage. This kind of worship is referred to 
in the Book of Job. 

ADOREA, a divinity supposed to be the same 
with Viftory. Those feasts were also called 
Adorea, in which salted cakes were offered to 
the gods ; from odor, wheat. 

title of Minerva, from a temple on a conical 
mountain, supposed to be Ida. She was also 
stiled Montana, from the same circumstance. 

ADRAMELECH, one of the gods of the inha- 
bitants of Sepharvaim, who occupied the coun- 
try of Samaria, after the Israelites were carried 

■ beyond the Euphrates. These votaries made 

■ their children pass through the fire in honour 
of this idol, and another called AnameUcb. The 
Rabins pretend that Adramelech was repre- 
sented under the form of a mule ; but there is 
much more reason to believe that it meant the 
sun, and Anamelech the moon : the first sig- 
nifies the magnijieent king, the second the gentle 
hng. The learned Hyde will have Adramelech 
UisignMy fdr^ of tbe flocks, adre being the Per- 
sian word for flocks ; and he supposes that A- 
dramelech and Anamelech were W'orshipped as 
having the care of cattle. Some take Adrame- 
lech for Juno, because that god was represented 
under the figure of a peacock, a bird conse- 
crated to the spouse of Jupiter ; but this is not 
likely, since it was late before the Syrians re 
ceived the divinities of the western nation*, and 
long after the latter had adopted those of the 
east. See Anameleob. 

ADRAMUS, or ADRANUS, the JTioenicitn, 
was the reputed father of the gods Palici ; for 
the reader will hardly assent to the ridiculous 
error of those, who are of opinion, that it'ought 
to be read in Hesychius Adrian, instead of A- 
dranus, as if the Roman emperor, who was not 
deified till forty years after the coming of Christ, 
could be the father of those ancient divinities, 
whose worship was celebrated in Sicily many 
ages before he was bom,and gave his name to the 
river, which was known by it long before. This 
Adranus. whom Hec^chius makes the father of 
the Palici, contrary to the opinion of Aeschy- 
lus and others, who assert they were Jupiter's 
sons, is a god unknown out of Sicily ; and thus 
there is reason to think, that he was the same 
Adramelech who is mentioned in the Book of 
Kings, and whose name imports a tm^niflcent 
Jb'^, as observed under the article Adramelech; 
and that his worship, as also that of the Palici, 
was brought into that island by the Syrian or 
Phoenician colonies which settled there. Most 
authors maintain, that the nymph Thalia bore 
the Palici to Jupiter. See Thalia, Palkia. This 
god is sometimes called Adramus, and the city 
Adrama in Sicily was particularly consecrated 
to him, though he was held in high veneration 
in the whole island. 

ADRAST A.anymph, one of the nurses of Jupiter. 

ADRASTEA,or epithet of tlie 
goddess Nemesis, daughter of Jupiter and Ne- 
cessity, from Adrastus, king of Argos, who 
first erefteda temple to thisdeity. 

There was a Nymph, and likewise an attendant 
of Helen, so called. 

ADRASTIA CERTAMINA, a kind of Pythian 
games, instituted by Adrastus king of Argos, 
in honour of Apollo, at Sicyon. These are to 
be distinguished from the Pythian games cele- 
brated at Delphi. 

ADRASTUS, king of Argos, son of Talaus and 
Lysianassa, daughter of Polybius, king of Si- 
cyon, acquired great fame in the celebrated 
war of Thebes, by engaging to support the 
rights of Polynices his son-in-law, who had been 
excluded from the sovereignty by Eteocles his 
brother, notwithstanding theirreciprocal agree- 
ment. Adrastus (followed by Polynices and 
Tydeus, his other son-in-law, Capaneus and 
Hippomedon his sister's sons, Amphiaraus his 

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Iffother-in-Iaw, and Parthenopaeus) marched 
against the city of Thebes m Boeotia. This 
war was called the Expedition of the Seven 
Worthies, on account of its being conducted by 
seven princes, including Adraatus, who was at 
their head. These were all killed at the siege, 
which happened about 1251 years before the 
Christian era^ except Adrastiis, who was saved 
by his horse Arum. [^See Arion.'} This war 
was followed by some others ; for Adraetus be- 
ing denied the bodies of such Argives as fell be- 
fore Thebes, applied for succour to the Athe- 
nians, who, under Theseus their leader, forced 
the new king of Thebes to comply with Adras- 
tus' request However, this concession did not 
terminate the war ; for the sons of those war- 
riors who had been so unsuccessful in the first 
expedition, undertook a second, ten years af- 
ter, called the war of the Epigones (on account 
of its being conducted by those who survived 
their fathers) which en dedwith taking and plun- 
dering Thebes. In this war none of the chiefe 
lost their lives, Aegialeus excepted, son of A- 
drastus, which was a kind of compensation made 
by Fortune. Adrastus, very much weakened 
by age, was so sensibly afFefted at the loss of 
his son, that he died of grief in Megara, as he 
Uas leading back the vi<ftorious army ; which 
proves that he was personally present in the se- 
cond expedition, though few writers take no- 
tice of this circumstance. The citizens of Me- 
gara paid great honours to his memtwy, which 
were still outdone by those of the Sicyonians, 
who erefled a mausoleum to him in the middle 
of the great square of their city, and instituted 
festivals and sacrifices to his honour, which were 
celebrated annually with great pomp. Adras- 
tus inherited the crown of Sicyon, from Poly- 
bius, his maternal uncle, to whom he once 
fled for refuge, after having been forced to leave 
Argoe by Amfdiiaraus. During his reign the 
city of Sicyon became very famous, by his in- 
stitutii^ the Pythian games in it. Some writers 
say, that Sicyon was bis hereditary kingdom, 
and that he obtained that of Argos by eleftion, 
•o great being his mental endowments, that the 
Argives besought him to govern them, and to 
civilize their savage manners. It is commonly 
said he had but two daughters, Orgia or Ar- 
gia, wife of Polynices, and Deiphyle, wife of 

Tydeus ; but he had also a third daughter, Ae- 
gealia, wife of Diomedes, and two sons, Arge- 
aleusandCyanippus. Argia and Deiphyle were 
married by an odd adventure : Adrastus having 
consulted the oracle of Apollo, learned that his 
two daughters were to be imited, the mie to % 
boar, the other to a lion. Sometime after Po- 
lynices and Tydeus arrived at his cwtrt, the 
one covered with a lion's skin, as being a The- 
ban, and valuing himself upon wearing the e- 
quipage of Hercules ; the other, the son of Oe- 
neus king of Calydon, wearing the skin of a 
boar, in memory of that which his brother Me- 
leager had slain. Adrastus made no doubt but 
that this was the true sense of the oracle, and 
accordingly gave them his daughters. Some 
authors relate, that Adrastus was the first who 
built a temple in honour of the goddess Neme- 
sis, and that she was thence called Adrastea ; 
but it is probable they confound him with an- 
other Adrastus ; for he who raised the first al- 
tar to that goddess, built it on the banks of the 
Aesopus, a river in Phrygia, and it does not 
appear that the Adrastus of thisarticle was e^er 
in Asia, although we meet with a king of this 
name in Phrygia, at the time of the wege of 
Troy. It will therefore be more reasonable to 
ascribe the establishment of this worship of Ne- 
mesis, to an Asiatic prince called Adrastus, 
than to that king of Argos of the same name, 
of whom we here treat. 

ADRASTUS, son of Merops, and brother of Am- 
phius, led their troops in favour of Troy. Both, 
slighting the premonitions of their father, fell 
before the city ; Amphiusby the hand of Ajax, 
and Adrastus by that of Patroclus. Another 
Adrastus, king of the Dorians, was killed for 
his perfidy, by Teiemachus. There was also 
an Adrastus, son of Midas, who, having acci- 
dentally killed Atys the son of Croesus, stew 
himself on the tomb of Atys through grief, not- 
withrtanding that Croesus had forgiven him. 

ADREUS, the god that presides over the ripen- 
ing of grain. 

ADROPHONOS, a name of Venus. See Lais. 

ADSI DELTA, the table at which the Flamens 
sat during their sacrifices. 

ADULTUS, in the rights of marriage, Jupiter 
waa invoked under this title, and Juno under 
that of Advlta. 

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ADYTUM, a secret or retired place in the Pa- 
gan temples, where oracles were given, and 
into which none but the priests were admitted. 

■ The word, originally Greek, signifies inacces- 

AEA, a virgin fond of hunting. Being very de- 
sirous to avoid the courtshipofPhasis, she pray- 
ed the gods to assist her, upon which they chang- 
ed her into an island of the same name. This 
fable arose from the island Aea being encom- 
passed by the river Phaaia. 

AEACEA, solemn feasts and combats celebrated 
in Aegina, to the honour of Aeacus, who had 
been king, and who, upon account of his sin- 
_ gular justice while on earth, was believed to 
have been appointed a judge in hell. . See 

AEACIDES, in Grecian antiquity, the descen- 
dants of Aeacus so called. Achilles the grand- 
son, and Pyrrhus the great grandson of Aeacus 
were thus called, as was Phocus or Peleus his 

AEACUS, son-of Jupiter and Aegina, daughter 
of Asopus king ofBoeotia, was king of Oeno- 
pia, which, from his mother's name, he called 
Aegina. It is fabled that Jupiter ingratiated 
himself with Aegina under the semblance ot 
fire. The inhabitants of Aegina being destroy- 
ed by a [dague, Aeacus prayed to his father 
that by some means he would repair the Iras 
of his subjefts, upon which Jupiter, in com- 
passion, changed all the ants within a hol- 
low tree into men and women, who, from a 
Greek word signifying ants, were called Myr- 
midons, and actually were so industrious a 
people as to become famous for their ships 
and navigation. The meaning of which fable 
is this : The pirates having destroyed the inha- 
bitants of the island, excepting a few, who hid 
themselves in caves and holes for fear of a like 
fate, Aeacus drew them out of their retreats, 
and encouraged them to build houses, and sow 
corn ; taught them military discipline, and how 
to fit out an'd navigate fleets, and to appear not 
like ants in holes, but on the theatre of the 
world, like men and mariners. His character 
for justice was such, that in a time of universal 
drought he was nominated by the Delphic ora- 
cle to intercede for Greece, and his prayers 
were heard. The Pagan world also believed that 

Aeacus, on account of his impartial justice, was 
chosen by Pluto, with Minos and Rhadaman- 
thus, one of the three judges of the dead, and 
that it was his province to judge the Europeans, 
in which capacity he held a plainrod as a badge- 
ef his office. Aeacus had three sons, Phocus 
by Psamathe, daughter of Nereus, sister of 
Thetis, and Telemon and Peleus hy Endeis, 
daughter of Chiron. See Myrmidons. 

AEACUS, brother to Polyclea, both of whom 
were descended from Hercules. The oracle hav- 
ing declared, that which soever of them first set 
foot on land, after passing the river Achelous, 
should enjoy the city and kingdom, Polyclea 
feigned herself lame, and desired her brother 
to carry her over ; but on coming near the shore 
she leaped from his back, while he was yet in 
the water, crying, " Brother, the kingdom is 
" mine by the decision of the oracle!" Her 
brother commended her wit, married her, and 
they reigned together. 

AECASTOR. There was a temple dedicated to 
Castor and Pollux, in the Forum at Rome ; for 
it was believed, that in the perilous conflict of 
the Romans with the Latins, they assisted the 
Romans riding upon white horses. Hence came 
that form of swearing by the Temple of Castor, 
which women only used, saying, Aecastor, that 
is, aede Castoris. 

AEDEPOL, for the reasons assigned in the pre- 
ceding article, was an oath among the Roman 

* people ; but with this ditFerence, that women 
only used Aecastor, whilst Aedepol was common 
to either sex. 

AEDES, in Roman antiquity, besides its more 
ordinary signification, of a house, or that part 
where the family ate, was also used for an infe- 
rior kind of temple, consecrated to some deity, 
though not by the Augurs. In Rome there 
were many of these, viz. the Aedes Herculis, 
Aedes Fortunae, Aedes Pacts, &c. ■ 

AEDICULA, the word denotes the inner part of 
the temple, where the altar and statue of the 
deity stood. 

AEDITUA, a female belonging to the temples of 
the goddesses, who had the same office with the 
Aedituus in the temple of the gods. 

AEDITUUS. an officer in the temple of the gods 
who had the care of the offerings, treasure, and 
sacred utensils. 

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AEDO, or AEIX>N. Pandareus, son of Merops. 
had three daughtersj Merope^ Cleothera, and 
Aedo, which last, being the eldest^ was mar* 
ried to Zethas, brother of Amphion, by wiiom 
she had but one son, named Itylus. Envying 
the numerous progeny of her sister-in-law Nio- 
be, Aedo resolved to kill the eldest of her ne- 
phews ; and as her 6on was brought up with his 
cousin, and slept with him, she gave him notice 
to change his bed the night she was to commit 
the crime. The young Itylus, forgetting his 
mother's orders, was slain by her, instead of his 
cousin. Aedo, lamenting hererror, would have 
died of grief, had not the gods in compassion 
turned her into a goldfinch, some say a nightin- 
gale, to sing her child's dirge- Homertouches 
upon this story, and adds, that after the gods 
had made Aedo's two sisters, Merope and Cleo- 
thera orphans, by cutting off their parents, they 
were cari'ied away by the Harpies, who delivered 
themupto the Furies at the time they were to have 
been married. Antoninus Liberalis, upon the au- 
thority of Nicander, relates the following adven- 
ture : Pandareus of Ephesus, had two daughters, 
the one named Aedon, whom he married to Po- 
lytechnuB of the city of Colophon in Lydia, the 
other called Chelidonia. The new-married cou- 
ple were happy while they reverenced the gods, 
but having boasted one day that they loved one 
another better than Jupiter and Juno, the god- 
dess, provoked at their language, sent Discord 
to create enmity between them. Polytechnus 
went to the court of his father-in-law, to ask of 
him Chelidonia, whom her sister longed to see, 
and having led her into a wood, ravished her; 
She in revenge, informed Aedon of the insult 
he had offered to her, and both of them resolved 
to make the husband eat Itys his son. Poly- 
technus, apprized of this horrid design, pursued 
his wife and sister-in-law to the court of Panda- 
reus their father, whither they had repaired ; 
and having first secured him in chains, rubbed 
his body over with honey, and exposed him 
in the open fields. Aedon hastened to her fa- 
ther, and strove to keep off the flies and other 
inserts that annoyed him ; but this laudable ac- 
tion being construed by her husband intoacrinie, 
he was proceeding to put her to death ; when 
■Jdpiter, moved at the misfortunes of the family, 
'ir^isformed them all into birds. This last fa- 

ble is nearly similar to that of Tereus, Itys, 
Progne, and Philomela. 

AEOEN, or AEA, an island in the Tyrrehene-sea, 
where Circe dwelt, and Aurora lodged. Pjom 
this island Qrce obtained the appellative of Aea, 
which was «lso the nameof the chief city of Col- 
chis, situate near the river Phasis. According 
to Valerius Flaccus, Aea was a huntress, whom 
Phasis fell in love with, and who, a& he pursued 
her, was changed into an island. 

AEETIAS, or AEETES, king of Cholchis dur- 
ing the Argonautic expedition, was son of Per- 
seis by the Sun, brother of Circe, husband of 
Idyaia, daughter of Oceanus, and father of Ab- 
syrtus, Calciope, and Medea, mother of Medus 
by Jason. Some authors make him also father 
of Pasiphae, and grandfather of Phaedra, the 
dissolute wives of Minos and Theseus. Banier 
thinks, with many of the ancients, that Aeetea 
was slain in an engagement on the Euxine sea, 
betwixt the Colchian fleet ajid tliat of the Ar- 
gonauts under Jason, It must be observed that 
there were two kings of Colchis of the name of 
Aeetes, as well as two Circes, the firat having 
i-eigned in the time of the Argonauts, and the 
second after the war of Troy. Aeetes the first, 
was brother of Circe hy the Sun ; Aeetes the 
second, brother of the second Circe, daughter 
jof the former, and grand-daughter of Helius ; 
she who reigned over the coasts of Italy, and at 
whose court Ulysses abode, about the time of 
the Trojan war. See Jawn, Pbryxus, Calciope, 
Golden Fleece, 

AEETIAS, or AEETIS, the patronymic appel- 
lation of Medea, as was Aeetius of Absyrtus her 

AEG A, a nymph, daughter of Olenus, and nurse 
to Jupiter, who, after her death, was translated 
to heaven, and made the star still called the 

AEGEA, an Amazonian, froni whom the sea in 
which she was drowned, is said to have been 
called the Aegean. 

AEGEALEA, or AEGIALIA, daughter of A- 
drastus king of Argos, sister of Argia and Dei- 
phyle, and wife of Diomedes, was so infamously 
lewd, that one of Ovid's imprecations against a 
man whom he mortally hated, was to wi^ him 
such a wife. Venus, out of revenge to Dio- 
nied^« who had wounded her at the siege of 

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Troy, fired Aegealea his wife with the most in- 
fatuated passion ; but she was particularly at- 
tached to Cometefi, the sou of Sthenelus, to u horn 
Diomedes had left the care of his household, and 
government of his kingdom. This wbman not 
only disgraced her husband, but conspired a- 
gainst his life upon his return to Argos, and he 
narrowly escaped assasination, by flying for 
sanfluary to the temple of Juno. It is said^that 
after this, Diomedes withdrew into Italy, and 
resolved never more to return to his kingdom. 
See Diomedes. 
AEGEALEUS, son of Adrastus, king of Argos, 
lost his life in the second Theban war. I'his 
brought Adrastus to his grave. It is remarka- 
ble, that as in the first war all the leaders of the 
Argives died, except Adrastus, so in the second, 
no person of distinAion fell on their side, except 
Aegealeus, his son. 
There was another Aegealeus, Aegtaleus, or Egia- 
leus, king of Sicyon, who, according to Apol- 
lodorus, was son of Inachus, and brother of Pho- 
roneus. According to Scaliger, the two dynas- 
ties of the princes of Sicyon (that of the kings, 
who are in all twenty -six, and that of the priests 
of Carnaean Apollo, to thenumber of seventeen) 
lasted 893, or according to M. Foiirniont, 992 
years ; so that the kingdom of Sicyon commen - 
ced 1351 years before the first Otytjipiad, 927 be- 
fore the Trojan war, and about 2000 years be- 
fore the Christian era. The Sicyonians, ac- 
cording to Fausanias, gave the following account 
of their original : Aegealeus, say they, a native 
of their own country, was their first king, under 
whose reign that part of the Peloponneus, which 
is called at this day Egiate, received its present 
denomination. In that country he built in the 
open field the city, Egialea, with a citadel which 
covered all the ground whereon the temple of 
Minerva now stands. Aegealeus was the father 
of Europs, of whom was born Telchis, whose 
son was Apis, &c. Ifitshould be asked whence 
came this Aegealeus, whose original is not given 
by Fausanias, we may answer, that he came 
from some foreign country ; from Phoenicia, as 
Inachus, or from Egypt as Danaus. 
AEGEON, a giant, son of Aetho-, Titan, or Coe- 
luK, and Terra. According to Homer, he was 
called Aegeon on earth, and Briareus in heaven. 
Vii^il represents him as having a hundred hands. 

fifty heads, and as many mouths breathing fire. 
Having formed a conspiracy with the other gi- 
ants against Jupiter, he w as thrust beneath Aet- 
na, which, as often as he moved, threw forth 
fire. He is represented, however, as having 
been of signal service to Jupiter, when Juno, 
Pallas, Neptune, and the other deities attempted 
to dethrone him ; and, on this account, was 
not only forgiven his former offence, but, toge- 
ther with Gyges and Cottus, appointed a satel- 
lite to the god. Solinus relates, that divine ho- 
nours were paid him by the Carystes, under the 
name of Briareus, and by the Chalcidenses un- 
der that of Aegeon. 

AEGERIA. See Egeria. 

AEGEUS, the ninth king of Athens, son of Pan- 
dion, father of Theseus, and brother of Nisus, 
Pallas, and Lycus, was descended from Erec- 
theus or Erichlhonhis, one of the ancient kings 
of Athens. It is said that Aegeus, being desi- 
rous of children, and consulting the Delphic 
oracle, received that celebrated answ er, which 
forbade him the society of any woman before 
his return to Athens ; but the oracle being ob- 
scurely expressed, he went to Troezene, and 
communicated to the sage Pittheus, the wisest 
man tlien in Greece, the answer of the god.- -- 
Pittheus, when he heard the oracle, introduced 

■ Aegeus to his daughter Aethra, and some au- 
thors say, he privately gave her in marriage to 
him. Aegeus, on his departure, left a sw ord 
and a pair of sandals, with the daughter of Pit- 
theus, hiding them under a great stone that had 
a hollow exaftly fitting them, and, making her 
only privy to it, enjoined her that if she should 
have a son by him, who, when gro\A n up, could 
raise the stone, and take away what he had de- 
posited under it, she should send the young 
man to him with them, as secretly as possible ; 
for he was much afraid some plot would be form - 
ed against him by the Pallantidae, or fifty sons 
of his brother Pallas, who despised Aegeus for 
his want of children. Aethra happened to be 
delivered of a boy, whom some report that she 
named Theseus, though others say, that he did 
not receive this name till he arrived at Athens, 
and was acknowledged by Aegeus for his son. 
The Athenians having basely killed Androgeos, 
son of Minos, king of Crete, in the reign of Ae- 
geus, for carrying away the prize in the games. 

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MinOB made war upon the Athenians, and bdng 
victorious, imposed this severe conditioji on Ae- 
geus, that he should annually send into Crete 
seven of the noblest youths of Athens, chosen 
by lot. to be devoured by the Minotaur. On 
the fourth year of this tribute, the choice fe:l 
on Theseus, or as others say, he himself entreat- 
ed to t e sent. The good king, at the departure of 
his son, gave orders, that as the ship which trans- 
ported the youths to Crete sailed under black 
sails, she should return with the same in case 
Theseus perished ; but, if he came back vifto- 
rious, the sails were to be changed for white. 
The event was fortunate for Theseus (who slew 
the Minotaur, and escaped out of the inextrica- 
ble labyrinth in which that monster was con- 
fined, by the help of Ariadne) but proved the 
reverse to Aegeus ; for Theseus having neg- 
lected his instruAions, the old king, who im- 
patiently waiting his son's return, went daily 
to the top of a high rock that overlooked the 
ocean, to observe the ships as they approached 
the shore, at last, on discovering the sable sails, 
threw himself into the sea, which from him was 
called the Aegean. The Athenians decreed Ae- 
geus divine honours, and sacrificed to him as a 
marine deity, the adopted son of Neptune. 
LIUM, were expiatory sacrifices, of which no 
mention occurs till the second century. The 
ceremonial of these expiations hath been trans- 
mitted by the poet Prudentius. He informs 
us, that the Pagan priests excavated a pit, into 
which the sovereign pontitF descended, invested 
with all the attributes of his funftion. The 
hole was then covered with planks, perforated 
in different places, so as that the blood of the 
goat, bidl, or ram, which was sacrificed, might 
run through upon the pontiff beneath ; who, 
after this aspersion, ascended reeking with the 
blood of the viftim. Being thus sanftified, he 
preserved, as long as possible, these offensive 
vestments, -to confirm the efficacy of the sacri- 
fice on himself, and afterwards suspended them 
in the temple to communicate their virtue to 
all who might have the happiness to touch 
them. The privilege of offering this sacrifice 
was not peculiar to the sovereign pontiff; all 
who presented themselves for iniuation into 
the mysteries, might ofSa a goat, a bull, or a 

ram, and receive on their garments the drop- 
ping of their blood. But, whoever, by these 
expiations, was ambitious of obtaining a mys- 
tical regeneration, was compelled to undergo 
the most painful trials, and none but such ai 
sustained them with firmness, were admitted 
into the mysteries. After initiation, they were 
obliged to maintain a condudt of the most un- 
relenting virtue, and to be above the allure- 
ments of sense. Their vestments, stained with 
the blood of the vi6lim, excited the most pro- 
found veneration ; were accounted to increase 
in holiness in proportion as they became more 
ragged ; and, v hen they would no longer hang 
together, were suspended on some column of 
the temple. These sacrifices were renewed 
every twenty years, when the penances of the 
noviciate were again repeated, and not fewer 
than eighty kinds were gone through, before he 
could become an adept in the mysteries of the 
god Afi/6rfl.— When the Caesars, to render their 
authority more respeited, had taken the censor 
into their hands as well as the sceptre, they dis- 
dained the investiture of the bloody garments. 
To avoid, therefore, such disgusting ceremo- 
nies, they established subaltern pontifl% to 
cringe under the details of the ritual. The 
earliest Christian emperors despised not the 
pontifical robe. Gratian was the first who 
threw off the badges of paganism j for, though 
he reUtined the title of sovereign -pontiff, he 
performed no part of its fundlions. 

AEGIDES, a name of Theseus, son of Aegeus. 

AEGIMIUS, the name of a man who lived two 

AEGINA, daughter of A.sopus king of Boeotia, 
was beloved by Jupiter, whoseduced her in the 
similitude of a lambent flame, and after she had 
been delivered of Aeacus and Rhadamanthus, 
carried her from Epidaurus to a desert island 
called Oenope, to which she gave her o*n 
name. - To this may be added the fables im- 
porting that Jupiter, to save her from tbe ven- 
geance of her father, who made stri^ search 
after her, transformed her into an island ; which 
signifies, that he concealed her in an isUuid of 
the Saronic gulf, now Lepanta, and onae called 
the island of Aegina. 

AEGINATES, the inhabitants of tbe island Ae- 
gina, who were afterw%(t^call^,^eMyrnudona- 

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40 AEG 

AEGIOCHUS-, an appellation given by Homer 
and others to Jupiter, either because he was 
cherished by a goat, or because his buckler was 
covered with a goat's skin. 

AEGIPAN, a denomination given to the god Pan, 
because he was reprreented with the horns, 
legs, feet, &c. of a goat. The ancients also 
gave the fame name to a sort of monsters men- 
tioned by Pliny, Solinus, &c. Salmasius, in his 
notes on Solinus, takes Aegipan to have signi- 
fied the same in Libya with Salvanus among 
the Romans. Vossius rejects this opinion, and 
shews that these creatures had not faces like 
men, as the Sylvans had, but like goats. The 
monster represented on some medals of Au- 
gustus, by antiquaries, called Capricomus, and 
which has the fore part of a goat, and the hind 
part of a fish, appears to be the true Aegipan. 

AEGIRA, one of the Hamadryads. 

AEGIS, the shield or buckler of Jupiter. The 
goat Amalthea, which had suckled Jove, being 
dead, that god is said to have covered his buck- 
ler with the skin thereof, whence the appella- 
tion Aegis, from «ig, my^, a she-goat. Jupiter 
afterwards restoring the goat to life, covered 
it with a new skin, and placed it among the 
stars. This buckler, which was the work of 
Vulcan, he gave to Minerva, who having 
killed the Gorgon Medusa, nailed her head 
to the middle of the Aegis, which henceforth 
possessed the faculty ofconverting into stone all 
who beheld it, as Medusa herself had while 
alive. Some take the Aegis not to have been 
a buckler, but a cuirass or breast-plate, and it 
is certain, that the Aegis of Minerva, described 
by Virgil, Aen. viii. v. 43j, must have been a 
cuirass, since the poet says expressly, that Me- 
dusa's head was on the breast of the goddess ; 
but the Aegis of Jupiter, mentioned ver. 3j4, 
seems to have been a buckler, and not a cuirass. 
Servius makes the same distinftion on these two 
passages of Virgil, for he takes the Aegis in 
ver. 354, for the buckler of Jupiter, covered 
with the skin of the goat Amalthea, and by the 
Aegis, in ver. 435, he understands that piece 
of armour, which, in speaking of men, is cilied 
t!ic Cuirass, and speaking of the gods. Aegis. 
Tliough this word signifies a she-goat, and the 
Aegis is commonly thought to have been the 
skin of that animal, yet some authore are per- 


suaded that it was the spoil of a monster named 
Aegis, which vomited fire, and after having 
made a vast havock in Phrygia, Phoenicia, 
Egypt, and Libya, was destroyed by Minerva, 
who invested her buckler with its skin. 
AEG1STHUS, was son of Thyestes, by his own 
daughter Pelopeia, whom having found in a 
grove consecrated to Minerva, he violated with- 
out knowing. Servius upon the Aeneid, and 
La<5lantius upon the Thebaid, say he committed 
this crime wittingly, because an oracle had 
foretold him that he should have a son by her 
who would revenge his injuries. Aegisthus 
was the fruit of this unnatural commerce, which 
to conceal, it is said she exposed her son in the 
woods, where some say he was found by a 
shepherd, who brought him up ; others, that 
he was suckled by a goat, whence he obtained 
the name of Aegisthus. Some time after the 
death of Aerope, daughter of Eurystheus, king 
of Argos, andwife of Abreus, Abreus married 
the same Pelopeia, who was his niece, and e- 
ducated the young Aegisthus, whom he had 
brought to his court, with Menelaus and Aga- 
memnon, as we learn from Pausanias and Hy- 
ginus. They, having found at Delphi their 
uncle Thyestes, introduced him to their father, 
who threw him into prison, and sent Aegisthus 
to kill hijn ; but Thyestes having spied in his 
hands the sword which Pelopeia had snatched 
from him when he was going out of the sacred 
grove, after the violence he had offered to her, 
found him to be his son. His daughter coming 
up, no sooner discovered the incest of her father, 
than she fell upon that same sword, and Aegis- 
thus carried it all bloody to Atreus, who, in the 
belief that he had gotten rid of his brother, 
went to offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving, dur- 
ing which Aegisthus slew him, and delivered 
his father Thyestes out of prison. Thus Thy- 
estes ascended the throne of Argos, and ba- 
nished his two nephews Agamemnon and Me- 
nelaus, sons of Atreus (at least his sons accord- 
ing to common opinion, for it must be noticed, 
that there are several authors, amongst uhom 
are EuKebius and Scaliger, who believe, and 
that with apparent reason, that they were not 
the sons of that prince, but of Plisthenes his 
brother). These young princes having repair- 
ed to the court of Polyphides king of Sicyon, 

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\vt sent them to Oeneiis king of Oechalia, who 
generously married them to the two daughters 
of Tyndariis king of Sparta, Clytemnestra, and 
Helen. With the assistance of their father-in- 
law, Agamemnon recovered the throne of Ar- 
gos, banishing Thyestes to the island of Cythe- 
ra, and Menelaus succeeded Tyndarus on the 
throne of Sparta. About this time, Agamem- 
non being obliged to leave his court, and as- 
sume the command of theGrecian army against 
Troy, was heartily reconciled to his cousin 
Aegisthus, pardoned him for the death of his 
father, and even left him the care of Clytem- 
nestra his wife, and his three children, Orestes, 
Iphigenia, and Eleftra ; appointing only a cer- 
tain singer his sole confidant, to overlook their 
conduA. Aegisthus, having seduced the affec- 
tions of Clytemnestra, took oft' the vigilant guar- 
dian. The intercourse of these guilty paramours 
became now so public, that Agamemnon hear- 
ing it as he lay before Troy, resolved to be re- 
venged at his return. But this his wife pre- 
vented, by killing him as soon as he arrived, 
together with Cassandra her rival, and the twin 
children of Agamemnon. The faithless Cly- 
temnestra now married Aegisthus, and set the 
crown of Mycenae upon his head, which he 
wore for seven years. In this sanguinary tra- 
gedy the young Orestes must have also fallen, 
had not his sister Eie<^ira secretly conveyed him 
to the court of his uncle Strophius, king of Pho- 
cis, who had married the sister of Agamemnon. 
Some years after, Orestes having formed the 
design of revenging his father's death, left the 
court of Strophius in company with Pylades, 
son of that prince, his faithful friend and com- 
panion, entered secretly into Mycenae, and 
concealed himself at the house of Eleitra (called 
by Homer, Laodice), whom Aegisthus had mar- 
ried to a man of mean extraftion, that he might 
have nothing to fear from his resentment. Elec- 
tra first spread a report through Mycenae of 
Orestes' death, at which Aegisthus and Clytem- 
nestra were so overjoyed, that they went direft- 
ly to the temple of Apollo, to give thanks to 
the gods for this agreeable news. Orestes fol- 
lowed them thither with his band of friends, 
and after ordering the guards to be seized, slew 
his unhappy mother and her guilty paramour 
with his own hands. They were interred with- 

out the city, not having been deemed worthy 
of a funeral, as Pausanias remarks, in the same 
place with Agamemnon, and those who had 
been slain with him. Homer does not expressly 
relate that Orestes killed Clytemnestra, but he 
implies as much, by saying that Orestes made 
a funeral feast /or tbem ^tj6.— Pompey used to 
call Julius Caesar Aegisthus, on account of his 
having corrupted his wife Mutia, whom he af- 
terwards put away, though she had three chil- 
dren by him. 

AEGLE, one of the three daughters of Hesperus, 
who went by the general name of Hesper'ides. 
Also the name of one of Aesculapius' four 
daughters by Epione, whom some call Lam- 

AEGOBOLIUM, from the copy of an ancient 
inscription in which were the words criobolium 
et aemobolium movit. Reinesius supposes aemo- 
bolium to have been a corruption of aegobolium^ 
and is followed by Van Dale ; but De Boze con- 
tends that aejnobolium is the genuine reading, and 
means no more than an effusion of blood. See 

AEGOBOLUS. Bacchus was worshipped by this 
name in Potnia, for the following reason :- As 
the inhabitants were once celebrating the feasts 
of this god, in the heat of their orgies they 
quarrelled, and killed one of his priests ; upon 
which Bacchus sent a pestilence among them. 
The Potnians consulting the oracle, were ad- 
vised to sacrifice annually one of their hand- 
somest boys to the god, which having done for 
several years, Bacchus at length accepted a goat, 
as a substitute. 

AEGOCEROS, a monster into which Pan trans- 
formed himself, when with the rest of the gods 
he fled from Typhon. Jupiter for his subtilty 
placed him among the stars. 

AEGON, the name of a shepherd. 

no among the Lacedemojiians, from the goat 
which Hercules sacrificed to her. 

AEGOSPOTAMUS, a river in Thrace, where is 
shewn a large stone, which Anaxagoras fore- 
told would fali out of the sun. 

AEGYPIUS, an inhabitant of the remotest part 
ofThessaly, son of Antheus and Bulis, having 
prevailed upon Timandra, the most beautiful 
woman of her time, by dint of moneys; to visit 

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him, her son Neophron, shocked at so flagitious 
a bargain, corrupted Bulis, and having learned 
the place of assignation, substituted the mother 
of Aegypius in the room of his own. Aegypius 
hastened to receive Timandra, but, contrary to 
expeftation, was met by Bulis. Their horror 
was mutual, and would have occasioned their 
death, but Jupiter changed Aegypius and Neo- 
phron into vultures, Biilis into a didapper, and 
Timandra into a sparrow-hawk. 

AEGYPTIUS. A sage of Ithaca, father of Ero- 
nymus, Antiphus, &c. A surname also of Ju- 
piter among the Greeks, who sometimes con- 
founded him with Osiris. 

AEGYPTUS, authors differ widely in their ac- 
counts of the descent of this fabulous character. 
Some leave us in the dark as to his mother, but 
affirm him to have been the son of Vulcan, by 
some heroine or goddess; whom others name 
Aglaia, one of the Graces. But this genealogy 
is however reprobated, and Aegyptus is gene- 
rally said to have been the son of Belus^ and 
brother of Danaus. Be that as it might, from 
this Aegyptus the kingdom of Egypt seems to 
have derived -its name. Aegyptus had fifty 
sons, who were married to the fifty daughters of 
his brother Danaus. See Danaides, Danaus, 

AELLO, one of the Harpies. See Harpies. Also, 
one of Aftaeon's dogs. 

AELURUS, the god-Cat, or deity worshipped by 
the ancient Egyptians, was represented some- 
times like a cat, and sometimes like a man with 
a cat's head. They had likewise their goddess 
Cat, represented under the figure of a woman 
with a cat's head. The Egyptians regarded this 
animal in so superstitious a manner, that the 
killing it, whether by accident or design, was 
punished with death. Diodorus relates, that a 
Roman having accidentally killed a cat, the po- 
pulace beset his house in great fury, and neither 
the authority of the king, who immediately 
sent his guards, nor respeft to the Roman rank, 
could save him. He tells us likewise, that 
in time of extreme famine, they chose rather 
to eat one another than touch these sacred ani- 

AEMOCHARES, from Mf^tuofm, an epithet of 
Mars, signifying rejoiaag in blood. 

AEMONj youngest son of Creon, to whom An- 

tigone was betrothed, but never married, Ae. 
mon, according to Ovid, being slain by the 
Sphinx, while Antigone followed her father in 
exile. Propertius however says, that Aemon 
slew himself at Antigone's tomb. 

AEMONIA, Thessaly so called by the Poets, ftxmi 
Aemon one of its kings. It was a country fa- 
mous for magic, which Ovid stiles the Aemonian 
art, and the constellation Sagittarius he cha- 
ra^erises by ibe bow of the Aemonian, because 
Chiron lived in Thessaly. 

AEMONIDES, priest of Apollo and Diana. Vir- 
gil introduces him in the tenth Aeneid on the 
party of the Latins. He is slain in his pontifi- 
cals by Aeneas, in the same book. 

AEMONIUS juvenis, Jason, the son of Aeson, 
king of Thessaly. 

AEMUS, a king mentioned in the sixth book of 
Ovid's Metamorphosis, was with his wife Kho- 
dope, transformed into a mountain, for assum- 
ing the names of Jupiter and Juno. 

AENEADA, the Trojans, thus called from Ae- 
neas, and sometimes the Romans, as descended 
from the Trojans. 

AENEADES, Julus or Ascanius the son of Ae- 

AENEAS, a celebrated Trojan prince, son of An- 
chisesand Venus. In the Trojan war he headed 
tiie Dardan forces, and, at the destruftion of 
Troy, rescued his aged father, by carrying him 
auay on his shoulders. Through his solicitude, 
however, for his son Ascanius and his household 
gods, he lost his wife Creusa, daughter of king 
Priam, getting on ship-board, with his adhe- 
rents whom he assembled on Mount Ida. He 
landed, after having been long tossed at sea, in 
Africa, where he was kindly received by queen 
Dido ; but forsaking her, he proceeded to Italy, 
married Lavinia daughter of kmg Latinus, and 
defeated Turn us, to whom that princess had been 
contracted. After the death of his father-in- 
law, Aeneas was made king of the Latins, over 
whom he reigned three years; but joining with 
the Aborigines, he was dain, according to some 
authors, in a battle against the Tuscans. 0> 
thers notwithstanding, relate his story thus:— 
Tros, king of Troy, had two sons. Hub and Assa- 
racus, and the latter a son named Capis, who 
was father to Anchises, and grand-father to Ae- 
neas: thus he was of the blood royal by the fa- 

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timer's side, and in opinion of most of the ancients 

the goddess Venus was his mother. Anchises 
lived till the age of eighty. Virgil makes him 
to have died at Drephanum in Sicily, Faiisanias 
in Arcadia, but Dion Halicamassus and others 
bring him as far as Italy, where, according to 
them, he ended his days. Aeneas was educat- 
ed in the country till put under the diredion of 
a governor, some years after which, king Priam 
gave him his daughter Creusa in marriage ; by 
whom he had a son named lulus or Ascanius. 
Among the achievements of Achilles during the 
uege of Troy, as related by Homer, he is said 
to have fought with Aeneas, but that Neptune 
carried him oflF from the combat. Aeneas di- 
stinguished himself particularly in the night the 
city was taken ; he entered into Troy, and de- 
tended it to the last, but when he perceived the 
town was no longer tenable, he caused the in- 
habitants to abandon it ; and then issued forth 
himself with the garrison, fighting his way 
through the enemy till he came to Mount Ida, 
the place of rendezvous ; where he formed a 
little army of those who were able to bear arms ; 
but the Greeks, not daring to hazard a battle, 
entered into a treaty with the Trojans ; in vir- 
tue of which the latter were permitted to with- 
draw unmolested. Near the city of Antendras, 
at the foot of Mount Ida, Aeneas fitted out a 
fleet of twenty ships, in which having embarked, 
he first arrived in Thrace, where he founded 
the city Aeneia, and peopled it with such as 
he could easily spare. Sailing thence he made 
the island Delos, whence Anius the high-priest 
of Apollo gave him a favourable reception.— 
After this, coasting along the island of Cythe- 
ra, he arrived at a cape ol' the Peloponeseus, 
which he called Cynetium, from the name of 
one of his companions buried there ; and having 
entered Greece he quitted the fleet, in order to 
consult the oracle of Jupiter at Dodona. It was 
there he found his brother-in-law Helenus, who 
was reputed in that country a great prophet.— 
He would have continued his course by the Faro 
of Messina, but was obliged to put into Sicily, 
where he assisted Elymus and Egesthes, who 
also came from Phrygia, in building two town* 
of their own name. At length, having depart- 
ed from that island, he happily arrived at Lau- 
rentum, upon the coast of Tyrrhenia, near the 

mouth of the Tyber, in the country of the Ab- 
origines. Their king Latinus having raised an 
army against that of Aeneas, he himself made 
up to Aeneas, gave him his hand in token of 
friendship, and the two armies united. The 
remembrance of an oracle, which had foretold 
to Latinus the airival of some strangers whose 
leader was to be his son-in-law, was the princi- 
pal cause of the advances he made to Aeneaa— 
Having conducted him to his palace in order to 
confirm, by the strictest ties, the alliance which 
he had made with him, and to unite the two na- 
tions for ever, he gave him in marriage his only 
daughter Lavinia, heiress of his crown. Aene- 
as with the asustance of his father-in-law and 
the Latins, built at that time a city which he 
called Lavinium, from the name of his wife. — 
In the mean time this connection brought upon 
the IVojans and Aborigines a common enemy, 
in the person of Tumus king of the Rutilians, 
who \v3iA been contracted to Lavinia before Ae- 
neas arrived in that country. Tumus, nephew 
to queen Amata, the wife of Latinus, young, 
ambitious, and enraged that a stranger should 
be preferred to him, declared war against his 
rival. After a bloody battle the Rutili were 
routed, but Latinus, who commanded in person 
with his son-in-laW, fell in the contest. Aeneas 
being now sole master of his father-in-law's do- 
minions, omitted nothing to disconcert the ef- 
forts of Turnus, who to repair his disgrace, had 
entered into an alliance with the Etrurians, a 
formidable people. Mezentius, their king, kept 
his court at Caere, or Core, a wealthy city, and 
one of the strongest in the country. Aeneas 
having united under him the Trojans and Abo- 
rigines, and the last being as firmly attached to 
him as the first, would not wait to receive the 
' enemy in the city, but took the field, and the 
two armies speedily meeting, a furious bat- 
tle ensued, in which Aeneas lost his life. 

His body not being found, it was given out that 
Venus, having purified him in the water of the 
Numicus, near which the battle was fought, had 
raised him to the rank of the gods. A monu- 
ment was erefted to him on the banks of the 
river, which wassubsisfing in the time of Livy, 
and where sacrifices were offered to him under 
the name of Jupiter Indiges. This hero died at 
the age of thirty-eight years, and reigned only 

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three. He was succeeded by his son Ascanius, 
who built the famous city Alba, where his de- 
scendants reigned over the Latin territories until 
Nuniitofj grand-father of Romulus. Vjrgil 
makes Aeneas contemporary with Dido queen 
of Carthage, and his chronology is justified by 
Sir Isaac Newton ; while other great men main- 
tain, that Aeneas was never either in Carthage or 
Ita!y,andthathe lived above three hundred years 
before Dido. On the subjeft of this article, as 
well as of manyothers of the fabulous age,authors 
vary materially. Some of them, in order to 
deprive the Romans of the glory of this illus- 
trious leader of the Trojans for their founder, 
contend, that Aeneas never came into Italy, 
but reigned in Troas, according to the predic- 
tion, which Homer mentions in ver. 307, Iliad 20. 
The passage is considerable, and of great weight 
to demolish the pretensions of the Romans, who 
piqued themselves on the conceit of being de- 
icended from Aeneas ; for unless we allow that 
Homer, who was an Ionian, put the predi6tion 
in this passage into Neptune's mouth, for no 
other reason, but because he saw the posterity 
of Aeneas still in possession of the throne of the 
Trojans, would he ever have made Neptime, 
who was theff declared enemy, say this? Thus, 
all that the historians have written of Aeneas' 
voyage to Italy, may be looked upon as romance, 
and having no other tendency but to overthrow 
historical truth ; since the most ancient of them 
is several ages later than Homer, who lived only 
about 260 years after the taking of Troy, and 
wrote in the neighbourhood of Phrygia, or at 
no great distance from it. Accordingly, some 
historical writers before Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus, perceiving the force of this passage in 
Homer, have attempted to explain it consist- 
ently with this fable, by saying, that Aeneas, 
after having been in Italy returned to Troy, 
and there left his son Ascanius. Dionysius, not 
satisfied with this improbable solution, took 
another method to preserve to the Romans the 
gory of their descent from the son of Venus, 
interpreting the words, be shall reign over tbe 
Trojans, to signify, he shall reign over the 
Trojans whom he shall carry with him into 
Italy. Might not Aeneas, says he, have reign- 
ed over the Trojans, whom he carried into 
Italy, though settled elsewhere ? This historian. 

who wrote in Rome itself, and under the eye 
of Augustus, was willing to pay his court to 
that prince by explaining this passage of Ho- 
mer, so as to favour the notion with which he 
was intoxicated. Strabo, however, meet's the 
question more fairly; and though he wrote his 
Geography about the bfeginning of the reign of 
Tiberius, yetfirmly asserts the poet to have said, 
and would have us to understand, that Aeneas 
remained at Troy ; that he reigned there, all 
Priam's race being extin<ft, and that he left the 
crown to his children. He also subjoins a plea- 
sant corre^ion, which some critics had made 
of Homer's text, by reading vojmmi instead of 
T/iei<nn. He shall reign over all tbe world, in- 
stead of, he shall reign over the Trojans ; as if 
Homer had known and foretold at that time, 
that the empire of the whole world was pro- 
mised to the family of Aeneas. The iiattery to 
Augustus in this is too discemable. There was 
another tradition, perhaps of equal authority 
with that now delivered, according to which 
it was a question, whether Ascanius, who suc- 
ceeded Aeneas in Italy, was the son of Lavinia, 
or that other prince of the same name whom 
he had by Creusa, who followed his father in 
his expeditions, and who was surnamed lulus. 
However, it was from the latter, the grandson 
of Venus, that the Romans valued themselves 
on being descended, and from whom the Julian 
family boasted to have derived its name and 
origin. Conon follows a still diiFerent tradi- 
tion : After the destruction of Troy, says he, 
Aeneas to avoid falling into the hands of the 
Greeks repaired to Mount Ida, but scarcely 
had he settled there when he was driven thence 
by Eytius and Scamander, sons of Heflor, who 
obliged him to seek his fortune somewhere else, 
and reigned in his stead. A singular circum- 
stance in this narration is, that Conon names 
two of Heiftor's sons, of whom we know little 
or nothing, none of the ancients having men- 
tioned any son of his, but Astyanax. Other 
authors (so great diversity is there among the 
anfcients on this head) contend, that Aeneas 
was made prisoner by Pyrrhu's, and that, after 
the death of his conqueror, he repaired to Ma- 
cedonia. There are even authors who tell us, 
that Aeneas was absent when Troy was taken ; 
and that Priam his father-in-law had sent him 

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«ith troops into Italy. Some allege, thet Ae- 
neas betrayed the city of Troy to the Greeks 
from the hatred he bore to Priam, who had ill 
treated him ; and that he escaped from Troy 
by the intelligence he had with the enemy. 
Servius mentions this treachery from Livy, in 
the remains of whose works, however, the pas- 
«ge referred to is not to be found. Otliers 
write, that Aeneas died in Thrace or Arcadia; 
and some, thatTumus slew him, and Ascanius, 
Tumua. U is impossible to reconcile senti- 
ments SB opposite, and it would be in vain to 
say with Tryphiodorus, that Venus transported 
Aeneas through the air into Italy. I4et us there- 
fore leave the Romans in poesesston of their 
■claim, nor envy them the glory of being de- 
scended from Venus and Aeneas ; with this single 
remarks that though one family might have 
sprung from this pretended stock, yet the peo- 
pie at large must .have had other progenitors. 

AENETA, >dau^ter of Eusorus, .and another of 
Cyzicus by Aeneas. 

AENlUSjthe Peonian, slain by Achilles inthe Iliad. 

AENOMAUS, son of Mars, but whether by Ne- 
rio or Ncrione, has not been determined. 

AEOLIDES, Ulysses or Cephalus, or Athamas; 
the last the.£on, and the other two grandsonsrOf 

AEOLIS, Alcione daughter of Aeolus. 

AEQLIUS, Athamas, son of Aeolus. 

AEOLUS, god of the winds,' is said by some to 
have been the son of Jupiter by Acasta or Si- 

, gesia, daughter of Hippotus ; by others, son of 
Hippotus; by others, son of Meneclea, daugh- 
ter of Hyllus king of Lipara. He reign- 
ed over the Lipari islands near Sicily, being 
seven in number, vig. Lipara^ Hiera, Strongyle, 
Djdymae, Erieusaj PJioenicusa, and l^pnymos. 
His .residence was, according to sonie authors, 
at Rhegium in Italy ; others say at Strongyle, 
.now called Stromboli, and there are some who 
place him ip .th« island Lipara. But wherever 
was fixed his abode, he is represented as hold- 
ing the winds, enchained in a vast cave, to pre- 
vent their committing any more such dcvasta. 
tions as they had before occasioned. For,toth£ir 
violence wasimputednotonly the dijijuiidion of 
Sicily from Italy, but also the separation of Eu- 
rope from Africa, by which a passage was open* 
£d for the ocean to form the Mediterranean sea. 

According to some, the Aeolian, or Lipari 
islands were uninhabited till Liparus, son of 
Auson, settled a colony there, and gave one 
of them Iiis name. Aeolus married his daugh- 
ter Cyane, peopled the rest, and succeeded him 
.on the throne. He was an hospitable and good 
prince, hoyjitably entertained Ulysses, and as a 
proof of his kindness, bestowed on him several 
6k-ins,,m which he bad enclosed the winds. The 
companions of Ulysses, unable to restrain their 
curiosity, having opened the .skins, the winds 
in consequence were setfree,5nd occasioned the 
wildest uproar ; insomuch that Ulysses lost all 
his vessels, and was himself alone saved by a 
iplank. It may not be improper to remark, that 
over the rougher winds the poets have placed 
Aeolus ; over the milder, Juno ; and the rains, 
|;hunders and lightnings they have committed 
to Jupiter himself- The Prince, whose history 
is thus disguised by fable. Is said to have been 
an ,aAuaI descendant of Aeolus «on of Deuca. 
lion, whose posterity, after having given many 
kings to Greece, sent several colonies into the 
jesser A^ia, peopled its coasts, and thence pas- 
.sed into Italy, of which last transmigration Dio- 
dqrus Siculus thus speaks : Minos, son of Aeo- 
lus, reigned in a part of Thessaly ; his son Hip- 
potus, who succeeded him, was fatlier to Aeo- 
lus the second, and he again to Arne, who 
;gaye her name t© the capitalof his kingdom.— 
TJiis princess, having too fer indulged her lover, 
was sold by her father to a merchant of Mela- 
pontus, who brought her into Italy, where she 
was delivered of two sons, who were adopted 
by their master. Having, when grown up, been 
guilty of murder, they were banished from Me- 
lappntus. Aeolus repaired to Liparus, son of 
Auson, who reigned over the Liparian islands, 
jOiarried his daughter, and after his death suc- 
ceeded hini. Aeolus had several children, of 
whom the .eldest, Astiochus, reigned over the 
same islands, which wete,called Aeolian, from 
the name of their father ; locastes the second 
settled in the confinesof Rheggio, and Xuthus, 
Androcleitf, Pheteraon, and Agathyrsus. in se- 
veral parts of Sicily, where their descendants 
dwelt, till a colony was sent thither by the Dto- 
rians. Thus much we learn from Diodorus Si- 
culus, Strabo, and Eustathius. 
In the twenty-second Aeneid, we find a hero of this 

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name, wljo fought on the part of Aeneas in the 
Latian war, and was slain before Laurentium. 

AEON, the first woman created, according to the 
Phoenician system. She taught her children 
to eat fruit for their nourishment. 

AEOS, son of Typhon, is said to have built Pa- 
phos. This name is also given to Aurora. 

AEOUS: see Horses of tbe Sun. 

AEP ALIUS, a Grecian king, who, when expelled 
from his throne, was restored by the assistance 
of Hercules ; in requital of which services he 
settled his kingdom, after the death of the hero, 
on his son Hyllus and his posterity, 

AEPYTUS, the son of Ctesiphon and Merope, 
was brought up by Cy pselus his maternal grand- 
father; slew Polyperchon the usurper, who had 
married his mother against his will ; and reco- 
vered his father's kingdom. — The companion 
of Amphion was also of this name. 

AEQUITAS: see Asirea. 

AEREA, Diana was so called from a mountain 
of Argolis, where a particular worship was paid 

AEROPE, wife of Oenopion king of Chios. O- 
rion, who was so tall of stature that the deep- 
est sea could not cover his shoulders, waded 
from the continent of Greece to the island of 
Chios, where, attempting to vitiate Aerope, 
her husband deprived him of sight— There was 
another Aerope, daughter of Euristheus king 
of Argos, and wife of Atreus, who having yield- 
ed to the solicitations of Thyestes, brought 
forth sons. These were put to death by Atreus 
their uncle, and served up at a banquet for 
theirfather.— A third of this name became preg- 
nant by Mars, and died in child-bed : her son, 
however, survived her, and was called Aero- 

AERUSCATORES : theGalli, or priests of Cy- 
bele, were named Aeruscatores mognae matris, 
on account of their begging in the streets, 
through which, to attraft notice, they rung 

the names of a divinity which presided over 
the coinage of copper, and was represented 
standing in the ordinary habit of a goddess, 
with an upright spear in the left hand, and a 
balance in the right. Aesculams, was also es- 
teemed to be thefather of^rgfCB/iniw, because 

brass money was used before rilver. Both had 
man J votaries. See Argeniinus. 

AESACUS, son of Priam and Alexothoe, daugh- 
ter of the river Cebrenus, or according to o- 
thers, of Dimas, was born privately under Mount 
Ida. Falling in love with the nymph Hesperia 
or Eperia, he pursued her, and she, bewildered 
by her fear, trod, as she fled from him, upon 
a serpent, whose bite occasioned her death.— 
Aesacus, that he might not survive her loss, 
threw himself headlong from a precipice Into 
the sea ; but before he had plunged into the 
water was turned into a wild duck. Apollo- 
dorus makes Aesacus son of Arisba, daughter 
of Merops, the first wife of Priam ; and says 
that his father united him in marriage to Ste- 
rope, who having died very young, he was so 
afflicted at the loss, that he flung himself into 
the sea ; he adds, that Priam having divorced 
Arisba, to marry Hecuba daughter of Cisseus, 
Aesacus, finding his mother-in-laW with child 
of her second son, foretold to his father that 
this child would one day prove the author of a 
bloody war, which would terminate in the ruin 
of Troy. From which prediflion, the child 
Paris, was exposedon Mount Ida. Tzetzes relates 
"that Priam, in consequence of a declaration 
from Aesacus, that it was necessary to put to 
death a mother and her child, who was to be 
that day bom, having learned that Cilia the 
wife of Timoetes was just delivered, sought, by 
the murder of her and her infant, to elude the 
force of the prediftion. Servius, upon the aiv 
thority of Euphorion, gives the story in the 
same manner; but an ancient poet cited by 
Cicero, in his first book of Divination, says it 
was the oracle of Zelia, a little town at the foot 
of Mount Ida, that delivered this response, as 
the interpretation of Hecuba's dream. Pausa- 
nias alleges it to have been the Sibyl Hiero- 
phyle who interpreted this dream ; while seve^ 
ral other authors ascribe the honour of it to 
Cassandra. Be that as it might, Apollodorus 
informs us further, that Aesacus had learned 
the art of prediflion from Merops or Meropus, 
as he is sometimes called, his grand-father: pro- 
bably, he left the principles of this art in his 
family, since Cassandra and Helenus, who were 
children of Priam, afterwards praaised it. 

AESCULAPIA. TheAesculapiaoftheRomanSj 

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the Anacta, the Musaca, and some others, were 
festivals borrowed from the Greeks, which both 
they and the Romans celebrated in honour of 
Aesculapius, the Dioscuroi (Castor and Pollux) 
and the Muses. 
AESCULAPIUS. The name ot Aesculapius, 
whom the Greeks call Asclepios, appears to 
have been foreign, and derived from the orien- 
tal languages. What confirms this conjedlure 
is, that Aesculapius was actually known in the 
eastern countries, before he was in Greece. — : 
Cicero remarks, that there were several persons 
who bore this name, the first of whom was the 
god of Arcadia, and son of ApoUo, who passes 
for the inventor of the probe, and the method 
of binding up wounds : the second, slain by a 
thunder-bolt, and interred at Cynesura, was bro- 
ther to the second Mercury : the third, who 
found out the use of purgatives, and the art of 
drawing teeth, was the son of Arsippus and Ar- 
sinoe ; his tomb is to be seen in Arcadia, where 
isa grove consecrated to him near the river Lu- 
«U8. But however well acquainted Cicero was 
with the religion of the Greeks and Romans, 
he appears to have known little of those systems 
whence it was drawn. Sanchoniatho, whose 
work was not translated in Gcero's time, names 
an Aesculapius yet more ancient, since he was 
the son of Sydik, or the Just, and one of the 
Titanidae. He was the eighth of his sons, and, 
as some will have it, brother to the Cabiri. — 
Marsham proves that there had been an Aescu- 
lapius king of Memphis, son of Menes, brother 
to Mercury the first, who lived about two hun- 
dred years after the deluge, and upwards of a 
thousand years before the Grecian Aesculapius. 
In short, Eusebius speaks of an Asclepios or Ae- 
sciUapius, whom he surnames Tosorthrus, an 
Egyptian and famous physician, to whom other 
'authors ascribe the glory of inventing architec- 
ture, and of contributing not a little to propa- 
gate in Egypt the use of letters, which Mercury 
had invented. It is not in Greece, therefore, 
but in Phoenicia-and Egypt, that we are to seek 
for the true Aesculapius. Being honoured as a 
god in these two coimtries, his worship passed 
into Greece, and was established, first at Epi- 
dauruB, a ci^ of Peloponnesus, bordering on 
the sea j where, probably, some colonies first 
settled; acircum^tancesufficientfor the Greeks 

to give out tlut this god was a native of Greece, 
Not to.recite all we are told of his parents, it 
will be enough to observe, that the opinion ge- 
nerally received in Greece, made him the son 
of Apollo, by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas ; 
and indeed the Messenians, who consulted the 
oracle at Delphi to know where Aesculapius 
was born, and of what parents, were told by 
the oracle, or more properly Apollo, that he 
himself was his father ; that Coronis was his 
mother ; and that their son was bom at Epidau< 
rus. Phlegyas, the most warlike man of his 
age, having gone into Peloponnesus, under pre- 
tence of travelling, but, in truth, to spy the 
country, carried his daughter Coronis thither, 
who, to conceal her pregnancy from her father, 
went to Epidaurus : there, she was delivered 
of a son, whom she exposed upon a mountain, 
called to this day Mount Titthion, or Oftbe 
Breast; butbeforethis adventure, Myrtion.from 
the myrtles that grew upon it. The reason of 
this change of name was, that the child, having 
been here 'abandoned, was suckled by one of 
those goats of the mountain, which the bitch of 
Aristhenes the goat-herd guarded, and which, 
as Laftantius and some others have it, assisted 
in suckling the infant. When Aristhenes came 
to review his flock, he found a she-goat and his 
dog missing, and going in search of them dis- 
covered the child, whom he would have carried 
to his home, had he not upon approaching to 
lift him from the earth, perceived his head en- 
circled with fiery rays, which made him believe 
the child to be divine. The voice of fame soon 
published the birth of a miraculous infant; upon 
which the people flocked from all quarters to be- 
hold this heaven-bom child. Others say that 
Coronis, though pregnant by Apollo, received 
Ischys the son ofEIatus; for which Diana, to 
revenge her brother's disgrace, slew her ; but 
as she lay upon the funeral pile. Mercury, or 
rather Apollo himself, is said to have rescued 
the child. On this, and the circumstance of 
her dying in child-bed, Ovid founded his fable ; 
which imports that Apollo, having learned from 
a raven the unfaithfulness of his mistress, ripped 
up her body with an arrow, took out the child . 
with whom she was pregnant, and sent him td 
be educated by Chiron the Centaur. As Coro- 
nis in the Greek language signifies a prow, hence 

E 2 

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another fable arose, importing, as-^e sec in Lu- 
cian, that Aesculapius had sprung from an egg 
of that bird, under the figure of a serpent. — 
Whatever these fictions may mean, Aesculapius 
being removed from the mount on which he was 
exposed, was nursed by Trigo or Trigone, who 
was probably the wife of the goat-herd that 
found him ; and when he was capable of im- 
proving by Chiron, Phlegyas (to whom he had 
doubtless been returned) put him underthe Cen- 
taur's tuition. Being of a quick and lively ge- 
nius, he made such progress as soon to become 
not only a great physician, but at length to be 
reckoned the god and inventor of medicine ; 
though the Greeks, not very consistent in the 
history of those early ages, gave to Apis, son 
of Phoroneus, the glory of having discovered 
the healing art. Aesculapius accompanied Ja- 
son in his expedition to Colchis, and in his me- 
dical capacity was of great service to the Argo- 
nauts. Within a short time after his death he 
was deified, and received divine honours: some 
add, that he formed the celestial sign, Serpen- 
tarius. He married Epione, whom somo call 
Lampetia ; by whom he had two sons, Machaon 
andPadalirius, and four daughters, Hygiea, Ae- 
gle. Panacea, and Jaso. His posterity, accord- 
ing to Pausanias, reigned in part of Messenia ; 
and it was thence that his two sons set out for 
the war of Troy. Some learned men of the last 
and present age assert, that there never was any 
other Aesculapius than the Egyptian and Phoe- 
nician, whom we have before mentioned ; but 
this is to advance an untenable opinion : the 
history now related is consistent in the main, 
and few accounts of that time are so coherent. 
We aflually find Aesculapius in the list of the 
Argonauts, and it is very obvious that his sons 
might be present at the war of Troy ; an event 
which so soon followed the Argonautic expedi- 
tion. It is unquestionable there was one Aescu- 
lapius in Phoenicia and another in Egypt, we 
therefore conclude that the worship of the for- 
mer was brought into Greece by the colony 
under Cadmus ; and of the latter, by that of 
Danaus, some ages before the Trojan war ; that 
this worship was adopted by the Greeks ; but 
thatafterwardsacelebrated physician, who lived 
in the time of Hercules, Jason, and the other 
Argonauts, having obtained divine honours, his 

worship came to be confounded witl^ thatwhicl* 
was paid his predecessor ; so that in process of 
time, the worship of the latter came to be for- 
gotten, and thatof thenewgod 8ut>&tituted in its 
room. As the Greeks always carried the enco- 
miums of their great men beyond the truth, so 
,they feigned that Aesculapius was so expert in 
medicine, as not only to cure the sick, but even 
to raise the dead. Ovid says hedid this by Hyp- 
politiis, and Julian says the same of Tyndarus : 
that Pluto cited him before the tribunal of Ju- 
piter, and complained that his wnpire was 
considerably diminished, and in danger of be- 
coming desolate, from the cures Aesculapius 
performed ; so that Jupiter in wrath slew Aes- 
culapius with a thunder-bolt; to which they 
added that Apollo, enraged for the death of his 
son, killed the Cyclops who forged JufMter's 
thunder-bolts : a fiction which obviously signi- 
fies only that Aesculapius had carried his art 
very far, and that he cured diseases believed to 
be desperate. The worship of the Grecian Aes- 
culapius was first established at Epidaurus, the 
place of his birth, and soon after propagated 
through all Greece. That this worship began 
in that town, says Pausanias, can be evinced 
from more proofs than one, fOT,*firat, his feast 
is celebrated with more pomp and magnificence 
at Epidaurusthan any where else; inthesecond 
place, the Athenians grant that this feast was 
derived to them from Epidaurus (accordingly 
they call it Epidauria) as well as the anniversary 
of the day in which the Epidaurians began to 
worship Aesculapius as agod. He was worship- 
ped at Epidaurus under the figure of a serpent, 
but was represented in his statues as a man, with 
his hair rising on his forehead like that of Jupi- 
ter, insomuch that there is but little difference 
between the father of the gods and his grand- 
son ; as is evident from a statue of Aesculapius 
larger than the human size, in the Villa Alba- 
ni, and from many other figures of the same 
divinity. The statue of him by Thrasimedes 
of Paros, formed of gold and ivory, resembled 
that of Olympian Jupiter at Athens, but was 
one half less, and represented him as seated on 
a throne, having a rod in one hand, and rest- 
ing the other on the head of a serpent, with a 
dog lying by him. Though he generally appears 
bearded, there was however one of his statues 

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without a beard, as we learn from Fausanias.— 
besides the temple built to this god at Epidau- 
yus, he had also a sacred grove there, within the 
bounds of which they neither allowed any sick 
person to die, nor any woman to lie in.— What- 
ever was sacrificed to the god, was to be con- 
sumed in the grove. This usage also was ob- 
served at Titana, where the same god was wor- 
shipped. Round the temple of Epidaurus was 
a great number of columns, upon which were 
inscribed the names of those who were indebted 
to this god for their cure, and they left repre- 
sentations of the parts of th«r bodies that had 
been cured. Pausanias tells us, that they used 
to feed tame snakes in his temple at Epidaurus, 
and he is seldom represented without this sym- 
bol. From Epidaurus, the worship of this new 
god passed first to Athens, and thence to several 
other cities of Greece. Archias having been 
wounded in the chace, came to Epidaurus to 
implore the assistance of Aesculapius^ and when 
he was cured, transferred his worship to Perga- 
muB, where this god was looked upon as the pa- 
tron and proteftor of Ihe city. Accordingly, 
we find him upon the medals of the Emperors, 
stricken at Pergamus. * In a medallion, on oc- 
casion of the peace between the Pergamenians 
and Mytelenians, this god appears with his 
wand and a serpent, standing by a goddess who 
ats ; probably Juno, the proteflress of the My- 
telenians. Upon another medal stricken at Per- 
gamus, we see Aesculapius with Fortune, to 
signify, no doubt, that the prosperity of the 
MytelenianswasowingtothejM-oteaion of Ae- 
sculapius. We also find him upon the medals of 
the Tilineans, which proves that they had like- 
wise adopted his worship. From Pergamusthe 
knowledge of him was propagated very soon to 
Smyrna, where a temple was built to him-upon 
the sea shore ; which was still subsisting in the 
* time of Pausanias. The island of Crete likewise 
received the same worship, witness the temple 
erected to him there. From Europe and Asia 
it was carried into Africa, the inhabitants of 
Balonogrus having also dedicated to him a tern- . 
pie : these even sacrificed to him goats, which 
the Eiwdaurians did not. The inhabitants of 
Titana sacrificed to him the bull, the lamb, and 
the hog ; and not contenting themselves with 
cutting oflf the thighs of the viftims, as in other 

sacrifices, they roasted them intire, all but the 
akins, which also were burnt upon the altars. — 
The cock and the serpent were especially con- 
secrated to him, and he is seldom represented 
without this last ^mbol. The Romans infest- 
ed with the plague, having consulted their, sa- - 
cred books, learned, that in order to be deli- 
vered from it, they were to go in quest of Aes- 
culapius at Epidaurus ; accordin^y an embassy 
was appointed of ten Senators, at the head of 
whom was Quintus Ogulnius. These ambassa- 
- dors on their arrival, repaired to the temple, 
when a huge serpent came from under the altar 
( some say a tame adder given them by the priests, 
which they said waa Aesculapius himselif) and 
crossing the city, went diraAly to their ship, 
and lodged itself in Ogulnius's cabin; upon 
which they immediately set sail, and arriving in 
the Tiber,, the serpent quitted the ship, retired 
to a little island, and hid itself among the reeds. 
It was believted the god had chosen this fiace 
for his residenice, and afler having there built 
him a temple> they lined all the borders of the 
island with a marble quay, under the figure of 
a large ship; Thus was the worship of Aescu- 
lapius established at Rome A. U. C. 462. This 
event is represented on a fine medallion in the 
King of France's cabinet, on the reverse of an 
Antonine. Father Tiber sitting upon the wa- 
ter, holds a bough in his left hand ; by him ap- 
pears the iriuid, which Plutarch calls Mesopo- 
tamia, because it was in the middle of that ri- 
ver : it has the form of a ship as it aAually had, 
and some remains of it still appear, which have 
escaped the injuries of time, and the inundations 
of the river : upon the ship's prow which repre 
: sentB the island, there is in the medal a wreath- 
ed serpent, making head against the current of 
the stream. The island « at present called St. 
Bartholomew.— A similar adventure happened, 
according to Pausanias, to the founders of .the 
city Limerk in Laconia, who sent likewise to 
seek for the god Aesculapius. The reason why 
the serpent is so often represented on his mo- 
numents is, either from its utility in niedicine, . 
or because it was the syml^l of prudence, a vir- 
tue highly neceswy in jAyaieians. The same 
god had also a temple at Atgae, a town in Gli- 
cia, which iwa 0(ae of the most celebrated, and 
likewise one;at Sicyon. Aesculapius is always 

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represented under the figure of a grave old : 
nun wrapped up in a cloak^ having sometimes 
upon his head Serapis's calathus, with a staff 
in his hand, which is commonly wreathed about 
with a serpent ; sometimes again uith a serpent 
in one hand, and a patera in the other ; some- 
times leaning upon a pillar, round which a 
serpent also twines. The cock, a bird conse- 
crated to this god, whose vigilance figures that 
quality which physicians ought to have, is some- 
times ^t the feet of his statues, and he is once 
represented with a cock on his hand. Socrates 
we know when dying, said to those who stood 
around him in his last moments. We owe a 
cock to Aesculapius ; give it without delay.—- 
Perhaps the origin of the fable may be deduced 
firom what follows : The public sign or symbol 
exposed by the Egyptians, to warn the people 
to mark the inundations of the Nile, in order to 
regulate their plowing up the land, was the fi- 
gure of a man with a dog's head, canrying a rod 
with serpents twisted round it, to which they 

■ gave the name of Anubis, from bannobeacb, a 
Phoenician term signifying the barker or wamer, 
ibaaut or tayaut, the dog, and from aisb, man, 
and calepb, dog, Aetcalepb, the man-dog, or Ae- 
sculapius. In process of time they made use of 
this i^presentation for a real king, who, by the 
study of physic, sought the preservation of his 
subjefts. Thus the dog and the serpent be- 
came the charaAeristics of AescutaiHus among 
the Greeks and Romans, whilst they were entire 
strangers to the original meaning of these hiero- 

AESON, son of Cretheus, by Tyro, daughter of 
Salmoneus king of EUs, was also brother of 
Pheres and Amythaon, and father of Jason by 
Polymela, or according to others, Alcymede. 
On the return of Jason from the Colchian ex- 
pedition, Medea, at his request, is said, by 
means of her magic skill, to have restored Aeson 
from extreme old age to youth and vigour. 
Some however contend, that Aeson died before 
Jason came back, being forced to drink bulls 
blood by Pelias the usurper. Ovid, Apollodo- 
rus, and Pausanifts suppose, that Aeson and Pe- 
lias were still alive at the return of the Argo- 
nauts, and that Aeson, through the debility of 
age, "being hardly able to support himself, Jason 
desired I/SfidcA his wifb to emjdoy some Kcret 

art to restore him to youth and strength. On 
this she left the palace, and mounting a chariot 
drawn by winged dragmis, which descended 
from heaven in her sight, she traversed several 
countries, and, gathering herbs of all kinds, 
composed a potion, then drew out the blood 
which flowed in A^^^'^ veins, and injected the 
fluid she had thus prepared. As soon as the 
mixture began to circulate through the old 
king's body, his bsu'd and his grey hairs be- 
gan to darken, the wrinkles of his face dis- 
appeared, and he recovered his pristine ani- 
mation. Mythologists give explications of this 
fable, on the supposition that Aeson was thua 
restored, and that both he and Pelias were alive 
at the return of the Argonauts from Colchis ; 
but unluckily these explications rest upon no- 
thing, and the fable, which was only invented 
to make Medea pass for a great sorceress, has 
no foundation in history. Amon had been 
forced by Pelias to drink bull's blood, and was 
dead before Jason's return ; as was also hiswife, 
who had strangled herself for grief. Pelias 
himself was likewise dead before the return of 
the Argonauts, of which his funeral games, cele- 
brated by those heroes, are a convincing proof. - 

AESONIDES, OR AESONIUSierw, Jason son of 

AESYETES, the person from whose tomb in the 
precinfts of Troy, PoUtes observed what was 
passing amongst the Grecian ships. 

AESYMNETES, a divinity worshipped at Patraa 
in Achaia. It appears to have been the statue 
of Bacchus, which Euripylus possessed. See 

Aesymnetes was also one of the appellations of 

AESYMNUS, a Grecian chief slain by Heaor. 

AETERNITAS. See Eternity. 

AETETA, a Laodicean woman, who, though 
living with her husband, was said to have be- 
come a man, and was called Aetetus. 

AETHALIDES, son of Mercury and Eupolemas, 
a native of Larissa, had the liberty from his 
father of being sometimes with the living, and 
sometimes with the dead, so that he knew what 
was passing amongst both. Laertius relates 
that Pythagoras, to prove the metempeycosis, 
asserted himself to be this very person. Aetha- 
lides was an Argonaut, and the hero deputed 




by Jason to Hypaipyla aqueen of the Amazons. 
He was also with Telamon dispatched to king 
Aeeta to demand the serpent's teeth, according 
to Apollonius. By the mother's side he was of 
the race of the AeoIideSj since she was daughter 
of Fisidice, sister of Cretheus. This fable seems 
built upon the oflSce of Aethelides, which office 
obliged him, as herald of the Argonauts, to be 
often present, often absent from the army, and 
obliged him to be exacStly informed of all that 

AETHEREA, a surname of Pallas, and other 
aerial divinities, taken from the fabulous origin 
of the Palladium. 

AETHIOPS, according to some authors, was son 
of Vulcan by Aglaia, one of the Graces, and 
from him the Aethiopians had their name, who 
before were called Aethereans: others, how- 
ever, are not clear whether he was his son by 
Aglaia, or by some of those heroines or god- 
desses with whom Vulcan is said to have had 
frequent intercourse. 

AETHLIUS, the son of Jupiter by Protogenia, 
and father of Endymion, is supposed to have 
been one of the institutors of the Olympic 

Also one of the sons of Acelus, who was sur- 
named Jupiter. 

AETHON, a surname given to Erisichthon, for 
his insatiable gluttony. 

Likewise a name given to the four black horses of 
Pluto by the poets. The Sun, Pallas, and Hec- 
tor had each of them one so called. 

AETHRA, daughter of Pittheus and Clymene, 
wife of Aegeus, and mother of Theseus. When 
Castor and Pollux made war upon the Athe< 
nians for the recovery of their sister Helen, 
who had been stolen away by Theseus, and 
took Athens by storm, they were so merciful 
as to spare all the Athenians, except Aethra, 
whom they carried off captive from Aphidnae, 
whither she had retired with Helen, whom she 
afterwards accompanied to Troy. Pausanias 
explaining a picture of Polygnotus, adds, that 
Aethra was represented in it with her head 
shaved, as a mark of her slavery, and Demo- 
phoon, her grandson, in the posture of a man 
in distress, anxious to have her set at liberty. 
The poet Leschus writes, that Demophoon see- 
ing in the. Grecian camp Aetbra with the other 

slaves, after the taking of Tl-oy, demanded her 
of Agamemnon, but that he gave her not up 
till Helen had consented to it. Plutarch, cit- 
ing Iliad HI. 189. (where Homer thus mentt«ns 
Helen's slaves : " Her handmaids Clymene and 
Aethra wait,") says, several authors consider 
that verse as spurious. The history tif the cap- 
tivity of Theseus's mother is, however, affirmed 
by a variety of authors. 

There was another Aethra, wife of Atlas, who 
bore him seven daughters, the Hyades. 

AETOLIUS beros, Diomedes king of Aetolia, a 
province of Greece. 

AETHUSA, daughter of Neptune, had, by Apol- 
lo, a son called Elutherus. 

AETNA, mother of the Palici. 

AETNAEUS, a name given to Vulcan, either 
because his forges were under Mount Aetna, or 
on account of the volcanoes and fiery eruptions 
there ; or else, because he had a temple dedi- 
cated to him upon that mountain ; which tem- 
ple was guarded by dogs, whose sense of smell- 
^ing was so exquisite, that they could discern 
whether the persons who came thither were 
chaste and religious, or whether they were 
corrupt and wicked. They used to meet, fawn 
upon, and follow the good, esteeming them the 
acquaintance and friend of their master Vulcan, 
but snarled and flew at the bad, and never 
ceased tearing them, till they had driven them 
from their range. 

AETOLUS, grandson of Aetlius and Calyce, 
and son of the famous Endymion by the nymph 
Kais, (or, as some say, IHana) retired to the 
Cup'etes, and called their country Aetolia. Of 
Aetolus and Pronoe, daughter of Phorbas, were 
bom Pleuron and Calydon, noted for the cities 
they built in that coimtry. 

AETUS: the Nile appears from Lycrophron to 
have been so called, as though its current were 
as rapid as the l]ightofan£^/£(M(T^). There 
was also a river of this name in Scythia, which 
from its frequent inundations over the fertile 
country of Prometheus, has been said to have 
given rise to the fable of his liver continuing 
to grow, though constantly devoured by an 

AFAR, OR AFER, was, according to some, son of 
Hercules by Melita, daughter of the river 
Aegeus, whd gave her name to Uk island and 

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A a A 

city of Malta : others say that Hyllus, not Afar> 
was the name of this son by Melita. 

AFRAE sorores, the African sisters ; that is, the 

AFRICA. It ia necessary here to observe, that 
the ancients abounded in allegorical beings 
much more than is usually imagined ; for 
they had deities relating to our world which 
are but little known. Each city, street, house^ 
and person, woods, fields, and gardens, had 
theif peculiar deities ; and the very rocka, 
mountains, and rivers, were turned into per- 
sonages. Shall we wonder then if the three 
great divisions of the world, Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, were also represented as persons by the 
ancient poets and artists, especially when the 
several kingdoms andprovinces of each appear 
upon medals in their personal characters } Ac- 
cordingly figures of Africa are frequently to 
be met with both on gems and coins, some of 
which exhibit her with the elephant-helmet, so 
often mentioned by C^udian, and attended by 
a lion'; others, with a scorpion in her hand, 
or an elephant at her -feet. Oxen are also used 
as attributes of Africa, in the works of the an- 
cient artists, and often com, or a basket of se- 
veral sorts of fruit; for as the ancients were 

■ chiefly acquainted with the Lower Egypt, and 
the sea-coast of Afric toward the Mediterra- 
nean, this part of the world seems to have been 
disUnguished among them by its fertility. 

AFRICUS, Ab the different regions of the world 
were personified, so also were the elements of 
nature; hence the winds had their distinA 
figures, and Africus, or the South West, is 
described by Silino Halicus with dusky wii^s. 

AGACLEUS. SfxEpigeus. 

AGAMEDE. See Perimede. 

AGAMEDES and Trophonius his brother, were 
sons of Erginus king of Orchomenos. Both 
became celebrated architects ; the temple of 
Apollo at Delphos, and treasury at Hyreus be- 
ing their joint workmanship. In constructing 
the latter thjs brother? had recourse to a stra- 
tagem known only to themselves, for, by means 
of a loose stone in the wall, which they could 
move, out or in, without being lial?Ie to disco- 
very, they had access every night to tliis trea- 
sury, and robbed Hyreus of his money, who, 
observing his wealth purloined, yet, without 

any appearance of the door being opened, set 
traps about the vessels which contained his 
gold. Agamedes was caught, and Trophonius 
not knowing how to extricate him, yet fearing 
lest, if put to the torture, he should discover 
the secret, cut off his brother's head. Pausa- 
nias gives no account of the life of Trophonius; 
but as to the manner of his death tells us, that 
the earth opened and swallowed him alive, and 
that the place where it happened is still called 
Agamedes' Pit, which is to be seen in a sacred 
grove of Lebadea, with a pillar set over it. 
Plutarch, who cites Pindar, relates the death 
of these brothers diflferently. He tells us, that 
after building the temple of Delphi, thefoun- 
xlation of which was laid by Apollo himself, as 
it is in Homer, the brothers asked their reward 
of the god, who ordered them to wait eight 
days, and in the mean time to make merry ; 
at the end, however, of this time, they were 
found dead. 
AGAMEMNON, brother of Menelaus, was son 
of Atreus king of Argos by Aerope, daugh- 
ter of Eurystheus, king of the same country ; 
though some say (amongst whom are Euse- 
bius and Scatiger), that they were not sons of 
Atreus, but of his brother Plisthenes, whose 
actions not having deserved honourable men- 
tion in history, his life being spent in obscu- 
rity, the ancients, and especially Homer, to 
honour the memory of the chief of so many 
kings, industriously made Agamemnon and 
Menelaus pass for the sons of Atreus, who had 
brought them up ; and gives them always the 
name of the Atridae, Atreus being slain by 
his nephew Aegisthus, son of his brother Thy- 
estes, Thyestes ascended the throne of Atreus, 
and banished his nephews Agamemnon and 
Menelaus, who having fled to the coast of Po- 
IjT>hides king of Sicyon, were sent by him to 
Oeneus king of Oechalia, from whom they re- 
ceived in marriage Clytemnestra and Helen, 
daughters of Tyndarus king of Sparta, by whose 
assistance they resolved to revenge the death 
of their father, and pursued Thyestes vigo- 
rously, but he having fled for refuge to an 
altar of Juno, they spared his life, contenting 
themselves with banishing him to the island of 
Cythera. Thus, Agamemnon ascended the 
throne of Argos, )v} he transferred to My- 

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cenaei and his brother Menelatu succeeded Ty n • 
dams hU father-in-law on the Spartan thnme. 
The war against Troy being about this time 
resolved on, a general assembly of the states 
of Greece was held at Argosy or rather Mycenae, 
where Agamemnon reigned, the most powerful 
prince of Greece ; or, if we regard father Har- 
douin> at Larissa, the court of Peleus, father of 
Achilles, a [vince more powerful by sea than 
the rest, and consequently more necessary upon 
this occasion. Agamemnon was unanimously 
declared commander of the army, and fitted 
out so many ships, that he lent part of them to 
the Arcadians imder the conduct of Agapenor. 
Homer, in the second Iliad, makes their num- 
ber amount to one hundred. Being now ob- 
liged to leave his own court, Agamemnon was 
reconciled to Aegisthua, and entrusted him 
with the care of his wife Clytemnestra, and his 
three children, Orestes, Iphigenia, and EteAra. 
The conduft erf" Agamemnon before Troy, is too 
well known to be here recapitulated. As for 
bis tragical fate upon his return to Greece, to- 
gether with that of Cassandra and her children, 
brought about by the criminal intrigues of Cly- 
temnestra and Aegisthus, a full account of them . 
may be found under the articles Cassandra, 
Clytemnestra, Aegisthus, Orestes, Iphice- 
VIA. Pausanias informs us, that the remains 
of the tombs of Agamemnon, of Eurymedon 
his charioteer, and of all those whom Agamem- 
non brought back from Troy, and Aegisthus 
cut off* at the entertainment he gave them, 
might be seen- at Mycenae, near that of Tele- 
damus and Pelops, as well as of the twinswhom 
Cassandra had by Agamemnon, and whom 
Aegisthus murdered without pi^ to their ten- 
der age, after haying embrued his hands in the 
blood of their parents. In representing this 
hero, attention should be pud to that eleva- 
tion and prominence of chest, which Homer 
attributes both to Neptune and to him. 
AGAMEMNONIDES, Orestes, the son of Aga- 

AGAMESTOR, a charafler in the second book of 

the Argonautics of Apollonius. 
AGANICE, or AGLAONICE, the daughter of 
Hegemon or Hegetor, a Thessalian ; having 
learned the cause and the time of eclipses, gave 
out, whenever any was to happen, that she was 
Vol. I. 

going by her enchantments to draw down the 
moon to the earth, at the same time directing 
the Thessalian women to join with her in mak- 
ing a hideous noise to cause the planet to re- 
ascend to her orb ; accordingly, whenever they 
perceived the beginning of an eclipse, they 
raised a clattering din with brazen vessels and 
other instruments. 
AGANIPPE, a fountain of Mount Helicon in 
Boeotia, on the borders of Phocis, sacred to the 
Muses, and running into the river Permesseus. 
Ovid seems to make Aganippe and Hippocrene 
the same ; but SoHnus, more accurate, distin- 
guishes them.and ascribes theconfoundingthem 
to poetical licence. Aganippe was said to have 
been the daughter of Permesseus, and changed 
into a fountain, which, as its waters had the 
virtue of insjMring poets, was therefore conse- 
crated to the Muses. 
tions of the Muses, from the fountain of Mount 
Helicon, called Aganippe. 
AGAPENOR, the son of Ancaeus, after his fa- 
ther, reigned in Arcadia, and was one of the 
princes who would have married Helen. He 
went to the siege erf" Troy, and re-inforced the 
Greeks with a ileet of sixty ships. After the 
destruction of that city, he was driven by a 
storm to Cyprus, where he founded Paphos, 
and remained. 
AGASTHENES, king of Elis, son ftf Augeaa, 
and father of Polyxenus, went with the Greeks 
against Troy. Qt 

AGASTROPHUS, a Paeonian, wK6 was slain at 

the siege of Troy by Diomed. 
AGATHODAEMONES, or Benefketit Genu, a 
name given by the Pagans to those dragons 
and flying serpents, which they honoured as 
AGATHON, one of the nine surviving sons of 
Priam after the death of Heftor. Homermen- 
tions him in the twenty-fourth Iliad. 
AGATHYRNUS, son of Aeolus, who gave his 
. name to a city which he built in Sicily. 
AGyVTHYRSUS, son of Hercules, and father of 
a rich but cruel people Imrdering on the Scy- 
thians, who were called after him. 
AGAVE, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, 
whom Hyginus calls Harmonia, married Echion 
king of Thebes, by whoni she had Pentheus, 

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whom she, with her sisters Ino and Autonoe, 
tore piece.meal asunder, for contemning the 
rights of Bacchus. 

Agave was also the name of one of the Nereids ; 
of one of the daughters of Danaus ; and of an 

AGAVUS, one of the sons of Priam. 

AGDESTIS AND AGDISTIS, an androgynous 
monster, the offspring of Jupiter and the stone 
Agdus. It was the terror both of men and gods, 
and was worshipped by the Greeks as a power- 
ful genius. 

AGDUS, an immense stone from which Deuca- 
lion and Pyrrha took those which they threw 
- over their heads to people the world. Jupiter, 
enamoured of this stone, changed it into a wo- 
man, who bore to him Agdistis. 

AGELAS, OR AGELAUS, one of the pretenders 
to Penelope iil the absence of Ulysses. 

AGELASTUS, an epithet of Pluto among the 
Greeks ; because all mirth and laughter were 
banished his dominions. 

AGELIA, a surname of Minerva. 

AGENOR, son (rf" Pleuron, brother of Calydon, 
sons of Aetolus and Pronoe, married his cousin 
Icarte, daughter of Calydon, and had by her 
four children, among whom was Althaea, who 
having married Oeneus, became mother of Me- 
leager, whom she devoted to the Furies. There 
were several other personages so called, of whom 
one was king of Phoenicia, and father of the ce- 
lebrated Europa. Apollodorus informs us that 
Libya had two sons by Neptune, Belus, and A- 
genor ; and that the latter, having removed into 
Europe, married Telephassa, by whom he had 
three sons, Cadmus, Phoenix, and Celix, and 
one daughter, named Europa ; though there 
are historians, according to the same author, 
who assert that Europa was daughter of Phoe- 
nix, and grand-daughter of Agenor. See Cad- 
mus, Europa. 

One of the kings of Argos was named Agenor, 
as was one of the sons of Antenor, whom Elpe- 
nor, leader of the Abantians, killed before 

AGENORI A, OR AGERONA, the goddess of in- 
dustry, called also Strenua. To her was oppos- 
ed Murcia, the goddess of sloth. 

AGEROCHUS, the son of Nereus and Chloris. 

AGERONIA, OH ANGERONl A. Silence, or the 

art of governing the tongue, is a virtue per- 
, haps greater and more rare than is commonly 
thought : The ancients were so oendble of this, 
as to make it a divinity. This is what the Ori- 
entals worshipped under the name of Harpo- 
crates, and the Romans, who made her a god- 
dess, called her Ageronia or Angeronia. The 
feast instituted in honour of her, was celebrated 
every year on the twenty-first day of Decern ber> 
in the temple of the goddess Volupia or Plea- 
sure, where this goddess had her statue. We 
learn from Julius Modestus, that the Romans, 
affliSed with the quinsey, had recounse to Age- 
ronia. It is also said, that when their cattle 
were once almost wholly destroyed by a 
disease of this sort, they aflfered vows to this' 
goddess, and she removed the plague. These 
benefits gave rise to the sacrifices that were re- 
gularly offered to her afterwards. Pliny calls 
her the goddess of silence and calmness of mind, 
who banishes all uneasiness and melancholy.— 
Her statue was placed in the temple of Volupia, 
to shew that a patient enduring of affliflion leads 
to pleasure. It is said that Numa Pompilius 
regulated the worship of this deity, under the 
name of Tacita. AgeroniaisrejM-esented under 
the figure of a woman, who, Harpocrates-Iike, 
holds a finger to her mouth. Sometimes her 
statues are charged with symbtds, as those of 
that god. Thus, in that published by Maffei, 
she carried upon her head the calathus of Se- 
rapis, and holds in her hand the club of Her- 
cules, whilst at her side she has the caps of 
Castor and Pollux, surmounted with the two 
stars of those gods. 
AGES. The four diflferent ages, or gradations 
of the life of man, seem to have been personally 
represented by the ancients^ as appears evident 
from a pi(5ture found at the villa Corsina, near 
Rome." It is a thing of much curiosity, says the 
author c^ Polymetis, and seems to contain some 
of the greatest depths of the Platonic philosophy. 
Tellus is there in a reclined posture, and behind 
her four stalks of corn growing gradually above 
one another, probably to symbolize the four 
ages of man, infancy, youth, manhood, and old 
age, which are in the same piece represented as 
BO many personages ; the first stooping towards 
Tellus, the second with a shield and spear, the 
third in d steady posture, and the foui^th bend- 

Digjtized by 


ing a little downward. But there are other fi. 
gures in it, which well demand observation.— 
The person in the air, bending downward, and 
delivering a naked figure into the hands of Tel- 
lus, denotes the entrance of a soul into some 
elementary body. Whether for the first time or 
after many various transhiigrations, we pretend 
not to determine ; but it is plainly delivered 
down to the earth, and is to be clothed with 
some sort of body. The person sitting on 
the clouds toward the centre, with a cup in 
her hand and pointing upwards, may very 
well be Hebe, and seems placed here to express 
the immortality of the souL As to the four 
personages. Infancy, Youth, Manhood, and Old 
Age, on whose account this article is introdu- 
ced, it cannot be said that the Roman poets of the 
better ages speak of them all, personally. To 
say the truth, they seem commonly to have di- 
vided the life of man rather into two ages than 
four. Youth, which among the Romans was 
carried on as far as fbrty-five, and Old Age, 
which may fairly enough claim all the rest. Of 
both these their poets, and more particularly 
some of the Augustan age, speak in a manner 
which plainly shews that they were received as 
personages and deities in their religion. 

AGES OF THE WORLD. The state of the world 
amongst the ancients was reduced to four ages, 
or periods of life j vix. the golden, the silver, 
the brazen, and the iron, to which these names 
were assigned according to the character- of 
each. The first, called the golden age, was 
under the reign of Saturn, when tranquillity, 
abundance, andhapjMness universally prevailed. 
The silver age succeeded, in which change of 

' seasons was first experienced, the spontaneous 
productions of the earth ceased, and the arts of 
life became necessary to supply the deficiencies 
of nature. In this period Jupiter began to reign, 
«ild ijien inclined tp vice. The third was nam- 
ed the brazen age, in which property began to 
be ascertained, avarice appeared, remote regi- 
ons of the world were visited, and the bowels 
of the earth ransacked for wealth. Thefourth, 
stiled the iron age, was characterised by the 
prevalence of violence, oppression, war, and 
every species of crime. 

AGESILAUS, a name given to Plyto, from his 
di^wsal of the dead. 3 


AGETES, OR AGETIS, son of Apollo and Cyrene, 
and brother of Aristheus. 

AGETOREION.AGETORI A: Grecian festivals 
mentioned by Hesychius, without any notice of 
the deity to whose honour they were observed. 
It is not improbable they might belong to Apol- 
lo, (at least the latter of them) and be tlie same 
with the Lacedemonian K«(iMi«. This conjecture 
is grounded on the words of Hesychius, who 
tells us that Ayrmt was the name of the person 
consecrated to the god at the K«fviia, and that 
the festival itself was termed Aynrofi*, which 
name seems to have been derived from a.yu, that 
festival being obsei'ved in imitation of fpwTiuTucn 
ayajyji, or the military way of living, as Athe- 
naeus and Eustathius have observed. It is not 
unlikely that the former belonged to Venus, 
whose priest, as Grammarians inform us, was 
called AynTCd^, in Cyprus. 

AGEUS, OR ARGEUS, the same as Agetes. 

AG IS, a Lycian slain by Valerus. See the tenth 

AGLAIA, See Nireus. 

AGLAIA, one of the Graces or Charities, was, ac- 
cording to Homer, married to Vulcan. Shewas 
called Aglaia from her cheerfulness, beauty, and 
worth,to8hew that benefits ought to be perform- 
ed freely and generously. See Graces. 

AGLAONICE. See Aganice. 

AGLAOPE, one of the Sirens. 

AGLAOPES, a name given by the Lacedemoni- 
ans to Aesculapius. 

AGLAOPHOENA, one of the Sir«ns. 

AGLAUROS, one of the three nurses of Erich- 
thonius, son of Neptune, whom Minerva is fa- 
bled to have sustained some time in her thigh. 
And afterwards to have committed to the care of 
Aglauros, Pandrossos, and Herse, daughters 
of Cecrops, king of Athens, with striCl cau- 
tion not to look into the cradle or coflTer which 
held him ; but the first and last negleCling this 
advice, ran mad. Aglauros was turned by En- 
vy into a stone. Ovid, in the second book of 
his Metamorphosis, asagns another reason for 
^isMetamorphosisof Aglauros, vix, thatMer- 
cury being in love with her sister Herse, in- 
treated Aglauros to assist him in his amour, but 
she requiring gold in rewiurd for this service, 
Minerva was so highly offended at her avarice, 
that she cpmmanded Envy to harrass her with 
F 2 





the good luck of her sister Heree^ and afler being 
thus tormented for a long time> she then turn- 
ed her to stone. Porphyry informs us, that in 
the city CoroniSj which Cecrops rebuilt, and 
which was afterwards called Salamis, a custom 
was established in honour of Aglauros his daugh- 
ter, of sacrificing every year a human victim ; 
which custom was of long continuance, and, 
^ler the death of Diomed, transferred to him. 
The unfortunate vi6tim was conduced to the 
temple, and after having been led thrice round 
the altar, the priest first transfixing his body 
with a spear, immediately laid it upon a fune- 
ral pile. Dephilus, king of Cyprus, abolished 
this detestable ceremony in the time of Seleu- 
cus, exchanging the human sacrifice for that of 
an ox. 

AGL AUS, a poor Phrygian, whom Apollo judged 
more happy than Gyges, because he had never 
travelled further than his own ground. 

cient Syrian deities of Palmyra. They are re- 
presented, in an antique Roman monument, 
under the figure of young men, placed in the 
frmitispiece of a temple, with a pine-tree be- 
tween them- It is probable that, in the name 
Aglibolus, the two last syllables, bolus, are the 
same as belus in the name Malacbbelm, and that 
belm is the same as Beknus, another name of 
Apollo or the Sun. Herodian relates of the 
Emperor Aurelian, that he built a magnificent 
temple to the Sun, and enriched it with pre- 
cious gifts brought from Palmyra ; and that he 
set up in this temple the statues of the Sun and 
Bel, which statues were probably brought from 
Palmyra ; and, as it appears by an ancient in- 
scription, that Aglibolus and Malachbeluswere 
the tutelar deities of that country, it is highly 
probable they were the same as the Sun and Bel, 
whose statues Aurelian placed in his new-built 
temple. The inscription on a bas-relief in 
Montfaucon b to this efife6t. Titus Aurelius 
Heliodorus Adriaiius of Palmyra, son to Anti- 
ochus, offered and consecrated at his own ex- 
pence to Aglibolus and Malachbelus, the gods 
of his country, this marble, and a token or 
small silver statue, for the jsveervation of him- 
self, his wife and children, in the year five hun- 
dred and forty -seven, 'in the month Peritius. 
This bas-relief, which is what is called an ex 

voto, represents the frontispiece of a temj^e, 
supported by two columns, on which are two 
figures of young persons, between whom is a 
tree, which some antiquaries call a pine, but 
it is more probably a palm, the city of Palmy, 
ra being named from that tree. On the right 
side of the tree is the god Aglibolus, under the 
figure of a young man habited in a tunic, tuck* 
ed up from the waist ; so that it reaches only 
down to the knee» and over it he has a kind of 
cloak, holding in his left hand a little stick, 
made in the form of a roller. The right arm, 
in which he probably held something else, 
is broken off On the other side of the tree is 
the god Malachbelus, representing likewise a 
young man, dressed in a military habit, with 
a cloak about his shoulders, a radiant crown 
upon his head, and having behind him a cres- 
cent whose two horns jut out on each side. — 
The inscnption sufficiently informs us that Ag- 
libolus and Malachbelus were Syrian divinities, 
since they are called gods of his country. ; but 
what gods did they represent? Letushearthe 
learned Spon, whose opinion has not been con- 
tradicted. Some authors, says he, will have 
it that those two figures represented the sum- 
mer and winter Sun, but as one of the two has 
a crescent behind him, it is more credible they 
are the Sun and Moon. Kor is there any thing 
strange to find the Moon represented by ayoung 
man, since it is certain that frequently both 
sexes were given to the gods, and that there 
was the god Lunus. As to Aglibolus, there is 
no doubt but he was the Sun, for the Syrians 
might very probably pronounce this name so, 
as others called Baal Belenus, Bel, or Belus ; 
the change of the e into o is but a small matter 
in the different dialects cS a language ; but the 
word Agli is unintelligible, unless we admit 
the conjefture of the learned Malaval, who 
makes this word to signify the light sent from the 
Sun ; which he confirms by the authority of He- 
sychius, who reckons among the epithets of the 
Sun of AiyAwiK. Now it is no wonder that the 
Greeks pronounced.<^/ito/0;, iiutead ofAegletes 
Belos. Further, that the Palmyrene worship- 
ped the Sun is a faA not to be doubted. He- 
rodian, as we have already seen, after describ- 
ing the happy success of Aurelian, who made 
himself master of Palmyra, tells us he built at 

y Google 





Rome, in memory of that vi(5^ory, a stately 
temple, where h? put the spoils of the Palmy- 
renes ; and among other things, the statues of 
the Sun and of Belus. As for Malachbelus, as 
this word is compounded of two others, viz. 
Malacb, which signifies U^, and Baal, which 
imports lord ; and as this god is represented 
with a crescent and crown, it is certain he re- 
presents the Moon, or the god Lunus. The 
scripture frequently designs the Moon by the 
epithet of Queen of Heaven. The prophet Je- 
remiah, condemning the custom of offering 
cakes to that goddess, expresses himself thus : 
Let U8 sacrifice to the Queen of Heaven, and 
offer libations to her. 

AGLOAPHEME, one of the Syrens. 

AGNITA, OR AGNITES, a surname of Aescu- 

AGNO, OR HAGNO, one of the nymphs that 
nursed Jupiter. She gave her name to a foun- 
tain, concerning which many fabulous wonders 
were told. 

AGON, signified one of the-ministers employed 
in the sacrifices, whose business it was to strike 
the viftim. There were Agones for certain 
days, in most of the ancient feasts and other 
ceremonies in honour of the gods or heroes. 
Agon, among the ancients, also implied any 
contest, whether it had regard to bodily exer- 
cise, or the accomplishments 6f the mind ; and 
therefore, poets, musicians, painters, &c. had 
their contentions^ as well as the Athletae. Games 
of this kind were celebrated at most of the 
festivals, with great solemnity, either annu- 
ally, or at certain periods of the year. Among 
the games. celebrated at Athens were the Agon 
Gymnicus, and Agon Nemeus, instituted by 
the Argives, in the 53d Olympiad, and the 
Agon Olytnpius, by Hercules, 430 years before 
the first Olympiad, The Romans also, in imi- 
tation of the Greeks, instituted games of th-s 
kind. The emperor Aurelian established one 
under the name of Agon Solis, the contest of 
the Sun ; and Dioclesian another, which he 
called Agon CapitoUnus, which was celebrated 
every fourth year, after the manner of the 
Olympic games ; hence the years, instead of 
lustra, are sometimes numbered by Agones. 
•Agon Adrianalis was that instituted at Athens 
by the emperor Adrian. Agon Iselaslicus, was 

instituted at Puzzuoli by the emperor Anto- 
ninus Pius. It was a sacred combat, and the 
victors at it were called Hieronicae, and were 
to be received into the city through a breach 
in the wall made on purpose. Agon Musicus 
was that in which either poets or musicians 
disputed for the prize ; such was the contest 
dedicated to Ptolemy, to Apollo, and the Mu- 
ses, with rewards assigned to those writers who 
gained the viftory. There were also of this 
kind in the Pythian, Nemaean, and Isthmian 
games; and in the Olympic games after^ Ne- 
ro's time, who first introduced a musical Agon. 
Others were founded by the emperor Domi- 
tian, at Rome, Naples, and Alba, &c. There 
was an ancient Greek traft under the title of 
' Tbe Agon of Homer and Hes'wd, supposed to be 
a narrative of the dispute of these two poets 
at the funeral of Amphidamus and Calchis, 
before king Panidis, brother of the deceased, 
who gave the prize, a tripod, to Hesiod. Many 
ancient authors mention this contest, and sume 
moderns have suspe^ed the whole for a fi^ion. 
The learned Fabricius, though he supposes the 
book above mentioned, to have been ^amed by 
some admirer of Hesiod, yet admits the reality 
of some such dispute, and thinks it might have 
happened when Homer was very old, and He- 
siod young ; but this opinion is liable to chro- 
nological difficulties. — AgonNeromanus, a quin- 
quennial contest, called also Neronian, from 
the name of its institutor, who here \^t^ away 
thie prize for playing on the {citbara) harp.- — 
Agon is also used for a place near the I'iber, 
otherwise called the river Circus, wherein Cu- 
rule games and combats were celebrated. 

AGONALES, an epithet given to the Salii, con- 
secrated by Numa Pomi»lius to the god Mars. 

AGONALIA, feasts celebrated by the Romans 
in honour of Janus, whom they invoked before 
undertaking any affair of importance, or, as 
some will have it, in honour of the god Ago- 
nitxs, whom the Romans are also said to have 
invoked on similar occasions. Authors vary 
as to the etymology of this solemnity, some 
deriving it from Mount Agonus, afterwards 
Mons Quirinalis, whereon it was held ; whilst 
others suppose it taken from the games and 
wrestling matches, called by the Greeks tepms- 





The Agonalia were by some said to have been 
instituted by Nunia Pompllius in honour of 
Janus, whose feast was held on the 9th of Ja- 
nuary, and attended with solemp exercises 
and combats; but others say, they were observed 
three times in the year, viz. on the-llth of Ja- 
nuary, the 21st of May, and 13th of December. 
We learn from Varro, that in the Agonalia 
they sacrificed a ram. 

to have been much the same with Agonotheta, 
though some suggest a difference, making it 
the office of the former to preside at, and di- 
reft the private exercises of the Athletae, which 
they went through by way of praftice, before 
they made their appearance in public. 

AGONIUM, in Roman antiquity, was used for 
the day on which the Rex Sacrorum sacrificed a 
viftim, as well as for the place where the games 
called Agon were celebrated. 

AGONOTHETA, a magistrate chosen among 
the Greeks, to preside and have the superin- 
tendency of their sacred games and combats; 
to defray the expences of them ; and adjudge 
the prizes to the conquerors. Some make a 
difference between the Athlotheta and Agono- 
theta, urging, that the latter fH-esided only at 
the Scenic games, and the former at the Gym- 
nic ; but the distinction seems without foun- 
dation. Middle-age writers usually confound 
Agonistae, the combitants at the games, with 
the Agonothetae, or presidents of them. The 
Agonotheta had the immediate charge of the 
manner of life, discipline, and morals of the 
Athletae : it was their office to examine and 
admit, or expel them the society or order. 

, During the combats, the Agonothetae were 
clothed in purple, and rode in a triumphant 
manner through the Circus, holding in their 
hands "an ivory sceptre, with an eagle on it 
At first there was only one Agonotheta ; in 
the fifth Olympiad a second was added, and in 
the twenty-fifth Olympiad, seven more. Of 
these, three had the direction of the horse- 
races, as many of the pentathlos, and the rest 
of the other exercises. 

AGORAEUS, an appellation given to those dei- 
ties who had statues in the public markets or 
fora. The word is Greek, formed of »yofa, a 
niarket, in which sense we meet with Mercury 

Agoraeus at Athens, Sicyon, Thebes, Sparta, 
&c. Minerva Agoraea was in extraordinary 
veneration among the Lacedemonians. - 

AGRAEUS, a name of Apollo from his feeding 
cattle. Also, a name of the god Aristaeus. 

AGRAl, one of the Titans. 

AGRANIA, OR AGRIANIA,afesUvaI celebrated 
at Argos, in memory of one of the daughters 
of king Praetus. 

AGRAULIA, a festival at Athens in honour of 
Agraulos, or Aglauros, daughter of Cecrope, 
and priestess of Minerva, to whom she gave 
the surname of Aglauros, and, who was wor- 
shipped in a temple dedicated to her. The 
Cyprians also honoured her with an annual 
festival in the month Aphrodtsius, at which 
they offered human vi6lims ; and this custom 
is said to have continued to the time of Dio- 
medes. See Aglauros. 

AGRESTIS, an epithet of Pan. 

AGREUS, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, and 
father of Aristaeus. 

There was another person of this name. See 

AGRIA, daughter of Oedipus, king of Thebes, 
and sister of Antigone, were both put to death 
by Creon, king of Thebes. See ArO^onet 

AGRIODOS, that is FUrce-tootb, was one of the 
dogs of A^laeon. 

AGRIOI. The Titans were worshipped under 
Uiis appellation. 

AGRIONIA, festivals annually celebrated by th6 
Boeotians in honour of Bacchus. At these fes- 
tivals the women pretended to search for Bac- 
chus as a fugitive, and, after some time, gave 
over their enquiry, saying, he was fled to the 
Muses, and was concealed among them. Large 
quantities of ivy were used on these occasions, 
because that plant was accounted sacred to 
Bacchus; and so great excesses were some- 
times committed, that once the daughters of 
Minya, king ofOrchomenbs, in an extacy of 
devotional furor, slaughtered Hippasus, son of 
Leucippe, and served him up at table ; in me< 
mory of which horrid aft, the whole familj 
was ever after excluded from this festival upoi 
pain of death, which Plutarch reports, was ir 
flifted on one of them, who had surreptitious' 
guned admission, by means of Zollus, a Cha 

ized by 





roriian priest. Some writers s:^, this ceremony 
seems to signify, that the Muses can restore 
those to reason, whom Bacchus had rendered 
mad by intemperance. 
AGRIOPE, wife of. Agenor. Eurydice wift of 

Orpheus, was likewise so called. 
AGRIUS andLATINUS, were said to be sons of 
Ciyce, daughter of the Sun, by Ulysses. Agrius 
was also the name of a giant, who was put to 
death by the Destinies in the war betwixt Ju- 
piter and the Giants ; and there was another 
who was son of Parthaon, and father of Ther- 
sites, as well as one who was brother of Oe- 
of Diana, on account of a temple erected to her 
in Attica, called Agra. 
AGROTERAS THOUSIA, an anniversary sacri- 
fice of five hundred goats, offered at Athens to 
Minerva, sumamed Agrotera, from Agrae, in 
Attica. The occasion of it was this: When 
Darius emperor of Persia, made an invasion 
upon Attica, Callimachus, who was at that 
time in the office of a Polemarch, made a so- 
lemn vow to Minerva, that if she would grant 
the Athenians viftory over her enemies, so 
many he-goats should be sacrificed to her, as 
should equal the number of the enemy slain. 
Minerva heard the vow, and granted his re- 
t^uest ; but the number of Persians slain ex- 
ceeding that of all the he-goats they could pro- 
cure, instead of them they offered all the she- 
goats they could find ; but these also falling 
far short of the number, they made a decree, 
that five hundred goate should be offered every 
year, till the number vowed by Callimachus 
should be fully completed. 
AGROTES, an epithet of the god Dagon. 
AGRYUS. SeeJfeTiuj. 

AG YEI, a kind of obelisks sacred to Apollo, and 
placed in the vestibules of houses for their se- 
curity. Some say they were sacred to Bacchus, 
as protestor of the high-ways ; and others will 
have them to be sacred to both these deities. 
The Agyei were no other than huge stones, or 
perhaps, pieces of wood, having either a circu- 
lar or square basis, and terminating in a- 
point. Agyeus or Agyieus, hence became epi- 
thets of Apollo. 
AGYRTES, priests of Cybele, or rather sooth- 

saycrs who ran up and down telling fortunes, 
for which purpose they used verses from Ho- 
mer, Virgil, and other poets. Agyrtes was 
also the name of a parricide mentioned by 

the ancient Persians called the principle of 
evil, as opposed to Armozd or Ormozd, the 
principle of good. The Greeks and Latins 
called them Ariman'tus and Oromasetes, in ex- 
plaining the doArine of Zoroaster concerning 
these two principles. Ahemian is the name 
of a male demon ; for, according to the Orien- 
tal mythology, there is a diflTerence of sexes 
among the demons. The old Persian romances 
relate wonders of the mountain of Aherman, 
where the demons used to assemble to receive 
the orders of their prince, and whence they set 
out to exercise their malice in all parts of the 
world. The name ^iwrmjn, according to Hyde, 
is derived from two synonimous terms, which 
signify corrupted, polluted. This repetition of the 
. same idea is intended to express the highest de- 
gree of corruption or pollution. Sefe Arimanm. 

AIAKEIA, sports at Aegina in honour (rfAea- 
cus, who had a temple in that island, wherein 
the vi6iors, at the end of the solemnity, used to 
present a garland of flowers. 

AICHEERA, a divinity of the Arabians. 

AIDONE, the wife of Zethus. See Axdo, or Ae> 

authors, prince of the Molossians in Epirus, 
to whom the name of Pluto was given by the 
Greeks, who relate, that he was the person who 
stole Proserpine ; that his dog Cerberus de- 
voured Pirithous, and would have devoured 

. Theseus, had not Hercules come to his relief. 
See Piritbous. 

AIDOS, in the dominions of Jupiter, i. e. Hea^ 
ven. The poets say Aidos and Dice, or Equity, 
were always attendants upon his tbrcme. 

AIGENETES. See Arcbegenetes. 

AIGINETON EORTE, a Grecian festival at Ae- 
gina, in honour of Neptune, celebrated for six- 
teen days together, which were wholly employ- 
ed in jollity and sacrificing to the god. The 
denizens of the island, without the assistance 
of servants, being the only votaries, they were 
for that reason called Mwof «y«i, persons who eat 

Digitized by 





by thenwelvea. In conclusion, the solemnity 
finished with sacrificing to Venus.' The occa- 
tion and origin of these rifes are accounted for 
by Plutarch in his Greek Qt/estions. 

AIJEKE. See Baiva. 

AIMENE OR EMENE, a Trojan to whom divine 
honours were rendered in Greece. 

festival and solemn sacrifice celebrated by the 
Athenians, with vocal music in honour of Erigo- 
ne, sometimes called Aletis, daughter of Icarius, 
who, out of exctsa of grief for the misfortune 
of her father, hanged herself ; whence the so- 
lemnity had the name of Ai«f«. At her death 
she requested the gods, that if the Athenians 
did not revenge the murder of Icarius, their 
virgins might end their lives in the same man- 
ner with herself. Her petition was granted, 
and a great many of them, without any appa- 
rent cause of discontent, became their own ex- 
ecutioners : whereupon, by advice of Apollo, 
they instituted the festival to appease Erigone. 
Others- report that it was observed in honour 
of king Temalius, or of Aegisthus and Clytem- 
nestra ; and some are of opinion that it was 
first observed, by command of an oracle, in 
memory of the daughter of Aegisthus and Cly- 
temnestra, who in company of her grand-fa- 
ther Tyndarus, took a journey to Athens, where 
she prosecuted Orestes in the court of Areopa- 
gus, and, losing her suit, hanged herself for 
grief. See Erigone, Icarius. 

AIR. The ancients made a divinity of the ele- 
ments, whom they worshipped under the names 
of Jupiter, Minerva, &c. This was the celes- 
tial Venus amongst the ancient Arabians. 

whom the Romans ereAed an altar. The words 
are Latin, and signify a speaking voice. The fol- 
lowing accident gave rise to this altar of Aius 
Locutius. One M. Ceditius, a plebeian, in the 
year of Rome 364, acquainted the Tribunes, 
that in walking the streets by night, he had 
heard a voice over the temple of Vesta, giving 
the Romans notice that the Gauls were coming 
against them. This intimation was neglected, 
but the truth being confirmed by the event, 
Camillus acknowledged this voice to be a new 
deity, and erefted an altar to it in Via Nova, 
undjer the name of the Aius Locudus, 

AJANTIA: Grecian solemnities instituted toA» 
jax son of Telamon, in the isle of Salamis; also 
in Attica, where, in the memory of the valour 
of that hero, a bier, upon stated days, was a- 
domed with a complete suit of armour, and 
such was the pious care of the Athenians in re- 
speft of his memory, that his name was trans- 
mitted to posterity in that of oneof their tril)e8, 
which was from him called Autrrn. 

AJ AX, son of Oileus, one of the Grecian leader* 
at the siege of Troy. His father's dominions 
being extensive in the country of the Locrians, 
he easily fitted out forty ships for that famous 
expedition. It is certain that this Ajax may 
be compared to any other prince in the Grecian 
army for courage, resolution, and swiftness; 
though to judgment and conduct he had no 
great pretensions. Homer represents him as so 
fearless and intrepid, that even the gods, when 
they fell upon him with all their thunder and 
storms, could not conquer his resolution and 
boldness, and consequently found it much 
easier to destroy than humble him. The aftion 
which exposed him to this resentment of the 
gods was Infamous and brutal in the highest 
degree ; for he ravished Cassandra, daughter 
of king Priam, even in the temple of Miner- 
va, to which she had fled for san6luary. The 
Greeks themselves were shocked at so profane 
an outrage, and Ulysses was of opinion that he 
ought to be stoned to death. It appears, how* 
ever, from several passages in the ancients, that 
Ajax denied the charge, and offered to clear 
himself by oath. He confessed indeed that he 
took the lady from the temple of Minerva, and 
that he forced her from the statue of that god'- 
dess, which she had embraced ; but he protest, 
ed that he did not ravish her, and insisted that 
Agamemnon raised the report falsely, in order 
to keep Cassandra, whom he had seized, in his 
own hands, and whom Ajax reclaimed, as hav- 
ing first taken her prisoner. Minerva, enraged 
at this violation of her temple, had tried 
almost every method to punish him ; on his re- 
turn home from Troy, she raised a /urious 
storm, and saw his ship perish, notwitlistand- 
ing which, he saved himself upon a rock, in 
which dreadful exigence he insulted the gods 
with this horrible blasphemy— /n spite qftbegods 
J will escape, Neptune, enraged at this ioso- 





lence, struck the rock in two with his trident, 
so that the part upon uhich Ajax stood, fell 
into the sea, and his body was thrown by the 
waves upon the island of Delos^ where Thetis 
buried it. Some authors relate, that he escap- 
ed the storm ; and returned home in safety.— 
The Locrians had a singular veneration for his 
memovy ; and we shall see under the article 
Cassandra, how they were obliged to expiate 
his crime. It is said that Ajax made a serpent 
of fifteen feet long so familiar with him, that it 
eat at his table and followed him like a dog'..- 
Sometime after his death, the pestilence laid 
waste his kingdom ; upon which the oracle be- 
ing consulted,- made answer, that in order to 
appease the wrath of Minerva, provoked by the 
impiety of AJax, the Locrians were to send every 
year to her temple at Troy, two young virgins 
to serve her as priestesses ; which they pun6lu- 
ally obeyed. The conduA of the Trojans to 
these young priestesses might well.have excused 
the Locrians from a compliance ; at least in the 
earlier times of this (M-aiSice, for the Trojans 
concealed themselves in the way those unfoitu- 
nate victims were to take, and after having as- 
sassinated them, burnt their bodies, and threw 
their ashes into the sea. They however conti- 
nued fiuthful to the decisions of the oracle, and 
some of the missionaries, by taking l^-paths, 
arrived safe at the temple ; where they found a 
secure sanAuary against the cruelty of their 
enemies. This custom lasted- till the year of 
Home 564, that is, upwards of a thousand years. 
The Locrians of Opus, of whom Ajax was king, 
had so high an opinion of his valour, that even 
after his death, they left in their lines of battle 
a vacant place, as if that prince had been to fill 
it up. In the battle they sustained against the 
Crotoniates, Autoleon seeing in their army a 
void place, made his attack there, but was 
wounded by a speflre, and the wound not be- 
ing likely to heal, the oracle consulted, made 
answer, that the only remedy remaining for 
him was to appease the manes of Ajax. Au- 
toleon went for that purpose into the island of 
Leuce, where, amongst the shades of several o- 
ther heroes of antiquity, he saw that of Ajax, 
whom he appeased, and was instantly cured. 
Ajax, son of Telamon, king of Salamis, by Pe- 
riboea, daughter of Alcathous king of Megara, 
Vol. i. 

son of Pelops, and grandson of Tantalus, son 
of Jupiter, was next to Achilles the most va- 
liant among the Greeks at the siege of Troy.— 
He commanded the troops of Salamis in that 
expedition, and performed the various heroic 
aaions mentioned by Homer, Diftys Cretensis, 
Quintus Calaber, and Ovid, in the speech of 
Ajax contending for the armour of Achilles.— ■ 
This armour, however, being adjudged to his 
competitor, Ulysses, his disappointment so en- 
raged him, that he immediately became mad, 
and rushed furiously upon a flock of sheep, ima- 
gining he was killing Uiose who had offended 
him; butat length, perceiving his mistake, he 
became still more furious, and stabbed himself 
with the fatal sword he had received from Hec- 
tor, with whom he had fought. Whoever un- 
derstands the least erf" the ancient Mythology, 
knows the causes and circumstancesofhis death 
to have been so variously told, as that one ac- 
count destroys the other ; for Di6lys, and after 
him Suiidas, affirm that these two heroes dis- 
puted not for the armour of Achilles, but for 
the Palladium ; and add, that Agamemnon hav- 
ing adjudged it to Ulysses, Ajax vowed revenge; 
upon which Agamemnon, with the other chiefs, 
assassinated him in his tent : that Ulysses sus- 
pected of being the assassin, was obliged to fly 
in disguise, and that the army retained a high 
resentment against Agamemnon. Ajax resem- 
bled Achilles in several respeCls ; like him .he 
was violent, and impatient of contradiction, 
and, like him, invulnerable in every part of the 
body except one; of which this was the occa- 
sion. Hercules, seeing Telamon uneasy for 
not having children, prayed to Jupiter to 
give him a son, who should have a skin as 
hard as the Nemean lion's, and to be his equal 
in courage. Having seen an eagle as he flnish- 
ed his prayer, and taking this for a good omen, 
he promised Telamon such a son as he had pray- 
ed for, and ordered him to give the infant the 
name of Ajax, from a Greek word signifying 
eagle, which bird had given the lucky presage. 
After the birth of Ajax, Hercules returned to 
visit Telamon, and, taking the child quite nak- 
ed, covered him with the skin of the Nemean 
lion, whence the body of Ajax became invul- 
nerable, except in the part beneath the hole in 
the skin, where Hercules hung his quiver. It 






!s not agreed where the vulnerable part lay, 
some placing it under the ann-pit> some under 
the necic, others under the side, and others 
under the breast. One of the characters of A- 
jax was impiety and irreligion ; not that he 
denied the gods a very extensive power, but 
lie imagined, that as the greatest cowards 
might conquer through their assistance, there 
was no glory in conquering by such aids ; and 
scorned to owe his vitftory to aught but his own 
prowess. Accordingly, we are told that when 
he was setting out for Troy, his father recom- 
mended him always to join the assistance of 
the gods to his own valour ; to which Ajax re- 
plied> that cowards themselves were often vie 
torious by such helps, but for his own part he 
would make no reliance of the kind, being as- 
sured he should be able to conquer without. — 
It is further added, upon the head of his irre- 
ligion, that to Minerva, who. once offered him 
her advice, he rejJiedwith indignation: "trou- 
ble not yourself about my conduit ; of that I 
shall give a good account : you have nothing 
to do but reserve your favour and as«stance for 
the other Greeks." Another time she offered to 
guide his chariot in the battle, but he would 
not suffer her. Nay, he even defaced the owl, 
her favourite bird, which was engraven on his 
shield ; lest that figure should be considered as 
an aft of reverence to Minerva, and hence as 
indicating distrust in himself. It is but just 
however to acquaint the reader in this |^ace> 
that he is not represented as so irreligious by 
Homer ; for thougn he does not pray to Jupiter 
himself, when he prepares to engage the valiant 
Heftor, yet he desires others to pray for him, 
either with a low voice, lest the Trojans should 
hear, or louder if they pleased : for, says he, 
I fear no person in the world. It is feigned of 
this Ajax, that his soul having the liberty of 
choming a body to return in again upon earth, 
be preferred that of the lion to the human.— 
The poets give to Ajax the same commendation 
that the holy scripture gives to king Saul, with 
regard to his stature. Ajax has been the subjeft: 
of several tragedies, as well in Greek as Latin; 
and it is related that the famous comedian, Ae- 
sop, refused to a£i that part. The Greeks paid 
great honours to this hero after his death, and 
erected to him a noble monument upon the pro- 

montory of Rheteum, which was one of those 
Alexander desired to see and honour. Fausa- 
nias tells us one of the Athenian tribes bore the 
name of Ajax ; thatthe honours which they de- 
creed both to him and to his son Eurysaces were 
still subsisting ; that the people of Salamis built 
a temple to him, and that the whole country of 
Greece invoked him before the battle of Sala- 
mis, and decreed to him as part of the first 
fruits due to the gods, one of the ships which 
they had taken from the Persians in that me- 
morable contest. See Ajanteia. 
Ajax, son of Teucer, built a temple to Jupiter 
in Olbus, a city of Cilicia. The priest of that 
temple was lord of the country, which was called 
Trachiotis. Several tyrants endeavoured to 
seize this coimtry, and to keep it to themselves^ 
so that it became a theatre of war and cont«n- 
tion. After the expulsion of these tyrants, it 
was called the country of Teucer, and the Priest- 
hood. These are the names which it had in the 
times of Strabo, who adds, that the greatest 
part of the priests had been denominated either 
Teucer or Ajax. 
ALAIA OR ALEAIA, a festival sacred to Mi- 
nerva, sumamed Alea, at Tegea in Arcadia, 
where that goddess was honoured with a temple 
of great antiquity. 
ALABANDUS, son of Callirhoe, who was ranked 
amongst the gods. His worship was celebrated 
at Alatianda, a city of Caria. 
ALAGHABAL, the same as Heliogabalus. 
ALALA, a name of Bellona. 
ALALCOMENE, daughter of Ogyges, king of 
Thebes, by Thebe, daughter of Jupiter and 
lodamia, was the most celebrated of the three 
daughters of that monarch, from her office as 
nurse to Minerva, and from the worship paid 
her after her death. She was reckoned the god- 
dess who brought designs to a happy issue. — 
This goddess was represented not by a whole 
statue, but only by a head or breast, to shew 
that it is the head or understanding, that de- 
termines the limits of things ; and, for the 
same reason, they sacrificed to her only the heads 
of victims. Her temples were all uncovered, 
to signify that she drew her origin from hea- 
ven, the sole source of wisdom. Pausanias 
relates that Menelaus, upon his return from 
the siege of Troy, erected to her a statue ; as 

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having, by her assistance, put an end to the 
Trojan war, which he had undertaken for the 
recovery of Helen his wife. See Praxidica. 

ALALCOMENEIS, an epithet of Minerva, de- 
rived, according to some, from the name of 
him who ereAed her statue ; or, according to 
others, from her giving assistance to her fa- 
vourites ; as to Hercules, whose great protec- 
tress she was against Juno. It was, according 
to Pausanias, in the attitude of a woman, ready 
to defend that hero, that the Megareans erec- 
ted a statue of her in the temple of Olym- 
pian Jupiter. Others, however, pretend, that 
the name was derived from Alalcomene, daugh- 
ter of Ogyges, and nurse to Minerva. 

ALASTOR, one of Pluto's horses. It was also 
the name of the brother of Neleus, son of Nes- 
tor, and of one of the companions of Sarpedon, 
killed by Ulysses at the siege of Troy. The 
name of Alastores was likewise given to the 
malificent Demons. 

ALBA, a city of Latium, built by Ascanius, the 
son of Aeneas. 

ALBANI, in Roman antiqui^, a college of the 
Salii, or priests of Mars, so called from Mount 
Albanus, the place of their residence. See 

ALBANIA, an epithet of Juno,.thu8 named from 
Alba, where she was worshipped. — Albania was 
also a name of a country on the shores of the 
Caspian sea, so called, because its inhabitants 
were originally from Alba in Italy, whence they 
emigrated under the conduft of Hercules, afler 
the defeat of Geryon. 

giants, sons of Neptune, who, when Hercules 
was on his way to the Hesperides, attempted 
to interrupt him. The hero having spent all 
his arrows, and being in great danger, prayed 
to Jupiter, and obtained from him a shower 
of stones, with which he overwhelmed th^n; 
whence the place was called Tlx Stoney Fifld, 
and lay in a part of France anciently denomi- 
nated Gallia Narbonensis, 

ALBOGALERUS, in Roman antiquity, a sacer- 
dotal cap or ornament worn by the Flamen 
Dialis. It is otherwise called Galerus. The 
Albogalerus was made of the skin of some white 
viAim sacri6ced to Jupiter, on the top of which 
was a decoration of olive branches. 

ALBUNA, a goddess worshipped by the Romans. 
Some think she was Ino, daughter of Athamas, 
who, fearing her husband, threw herself head- 
long, with her son Meltcerta, into the sea: 
Dthers confound her with the tenth Sibyl, cal- 
led TibortttOit because she was born at Tibur. 

ALBURNUS, a god revered on a mountain of 
the same name in. Lucania. 

ALCAEUS, son of Perseus, and husband of Hip- 
pomone, or Hipponome, was the grandfather 

' of Hercules, from whom sonie pretend him to 
have been called Alcides. Hercules is also said 
to have hada grandson of this name, by his son 
Cleoalus, who was father of the first king of 
the second dynasty of the Lydians. 

ALCANDER, one of the chiefs widtx Sarpedon» 
slain by Ulysses. 

ALCANOR, brother of Maeon ; the former was 
wounded, and the latter killed by Aeneas. 

ALCAOUS, son of Perseus, and father of Am- 

ALCATHOIA: solemn gamesatMegara,in me- 
mory of Alcathous, son of Pelops, who, under 
the suspicion of murdering his brother Chrysip- 
pus, fled to Megara, and there having slain a 
terrible lion that had ravaged the country, and 
killed Eurippus, the son of king Megareus, not 
only obtained the king's daughter in marriage, 
but was declared his successor. 

ALCATHOUS: when Apollo was exiled from 
heaven for killing theCyclops, who forged Ju- 
piter's thunderbolts, he assisted Alcathous in 
building a labyrinth, in which a stone, where 
Iw used to lay his lyre, emitted such harmony 
on the slightest stroke, as to equal the strains of 
a harp. See Akatbo'ta. 

There was a Trojan of this name who married 
Hippodamia, daughter of Anchises, and was 
killed by Idomeneus at the aege of Troy. 

ALCE, one of the hounds of A£laeon. 


ALCIDAMAS, a charafter mentioned by Ovid. 
saw his own daughter bring forth a dove. 

ALCIDES, one of the two proper names of Her- 
cules, which he either derived from his grandfa- 
ther Akaeus, or else was given by his parents 
from his extraordinary strength. It was also 
on the latter account a surname of Minerva 
There were likewise the Gods Alcides. 
G 2 

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ALCIMEDE, mother ofjason, and wife of Aeson, 

king of Thessaly. See Jason, Minyas. 

ALCIMEDON, a famous scidptor. There was 
also a Grecian hero so called. 

ALCINOE, daughter of Polybius the Corinthian, 
and \f ife of Amphilochus, fell in love with Xan- 
thus, who lodged at her house ; and forsaking 
her husband and children, embarked with him 
for the isle of Samos, his native country. Dur- 
ing this voyage, reflefting on her conduA, she 
called to mind, with cries and tears, her hus- 
band and infants ; but all the tender things 
her lover could say, even though he offered to 
marry her, affording no consolation, she threw 
hei*self into the sea. The most extraordinary 
part of this story is, that Minerva is said to have 
inspired Alcinoe with this criminal passion, for 
no better reason than to punish her for not pay- 
ing what she had promised a woman who worked 
for her. 

ALCINOUS, king of the Fhaeacians, in the is- 
land now called Corfu, was son of Nausithous, 
' and grandson of Neptune by Periboea ; or, as 
others say, son of Phaeax, son of Neptune and 
Corcyra. He married his niece Arete, only 
daughter of Rhexenor, son of Nausithous, who 
brought him five sons, and a daughto- named 
Mftusicaa. According to Homer, in the gar- 
dens of Alcinous was the most excellent fruit 
in the world, which was renewed every nronth 
without vicissitude of winter and summer. By 
these gardens, of which the poets speak in rap- 
turous language, Alcinous has chiefly immor- 
talized his memory. This king received Ulys- 
ses with much civility, when thrown by a storm 
on the coast of Phaeacia, and conducted him 
to Ithaca loaded with presents. During the 
feast, to which Ulysses was admitted, he en- 
tertained the company with a variety of tales ; 
it is thought this became the origin of some 
proverbs in use among the ancients. The Phae- 

■ acians, however, though they lived in luxury 
and pleasure, were yet expert sailors ; and Al- 
cinous himself, though he made no secret to 
Ulysses, that he and his people loved feasting, 
music, dancing, change of apparel, baths, and 
beds, is, nevertheless, represented as a just 
ALCIOPE, daughter of Aglaura and Man, wag 
one of the wives of Neptune. 

ALCIPPE, daughter of Neptune, and sister of 
Halirothus, or Allirotius. The god Mars hav- 
ing killed the brother, and violated the sister, 
was cited before the assembly (^ the gods to 
answer for his crimes. Twelve gods were pre- 
sent, of whom six were for acquitting him, so 
that, by the , custom of the court, when the 
voices were equal, the decision was made on 
the favourable side. Some say this trial was 
in the famous Areopagus, or Hill of Mars, at 
Athens, a court, which, in succeeding times, 
gained the highest reputation for the justice 
and impartiality of its proceedings. It should 
be observed, that some make Alctppe the daugh- 
ter of Mars, and Halirothus her violater, whom 
Mars having put to death for his crime, was ar- 
raigned and tried for the murder of. 

There were several other Alcippes : one daughter 
of Oenomaus ; another, daughter of the giant 
Alcyon ; a third, a shepherdess in Theocritus, 
Virgil, &c. 

ALCIS, aGerman divinity, supposed to be Castor 
or Pollux. 

ALCITHOE, with Arsinoe and Leuconoe her sis- 
ters, Theban ladies, daughters of Minyas or 
Mineius, deriding the sacrifices of Bacchus, 
staid at home, and spun during their celebra- 
tion, for which they were turned by Bacchus 
into bats, and their flax, spindles, and looms 
into vines and ivy. A different account of this 
matter is given under the article Aorionia. 

ALCMAON, a Greek killed by Sarpedon before 

ALCMEN A, daughter of Eleftryo, king of Myce- 
nae, was wife of Aphitryo or Amphitryon (stiled 
by some Authors king of Thebes) and mother of 
Hercules. This son, whom she bore during her 
husband's life time, was, nevertheless, not the son 
of Amphitryon, but of Jupiter, who, taking upon 
himself the likeness of Alcmfena's husband, was, 
in his absence, received for him ; and the com- 
pany of Alcmena having pleased the deity, he 
is said to have put three nights into one, for 
the protraftion of his visit. The greatest part 
of modern writers pretend, that Alcmena was 
already with child by Amphitryon ; but Apol- 
lodorus insinuateSj that when visited by Jupiter, 
she was still amaiden. However that be, Am- 
phitrycm returned to his own house the very 
I day succeeding the long night, which Jupter 

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had passed with Alcmena> and perceiving his 
wife did not receive him with those transports 
which usually accompany an interview after 
absence, suepeAed the reason, and gcnng to 
Tiresies the soothsayer, was informed, that 
Jupiter, assuming his figure, had been kindly 
received by Alcmena. This gave him some 
consolation ; and it is evident, that his resent- 
ment was but of short cmtinuance, for Alcme- 
na, the following night, became pregnant of 
twins. Juno, however, stimulated with jea- 
lousy, impeded, as much as possible, their 
birth ; and it was only by the management of 
GalantbU that Uie ill designs of Lucina, for this 
purpose, were eluded. Alcmena brought forth 
two sons ; that of Jupiter was named Hercules, 
and the other by Amphitryon, Iphiclus : some 
also add a daughter called Laodamia. Amphi- 
tryon, in order to know his own bchi from the 
son of Jupiter, threw two serpents on the bed 
where they Iay,and had hJs doubts soon decided, 
by the unconcern of Hercules and the terror of 
Iphiclus. Alcmena is said to have worn an orna- 
ment on her head of three moons, in commemo- 
ration of the night which Jupiter had trebled. 
After the death of Amphitryon, Alcmena is 
reported to have married Rhadamanthus, and 
to have been buried near him hard by Halartus 
Ih Boeotia : others say, that she was buried at 
Megara, and that the oracle appointed it so, 
when the children of Hercules consulted it 
upon a di^rence among them ; some being 
willing that she should be carried to Argos ; 
others desiring she might be removed to 
Thebes. She died on the road, in the fron- 
tiers of Megara, as she was returning from 
Argos to Thebes. She had the affliftion of 
surviving Hercules ; but in part to compen- 
sate that, she had the satisfaftion of holding 
the head of his persecutor in her hands, and of 
jducking out the eyes : for Apollodorus tells 
us, that Ulysses, one of the sons of Hercules, 
having slain Eurystheua, cut off his head, and 
gave it to Alcmena. It is related, that her 
body disappeared during the funeral ceremo- 
nies, and that a stone was found in her bed, 
which gave Pausanias occasion to say, that she 
was turned into stone. Antonius Liberalis 
relates, that whilst the Heraclidae were busied 
aboQt Alcmena'sobsequies, Jupiter commanded 

Mercury to steal her away, and to transport 
her to the Elysian fields, in order to be mar- 
ried to Rhadamanthus. The order was exe- 
cuted, and a stone put into the coflin : they 
who carried it finding it very heavy, opened it, 
and there found instead of the body a stone, 
which they deposited, in a sacred wood, where 
was afterwards the chapel of Alcmena. Dio. 
dorus Siculus only observes, that she disap- 
peared, and that the Thebans paid her divine 
honours. They continued to shew her cham- 
ber in Thebes in the time of Pausanias, when 
her altar was likewise to be seen at Athens. 
See Ampbitryon, Arcbippe, Eurystbeus, Galantbis. 

ALCMENE, daughter <^ Amphiaraus. See Anh 

ALCMEON, tan of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, 
sister of Adrastus king of Argos, slew his mo- 
ther in obedience to the command of his father. 
Amphiaraus looked upon Eriphyle as the cause 
of his death. Being a great diviner, he would 
not go to the War of Thebes, foreseeing he 
should perish there. Adrastus and he engaged 
in a dispute on this point, in which Amphiaraus 
not only declined taking any decisive part in 
the war himself, but also dissuaded Adrastus 
from it. Eriphyle, to whom Amphiaraus had 
promised on oath, that in all disputes wiUi 
Adrastus, he would be guided by her advice, 
decided the matter in favour of her brother, 
being gained over by a necklace which she ac- 
cepted from Polynices, in opposition to the in: 
junction of her husband to acceptof no {xesent 
from her. All the generals, except Adrastus, 
having perished in the Theban war, their sons 
formed a resolution, ten years after, to revenge 
their overthrow, and with this view chose 
Alcmeon their chief; Eriphyle again, won by 
a necklace and mantle presented her by Ther- 
sander, son of Polynices, soliciting them to this 
war. Whatever desire Alcmeon might have 
to dispatch his mother, before he accepted the 
command, he yet marched against the Thebans 
without executing the order of his father. The 
expedition proved fortunate ; the Thebans, by 
advice of Tireaias, abandoning their city, which 
was plundered and ruined. Alcmeon learning 
that Eriphyle had suffered herself to be cor- 
rupted by fre^ presents against him also, 
transported with rage, slew her, after conmlt- 

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ing the oracle. Some writers maintain, that 
his brother Amphilochus assisted in the par- 
ricide ; but a greater number aver the con- 
trary. Alcmeon, haunted by the Furies on 
account of this aflion, retired to Psophis in 
Arcadia, where he expiated his crime through 
the ministration of Phegeus, according to the 
ceremonies in such cases appointed, and mar- 
ried Arsinoe daughter of Phegeus, to whom he 
made a present of the same necklace and man- 
tle which had been given to Eriphyle. A great 
famine arising, recourse was had to the oracle, 
which ordered Alcmeon to take refuge with 
Achelous. He arrived in his country after 
much wandering, received afresh the ceremo- 
nies of expiation, married CallirhoCi daughter 
of Achelous, and settled upon a nook of land 
which the river had formed by banking up the 
sand. Callirhoe declaring she would cohabit 
no longer with him unless he made her a pre- 
sent of Eriphyle's necklace and mantle, Alc- 
meon was obliged to return to Phegeus, of 
whom he obtained the necklace, after making 
him "believe, that he had learnt from the ora- 
cle, that the persecution of the Furies would 
not cease till he had offered the necklace to 
Apollo. Phegeus afterwards finding that Alc- 
meon intended to present Callirhoe with the 
necklace, ordered his two sons to pursue and 
kill him. This order they executed, at which 
Arsinpe being enraged, they carried her to 
Tegea in a chest, and charged her with the 
murder. Some say that Alcmeon, during his 
madness, diverted himself with the prophetess 
Manto, daughter of Tiresias, who bore him 
two children, Amphilochus and Tisiphone. 
The Furira of Alcmeon were frequent subje6ts 
upon the stage of ancient Greece, but none 
of these tragedies now remain. The (^pians, 
who were more forward than any to rank Am- 
phiaraus among the £ods, excluded Alcmeon 
from those divine honours which they conferred 
upon his father and brother, because of his par- 
ricide. There are authors who say, that Alc- 
meon, after the second Theban war, went into 
Aetolia, upon the persuasion of Diomedes ; that 
he assisted him to conquer that country and 
Areanania; and that, having been summoned 
to join in the Trojan expedition, Diomedes 
V, ent thither, but that Alcmeon staid in Ar- 

eanania; and, to do honour to his brother Am- 
philochus, built a city which he called Argos 
of Amphilochus. What has been said of Alc- 
meon 's tomb deserves notice : it was at Psophis 
in Arcadia, had hardly any magnificence or 
ornaments, but was surrounded with cypress 
trees so high, their shade covered the hill which 
overlooked the city. These trees were called 
The Virgins, and not cut down, being supposed 
sacred to Alcmeon. See Adrastus, Amphiaraus, 
Ampbilocbus, Callirboe. 

ALCOMENAEUS ; Ulysses was so called from 
Alcomene, a city of Ithaca. 

ALCX)N, son of Erictheus. There were several 
others of this name, one a son of Mars, another 
of Amycus, and a third of Hippocoon. 

ALCYON, brother of Porphyrion, was one of 
the giants in the war against the gods. It seems 
there was a prophetical rumor among the dei- 
ties, that the giants should not be overcome, 
unless a mortalassisted in the war ; wherefore 
Jupiter, by advice of Pallas, called up Hercu- 
les, and being assisted by the other gods, gain- 
ed a complete victory over the rebels, most of 
whom perished in the confiifl. Hercules first 
slew Alcyon with an arrow, but he still revived 
and grew stronger, till Pallas drew him out of 
the moon's orb, when he expired. Alcyon is 
said to have killed twenty-four of the adherents 
of Hercules before he fell. Upon the death of 
Alcyon, seven young virgins, who were ena- 
moured of him, or, as others say, his daugh- 
ters, w ere so afflicted at his loss that they threw 
themselves into the sea, and were turned into 

ALCYONEUS, another of those giants, whom 
Minerva encountering at the Corinthian isth- 
mus, killed in spite of his monstrous bulk. 

ALEA ; Minerva was so called from a city of this 
name in Arcadia, where a temple was erefted, 
and festivals observed to her honours, under the 
title of AUans. 

ALECTO, one of the three Eumenides or Furies. 
She is called Ale£to, from a privative and XnyN, to 
rest. Aleflo is described with vipers about her 
head, and as armed with vipers, scourges, and 
torches. Consult that fine description of this 
Fury in Virgil, where he makes her begin the 
war between the followers of Aeneas and the 
I old inhabitants of LaUum. See Furies. 

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ALECTOR. See Argaeus. 

ALECTRYO, or ALECTRYON, was the confi- 
dant of Mars,, in his intrigue with Venus. As 
Apollo, or the Sun, had a friendship for Vul- 
can, the husband of Venus, Mars was particu- 
larly fearful of his discovering the afi^r, and 
therefore appointed the youth Aieftryo to warn 
him and his fair mistress of the Sun's approach. 
The sentinel unluckily falling asleep, the Sun 
saw them together, and presently communica- 
ted the secret to Vulcan, who, to revenge the 
injury, (against their next meeting, an oppor- 
tunity for which soon offered, upon pretence 
of Ills going to Lemnoe) contrived so fine and 
imperceptible a net-work of iron, that they 
were taken and exposed to the ridicule of the 
gods, till released at the intercession of Nep- 
tune. Mars, to punish Alectryo for his neg- 
lect, changed him into a cock, who« to atone 
for his fault, has ever since given constant no- 
tice of the Sun's approach, by his crowing. 

ALECTRYOMANTIA, a kind of divination by 

ALEM ANNUS, a hero of the ancient Germans, 
whom they revered as a god. 

ALEMONA, the tutelary goddess who presided 
over children prior to their birth. 


ALEON, one of the Dioscuri. 

ALEO DEUS, Mercury. 

ALETES, son of Aegisthus, who, having usurp- 
ed the kingdom of Mycenae, was killed by O- 

ALETHES, an honest Trojan, and friend of Ae- 

ALETIDES, sacrifices which the Athenians of- 
fered to Icarius and Erigone, agreeable to the 
appointment of the oracle of Apollo. They 
were called Aletides, from a Greek word signi- 
fying to -wander, because Erigone wandered in 
search of her father. See Icarius, Erigone. 

ALEUS, king of Arcadia, famous for the many 
temples he caused to be erefled. 

ALEXANDER, the name given to Paris, son of 
Priam, by the shepherds who brought him up : 
also a son of Eurystheus. 

ALEXANDRA, the same with Cassandra, daugh- 
ter of Priam. See Cassandra. 

ALEXANDRIA. This city has been personified 
on gems and medals, and symbolized by the 

various attributes of plenty ; particularly, and 
properly, by corn : Aegypt having been the 
granary of Rome. 

ALEXIA, a Celtic city, built by Hercu les. 

ALEXI ARE, daughter of Hercules by ebe, and 
sister of Anicetus. 

ALEXICACUS, an epithet of Neptune, wJwm 
the tunny fishers used to invoke under this ap- 
pellation, that their nets might be preserved 
from the sword-fish, which used to tear them ; 
and that he might prevent the assistance which 
it was pretended the dolj^ins used to give the 
tunnies on this occasion. See Acesius. 

ALEXIRHOE, a nymph who was wife to Pan. 

ALEXOTHOE, daughter of Dimas and mother 
of Aesacus, by "king Priam. 

ALIA, in Grecian antiqui^, solemn games cele- 
brated at Rhodes, in honour of the Sun, who is 
said to have been bom in the island ofRhodes,the 
inhabitants ofwhich were reputed his posteri^; 
and therefore, according to Strabo, called He- 
liades. In these games the combatants were 
not only men, but boys, and the viftors were 
rewarded with a crown of poplar. 

ALIGER ARCAS: the winged Arcadian; that 
is. Mercury. 

ALILAT, a divinity of the ancient Arabians. — 
Herodotus informs us, that these people wor- 
shipped the sun and moon under the names of 
Utrotalt and Alilat, or Alitta. It is plain that 
this appellation is derived from the Hebrew 
balilab, or baleilai, which signifies the night, 
because the moon^ which was adored under his 
name, shines in the night. Some authors are 
of opinion that the Mahometan Arabs took the 
crescent, which they place on tops of towers, 
as Christians do the croe8> from the ancient 
religion of the Arabians, who adored the moon, 
and not from the flight of Mahomet from Mecca 
to Medina, at the time of the new moon. 

Alilat was an ei^thet also given to Diima and Ve- 
nus by the Phoenicians, Arabians, and Cappa- 
docians ; to the former as the moon, and the 
latter as the evening star. 

ALIOPE, mother of the Telchines. See Telcbhes. 

ALIPES DEUS, tbe god witb winged feet; that is. 

res were thus called from preventing millers 
from stealing meal. 

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ALL AT, d.n idol of the ancient A. abians before 
the time of Mahom^. The inhabitants of Ta. 
gef, wjio worshipped this idol, were so attached 
to it, that they begged of Mahomet, as a con- 
dition of peace, not to destroy it for three years, 
which not obtaining, they asked only a month's 
respite ; but this also positively refusing, it was 
destroyed by his order in the ninth year of the 
Hegira. The.Teyeffians bitterly lamented the 
loss of their deity. 

tune, and brother of Alcippe. Mars being in 
love with Alcippe, but unable to gain her af- 
fe£ti(His, offered violence to her and slew her 
brother AUirotius. Neptune, enraged at the 
death of his son, cited Mars to judgment. The 
plaoe where this famous judgment was pro- 
nounced, was called Areopagus, a name formed 
from Uiat of Mars, called Ares, and the ^ord 
Pagos, because the assembly was held upon an 
eminence called A^ woyO*, the Rock of Mars, 
which is the origin of the famous tribunal Are- 
opagus. As the transactions of those times 
were seldom written- without some embellish- 
ment, it was given out that Mars had been ab- 
solved by the judgment of the twelve great 
jgods, because the judges on this trial were in 
number twelve. This event, so celebrated in 
Grecian story, haj^ned, according to the 
chronicle of Paros, under the reign of Crana- 
nus, that is, 1560 years before Christ. See the 
article Alcippe, 

ALLOPROSALLOS, an epithet of Mars, who 
was the common god of ojiposite armies. 

dia, and father of Croesus, succeeded Sadiates. 
He prepared for carrying on a war against Cy- 
axares, king of the Medes ; but when the two 
armies were ready to engage, they were pre- 
vented by an eclipse of the sun, the cause of 
which being unknown to them both, they in 
stantly concluded a peace. Allyattes is said to 
have excelled on musical instruments, and a 
monument was erefted to him at Sardis, by the 
Lydian maids, who raised money for the pur- 
pose by prostitution. 
ALMA, a name of Ceres, from her nourishing 
and impregnating all seeds and vegetables, and 
being, as it were, the common motker of all 
things. a 


ALMON, god of a small river so called^ in the 
territory of Rome, and father of the nymph 
Lara. Of the same name likewise was the son 
of Tyrrhus, who was of the party of Turnus 
and the Latins, and fell in the seventh Aeneid. 

ALMOPS, son of Neptune and Athamantis, .one 
of the giants who made war upon Jupiter. 

ALMUS, OR ALUMNUS, names of Jupiter be- 
cause he cherishes all things. 

ALOA, a Grecian feast in honour of Ceres and 
Bacchus, by whose blessings the husbandmen ' 
received the recompense of their labours, and 
'therefore their oblations consisted of nothing 
but the fruits of the earth. OUiers say this fes- 
tival was instituted in commemoration of the 
primitive Greeks, who lived in corn-fields and 
vineyards. Authors are not agreed as to the 
time of celebrating the Aloa : Some suppose it 
to have been before the commencement of har- 
vest, whilst otliers will have it a rejoicing af- 
ter harvest, not unlike our harvest borne. The 
most prottable opinion is that which 6xes it in 
the month Possidjon, answering to our Decern- 
ber, and derives its denomination from the 
threshing time, when tlie husbandmen lived 
much in their bams. 

ALOIDAE, ALOIDES ; names given to Oetus, 
or Othus, and Ephialtes, reputed sons of the 
giant Aloeus and Iphimedia ; others say that 
Neptune was their father, and that this marine 
deity made them grow every year a foot and a 
half in statue, and as much in compass. Aloeus 
being old,, and incapable of attending in the 
war, they confederated with the giants, com- 
menced hostilities ag^nst Jupiter, and led Mars 
in irons, who was afterwards delivered by Mer- 
cury. Notiiing less would serve these brothers 
but marrying Juno and Diana; Jupiter, how- 
ever, frustrated their ambition, and they were 
at last shot by the arrows of Apollo and his sis- 

ALOPE, daughter of Cercyon, having received 
Neptune too favourably, and had a child by 
him, was put to death by her father, and chang- 
ed into a fountain. 

One of the Harpies also was called by this name. 
ALOTIA, in Grecian antiquity, a festival observ- 
ed to the honour of Minerva, by the Arcadians, 
in memory of a vi6tory in which they took a 
great number of the Lacedemonians priscHwrs. 



ALPHEAEA, or ALPHEA, a name of Diana, 
from a temple consecrated to her on the banks 
ofthe Alpheus. 

ALPHEIAS, anameof Arethusa, fromtheriver 

ALPHENOR, one of the sons of Niobe and Am- 
phion, killed by Apollo and Diana, as he was 
endeavouring to lift up his brothers, Phaedimus 
and Tantalus. See Niobe, Ampbion. 

ALPHESIBOEA, daughter of Phlegeus.and wife 
of Alcmaeon. 

ALPHEUS : The river so called is fabled to have 
been a hunter, who having long pursued A- 
rethusa, a nymph in the train of Diana, was 
changed by this goddess into the stream which 
retained his name, whilst the nymph was con- 
verted to a fountain. Alpheus, however, in 
his new state, remained not unconscious of 
his passion, and therefore sought to gratify it, 
by blending his waters with t^iose of the foun- 

ALRUNES : the Germans called their household 
gods by this title. 

ALTAR, an eminence on which sacrifices were 
anciently offered to some deity. The Pagans 
at first made their altars only of turf, but, in 
succeeding times, they were made of stone, 
wood, marble, and even of horn, as that of 
Apollo in the island of Delos. The figure of 
them, as well as the materials, was different , 
some were- round, others square, others oval. 
They were always turned towards the east, and 
stood lower than the statues ofthe gods, which 
were placed upon bases above. The altar was 
generally adorned with leaves and flowers: — 
those of Apollo with laurel; of Hercules with 
poplar; of Jupiter with oak: Venus had her 
myrtle, and Minerva her olive. The height of 
the altars differed according to the gods to 
whom they were consecrated ; which consecra- 

' tion was performed by pouring oil upon them. 
The sacrifices to the infernal gods were made 
in holes in the earth ; to the terrestrial gods 
on altars almost level with the ground ; but 
those of the celestial gods were higher ; that of 
juiftter Olympus being, according to Pausa- 
nias, an elevation of almost twenty -two feet. — 
Before temples were in use, altars were erefl:- 
ed, scnnetimes in the highways, sometimes in 
groves, and sometimes on the tops of moun- 
Vol I. 


tains. It was customary to engrave upon them 
the name, or proper ensign or charafiler ofthe 
deity to whom they were dedicated. When any 
person fled to any one of these for refuge, it 
was not lawful to take him away by force ; but 
sometimes they would light up a fire near the 
altar to drive him thence, and then it was sup- 
•posed to be done by the intervention of Vul- 
can: but this was seldom suffered. Altars were 
of divers kinds, and sacred to gods, heroes, 
virtues, vices, diseases, &c. &c. Thus we read 
of the inner altar, or that built under the roof 
or cover of some temple or other building : — 
the outer altar, that sub dio, or in tlie open air : 
the golden altar, that which was covered or a- 
dorned with plates, &c. of gold : the brazen al- 
tar, one decorated or plated over with brass : 
the fixed or stationary altar, those built to re- 
main constantly in the same place : simple altars, 
those without ornament or decoration : niagni- 
jiccnt altars, those variously inriched with me- 
tals, precious stones, painting, sculpture, &c. 
&teney altars, those made either of a simple 
stone, or heaps of stones, or of massive stones 
bound by masonry : earthy or turfy altars, those 
thrown up only of earth, or turf accumulated : 
extemporaneus altars, those made hastily and on 
some emergent occasion : sacrificing altars, those 
serving to hold viflims and offerings presented 
to some deity : memorial altars, those erected to 
perpetuate the memory of some blessing or 
other extraordinary event which happened in 
the place : anointed or consecrated altars, those 
set apart or devoted to the deity, by a regular 
form or ceremony, whereof unftion made the 
chief part: votive altars, those vowed to some 
deity, in consideration of a benefit received : 
private or domestic altars, those erefted by pri- 
vate persons in or about their own houses, for 
family purposes : public altars, those consecrated 
in a solemn manner, to the public use : futieral 
altars, those erefted at the tomb of persons de- 
ceased, inscribed to their names : eucbaristic al- 
tars, those wherein the conuiiunion or Chris- 
tian sacrifice is offered : low altars, those flat on 
the ground, or at most raised but little above 
the surface of it : bigb altars, those elevated a 
considerable height above the ground : subterra- 
neous altars, those let down some depth under 
ground: proper altars, those which answer the 

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charaAers and use specified in the definition : 
improper or figurative altars, those which only 
bear the denomination by way of resemblance 
or analogy; viz. the astronomical and poetical 
aitars : idolatrous altars, those erected to some 
idol or false god : principal altars, the chief al- 
tar of a place where there are several : bomy 
flUars, those formed only of horns: asben or 
cinereous altars, those of ashes : wooden altars, 
those of timber; bloody altars, those whereon 
animals are offered; unbloody altars, thcae where- 
on plants, fruits, spices, or the like are offered. 
The altar of the Jews to Jehovah was but low. 
Sot they were forbidden to make any steps to 
go up to it, lest they should discover their na- 
kedness. At first they were to be made of 
earth, and afterwards of rough stone ; for if 
wrought with any tool, it was said to be pol- 
luted. The altar for the tabernacle ereftcd by 
Moses in the wilderness, was made of Shittim 
wood, being about two yards and an half square, 
and a yard and an half high. It was over-laid 
with brass, and at each comer was a horn, or 
projeftion of Shittim wood, to fasten the ani- 
mals that were to be sacrificed ; and this might 
be carried about on the shoulders of the priests. 
It was placed in the open air before the taber- 
nacle, and the burnt-offerings were to be, as 
the scripture expresses it, " for a sweet savour 
" to the Lord." Among four-footed beasts, 
they only sacrificed bulls, goats, and rams. — 
The altar set up by Jacob, in Bethel, was no- 
thing but a stone, which served him for a pillow 
in the night ; and that of Gideon was a stone 
before his house. Besides the altar for bumt- 
ofierings, they had an altar for incense, and 
another for the shew-bread, both which were 
made of Shittim wood, over-laid with gold.— - 
After the return from captivity, their altar for 
burnt-offerings was a large pile, built with un- 
hewn stones, which they went up to, not by 
steps, but by a gentle ascent. Altars, besides 
the more direft purpose of sacrificing on them 
to the gods, were ereited for other reasons, viz. 
to render alliances more solemn, treaties of 
peace more firm, and oaths more sacred : thus, 
king Latinus, touching the altar, swore eter- 
nal peace with Aeneas, in presence of both ar- 
mies : it was before the Altars that alliances, 
reconciliations, ajjd marriages were ratified ac- 

cording to Virgil ; and here they also held pub- 
lic entertainments, as may be seenf from the 
same authority, supported by that of many 9- 
ther authors. Altars are undoubtedly as an- 
cient as sacrifices themselves, consequently their 
origin is not much later than that of the world. 
Some attribute their institution to the Egyp- 
tians, others to the Jews, others to the Patri- 
archs before the flood ; and some carry them as 
far back as Adam, whose altar is much spoken 
of by Jewish and even by Christian writers. — 
Others are contented to make the patriarch E- 
noch the first who consecrated a public altar. 
Be this as It will, the earliest altars we find any 
express testimony of, are those which were ereS- 
ed by the patriarch Abraham. 

The manner of consecrating altars and images 
was the same : a woman, dressed in a garment 
of divers colours, brought upon her head a pot 
of -sodden pulse, as beans, pjeas, or the like, 
which they gratefully offered to the gods, in 
remembrance of their ancient diet, but those, 
like the other part of divine worship, were va- 
ried ; accordingly, Athenaeus tells us that the 
statue of JupiterCtesias was consecrated in this 
manner : they took a new vessel with two ears, 
upon the fore-part of which they bound a 
chaplet of white wool, and another of yellow, 
and covered the vessel, then they poured out 
before it a libation, called Ambrosia, which 
was a mixture of water, honey, and all sorts of 
fruits ; but the most usual sort of consecration 
was by putting a crown upon them, anointing 
them with oil, and then offering prayers and li- 
bations to them ; sometimes they would add an 
execration against all that should profane them, 
and inscribe upon them the name of the deity, 
and the cause of their dedication. 

ALTE. SeeLycaon. 

ALTELLUS, that is, brought up on the ground : 
a surname of Romulus. 

ALTHAEA, oh ALTHEA, daughter of Thes- 
tius, waswife of Oeneus king of Calydon, and 
mother of Meleager. Oeneus having negle<5led 
the sacrifices due to Diana, the goddess, to 
punish him, sent a wild boar to ravage his 
country, the princes of which waiting to destroy 
the savage, w ere joined by Atalanta, daughter 
to the king of Arcadia. This princess having 
first wounded the monster, his spoils vere 

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given to her by Meleager, whose maternal 
uncles, offended that a young female should 
enjoy the honour of the chace, took from her 
what Meleager had given. Provoked at this 
insult, Meleager, who loved Atalanta, slew his 
uncles ; and Althea, to revenge their death, 
threw into the fire that billet, on the preser- 
vation of which the life of her son depended. 
As the billet burned, Meleager consumed, and 
Althea, repenting too late, killed herself in de- 
spair. According to some authors, it was Me- 
leager, and not his father, who slighted the 
rites of Diana. 

ALTHEMENES, son of Catreus, king of Crete, 
being told by the oracle, th£it he should be the 
cause of death to his father, retired to Rhodes. 
Hither his father coming in search of him, 
fell unwittingly by his hands. There was ano- 
ther of this name mentioned by Strabo, the son 
of Cissus, who built Argos. 

ALTHEPUS, son of Neptune, and king of E- 


ALTIUS, a surname of Jupiter, from the wor- 
ship rendered to him in a sacred grove named 
AltU, near Olympia. 

ALTRIX NOSTRA, a name of Ceres, of the same 
import with her epithet Alma, which see. 

ALUMNA, OR NURSE, a title of Ceres. 

AL-UZZAj an idol of the ancient Arabians be- 
fore the time of Mahomet, worshipped by the 
tribes of Coraish and Kenanah, and part of the 
tribe of Salim. Some say it was a tree called 
The Egyptian Thorn, or Acacia, worshipped 
by the tribe Ghatfan, first consecrated by one 
Dhalem, who built a chapel over it so con- 
trived, as to give a sound when any person 
entered. This idol was demolished by Maho- 
met in the eighth year of the Hegira. 

ALYATTES, or ALYATTEUS, father of Croe- 
sus king of Lydia. 

ALYCUS, son of Sciron, asrasted Castor and 
Pollux in delivering their sister Helen from 
the Athenians. From him a place in Megaria, 
where he was buried, was denominated Alycus. 
Hereas writes, that Theseus himself, who car- 
ried off Helen, killed him ; but Plutarch ob- 
serves, it is totally improbable that Theseus 
himself was at Aphidnae, to which Helen had 
retired with Aethra mother of Theseus, when 
both the city and his own mother were taken. 

ALYSIUS, a surname of Jupiter and Bacchus. 

ALYTARCHA, a priest of Antioch in Syria, 
who, in the games instituted in honour c^-the 
gods, presided over the officers, by whom rods 
were carried to clear away the crowd, and keep 
order. The officer who presided at the Olym- 
pic games was also denominated Alytarcha. 
Some suppose the Alytarcha to be the same 
with the Hellenodicus, of whxh opinion are 
Faber and Prideaux. Van Dale shewif them to 
be different offices; not but that the Alytarchae 
might sometimes be substituted by the Helle- 
nodii, to perform some parts of their funftion. 
The Alytarchae were the direftors, or prefi3i, of 
the Mastigophori, or Mastigonomi, officers with - 
whips in their hands, who attended at the games 
or combats of the Atbktae, encouraged them to 
behave stoutly, and, on occasion, preserved 
good order, kept off the crowd, and were the 
same with those called in some other places 
Alytae. A late writer (Walker on Coins) as- 
cribes we know not what extraordinary dig- 
nities and honours to the Alytarchae, whom he 
represents as the chief of all the officers who ^ 
presided at the games ; that they were honoured 
as Jupiter himself, wore crowns set with jewels, 
ivory scepters, sandals, &c. 

AMAEA, a surname of Ceres. 

AMALTHEA, daughter (rf Melissus king of 
Crete, and nurse of Jupiter, whom she fed 
with goat's milk and honey. According to 
some authors, Am^thea was a goat which Ju- 
pter translated into the heavens, with her two 
kids, giving one of her horns to the daughters 
of Melissus, as a reward for the pains they had 
taken in attending him. This horn had the 
peculiar property of furnishing them with what- 
ever they wished for, and was thence called the 
Cornucopia, or horn of plenty. For Amalthea, 
the Cumaean Sibyl, see Sibylls. 

AMANUS, OR HAMANUS, an ancient deity 
of the Persians, mentioned by Strabo, who 
informs us, that in Persia there are large in- 
closures called irvpa(ti«, in the middle of which 
is an altar wherein the Magi keep up a per- 
petual iire, among a great quantity of ashes. 
They go every day into this place to say certain 
prayers, which last an hour r there they stand 
before the fire with a kind of fasces in. their 
hands, and a mitre on their heads, the strings 
of which hang down behind and before. This, 

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headds, is what is done in the temples ofAna- 
ites and Amanus ; for these divinities have their 
temples ; and the statue of Amanus is carried 
about in great pomp. Amanus seems to take 
his nanle from Hammab, which signifies the 
Sun ; and the TufoAhx, or fire-temples of this god 
agree exaftly with the Hammanim, or fire- 
temples of the Phoenician god Baal, whence 
it is natural to conclude they are one and the 
same deity, namely, the Sun. See Baal. 

AMARACUS, a youth, perfumer to Cinyras, 
king of Cyprus, who, by chance, having broke 
a box of ointment, and the perfume smelling 
more sweetly than usual, the best ointments 
were thence called Amaracina. On his death 
he was changed into the herb sweet marjoram. 


festival, celebrated with games in honour of 
Diana, sumamed Amaryntbia and Amarysia, 
from a town in Euboea. It was observed by 
the Euboeans, Eretrians, Carystians, and Ath- 

/ monians, who were inhabitants of a town in 

AMASIS, king of Egypt— By his order a most 
extraordinary chapel was hewn out of a single 
stone, with the design to have it set up in the 
temple of Minerva at Sfus in Egypt. See under 
Temple, or Cbapel of Amasis. 

AMASTRUS. son of Hippotaa, of the Trojan 
party, was slain by the heroine Camilla, ac- 
cording to the eleventh Aeneid. 

AMATA, wife of Latinus, king of the Latins, 
and mother of Lavinia ; she hung herself in 
despair at being unable to prevent the marriage 
of Aeneas to her daughter. 

AMATHUS, son of Hercules, and father of the 
Propaetides, gave his name to a city in the 
island of Cyprus, consecrated to Venus, and in 
which wasasplendid temple erected to Adonis. 

AMATHUSIA, an epithet of Venus, from the 
city Amathus being consecrated to her. 

AMATHUSA, thtf mother of Cinyras. 

AMAZONIUS, a surname of Apollo, from his 
terminating the war between the Amazons and 

AMAZONS : a nation of female warriors, whose 
history, has been esteemed fabulous by Strabo, 
Arrian, Palephatus, and some moderns, not- 
withstanding the attestations of antiquity to 
the reality of their existence. 

The Scythians had held a considerable part of 
Asia under their dominion, till they were sub- 
dued by Ninus, the founder of the Assyrian 
empire ; but, after the death of their conqueror, 
his wife and son, Ilinus and Scolopites, princes 
of the royal blood of Scythia, aspired to sue 
ceed them. Their attempts, however, .being 
rendered abortive by the success of their com- 
petitors, they withdrew with thteir wives, chil- 
dren, and adherents into Asiatic Sarmatia, 
beyond Mount Caucasus, where they formed 
an establishment, and from thence made fre- . 
quent excursions for the supply of their exi- 
gencies, into the countries that bordered on 
the Eiixine sea. The frequency of these in- 
roads having exasperated their neighbours, a 
conspiracy was fdrmed against them, «id their 
men being surprized, were overpowered and 
slain. The women, to revenge this slaughter 
of their husbands, and provide for their future 
safety, forthwith established a new mode of go- 
vernment. Having chosen a queen, and e- 
jiafted laws, they resolved to defend themselves 
without men, and even in oppoation to them. 
With this view they put to death the few that 
chance or flight had preserved, and for ever 
renounced the rites of marriage. But to per- 
petuate the duration of their new establishment, 
they annually resorted to the frontier of their 
kingdom, for the purpose of a casual inter- 
course with the other sex. Noneof them, how- 
ever, were allowed to increase the subjefts of 
the state, who had not previously killed three 
men. The female offspring of this commerce 
were educated by them ; but boys, according 
to Justin, were strangled at the birth ; or else, 
as Diodorus relates, they distorted their limbs 
so as to render them unfit for martial exploits; 
but Quintus Curtius and others affirm, that the 
less savage amongst them sent their males to 
be brought up by their fathers. As soon as 
the age of the girls permitted, they underwent 
the loss of their right breasts, that they might 
be" able to draw the bow with more force. The 
common opinion is, that this opei-ation was 
performed at the age of eight years, by an 
application of hot iron, which insensibly dried 
up the fibres and glands: but others presume, 
that less ceremony was used, the part," when 
formed, being removed by amputation ; whilst 


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some pretend, that the eflfefS was produced by 
an early compression, whiA being continued 
, without remission, suppressed the expansion of 
the one breast, and increased the projeftion of 
the other. The Aftiazons were commonly 
clothed in the skins of beasts destroyed by 
them in the chase, which were tied over the 
left shoulder, and leaving the right side un- 
covered, fell down to their knees. In war, the 
queens, or other chiefs, wore a corselet formed 
of small plates of iron, in-the manner of scales, 
fastened by a girdle, below which hung the 
coat to the knee. The head was protefled by 
a hdmet adorned with a plume. The rest of 
their arms were a bow and arrows, javelins, 
and battle-axe, said to have been invented by 
Penthesilea, one of their queens. They also 
bore a buckler in the form of a crescent, about 
afoot and a half in diameter, with the points 
upward. ■ Thalestris appeared before Alexander 
with two javelins, though she only came to 
make a gallant request: those who accompa. 
nied her bore two battle-axes with doubleedgesj 
, the handles of which were as long as the shaft 
of a javelin. They are said to have made con- 
siderable conquests. The Crimea and Circassia 
were subjeA to them, and Iberia, Colchis, and 
Albania tributary. They retained their power 
for several centuries ; but an expedition into 
Greece and the island of Achilles, is reported 
to have ruined their empire. 

The Amazons of Africa were female warriors, 
who were obliged to continue virgins till a 
certain period, after which they were allowed 
to marry, simply for the purpose of continuing 
tbeir numbers. The offices of state were tilled 
by them, whilst the men performed the do- 
mestic services. Historians inform us, that 
they inhabited an island called Hesperia, as 
lying to the west of the lake Tritonis. These 
Amazons were celebrated for their struggles 
with the Gorgons, another race of females that 
inhabited likewise the borders of the same 

The Amazons of South America, living on the 
banks of that great river which bears their 
name, make the greatest figure in modem 
story. They are said to have been governed 
and led to battle by their queen alone. No 
men were su^red to live amongst them, though 

upon certain occasions, some were permitted 
to visit them. The females sprung from this 
intercourse were bred with the greatest care, 
but the males were sent to the country of their 

fathers. The Jesuit missionaries mention a 

similar republic of Amazons in one of the Phi- 
lippine islands, whose husbands visit them at 
a particular season of the year, and when they 
retire take with them the males that had been 
bom since their last visit.— The best troops in 
the armies of the emperor of Menomotapa are 
said to be women, who inhabit the neigh- 
bourhood of the Nile, converse at certun pe- 
riods with the men, and dispose of their chil- 
dren in the same manner as the other Amazons. 
Thevenot and others' relate, that in Mingrelia, 
there is a people near Mount Caucasus, a- 
bounding in warlike women, who make fre- 
quent incursions into Muscovy, and engage 
the Calmuc Tartars.— Bremen sis, an ecclesi- 
astJCj who lived about the year 1070, speaks 
of an Amazon nation near the Baltick ; and 
relates circumstances similar to those of the 
other Amazons, only with additional wonders, 
too ridiculous to be repeated. 
The Amazons were called by Plato Sauromatides ; 
and Herodotus mentions, that in the Scythian 
language, their denomination was Aeorpata, or 
man-killers, a word apparently compounded of 
the Celtic aeor a man, and pata to kill. Strabo's 
objection to the existence of the Amazons arises 
principally from the difficulty of conceiving a 
nation of women to exist, independent of men, 
and carry on the management/of affairs both 
in peace and war. Thedisbelief of Palephatus 
was formed on the conceit, that whatever had 
existed might still exist, and must somewhere 
occur: and he further pretended, that Ama- 
zons were only men in the dress of women. — 
Petit argues, that the peculiarities of the Ama- 
zons resulted from the efl^eiSs of climate. Others 
affirm, that the state of the Amazons was no- 
thing more than a community, in which the 
females had the upperhand ; and this opinion 
seems to be countenanced by what Pliny and 
Pomponius Mela have advanced, concerning a 
Scythian people, amongst whom the women 
enjoyed the supreme command ; and this they 
call the kingdom of the Amazons.— Diodorus 
^peaks of the tombs of the Amazons, the ruins 

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of which were extxmt in his time. These monu- 
ments are attributed to a queen of that coun- 
try, who had interred in them the her(Hne« that 
fell in their confli6b with the Gorgons. Her- 
cules is reported to have conquered and exter- 
minated the Scythian Amazons, whcwe queen 
Hippolyta, was bestowed by him upon Theseus, 
as the reward of his valour. In the conquest 
of Hippolyta, Hercules is described as unlos- 
ing her zone ; which the Amazons wore, not 
like women, immediately beneath their breast, 
but like men, as a belt round their IcMns, and 
principally with a view to express their martial 
charaAer : Togird one's self, signifying, in Ho- 
mer, to prepare for battle. Amongst the ideal 
figures of the ancients, the Amazons alone are 
represented with aprotuberantbreast As they 
exhibit women, and not girls, the extremity of 
their bosom is always visible. The general 
conformation of these heroines is similar to that 
of tiie Gorgons and other inferior goddesses.— 
The hair of their heads appear to have all been 
modelled from the same example. They pre- 
sent a sedate countenance^ somewhat expres- 
sive of pain ; for the peculiarity of the single 
breast occurs in all their statues. 
AMBARVALIA, feasts celebrated by the Roman 
husbandmen twice a year. The first, in the 
spring, was in order to render Ceres propitious, 
when each master of a family furnished a victim, 
with an oaken wreath round its neck^ which he 
led thrice round his grounds, lustrating them 
with milk and wine, and followed by all his fa- 
mily, singing hymns and dancing in honour of 
the goddess. At the end of harvest there was a 
second festival, in which they |H'es«ited to Ce- 
res the first-fruits of the season, and made an 
entertainment for their relations and neigh- 
bours. At .these festivals they saerificed to Ce- 
res a sow, a sheep, and a bull or heifer. The 
Ambervalia was of two kinds, private and pub- 
lic. The public Ambervalia were those cele- 
brated in the boundaries of the city, and in 
which the twelve Fratres Aroaies officiated pon- 
titically, walking at the head of a procession of 
the citizens who had lands and vineyards in 
Rome. The prayer or formula here used was 
Avertas morbtim, mortem, tabem nebulam impetigi- 
nem, pesestatem. Some make a quinquennial, as 
well as an annual Ambarvalia, the one perfor- 

med once every lustrum, the other once a year, 
(for authors are not agreed that the Ambarva 
Ha were celebrated twice a year, although most 
are of this opinion). The foritier was called the 
greater Ambarvalia, as being performed ac- 
cording to a settled rite ; and it is to these the 
denomination Suovctaurilia seems alone to be- 
long. See Suffvetaurilia. 

AMBASINEUS, one of the competitors in the 
games of the eighth Odyssey. 

AMBIEGNAE OVES, an appellation given to 
such ewes as, having brought forth twins, were 
sacrificed, together with their Iambs, one on 
each side. They are mentioned among other 
sacrifices to Juno. 

AMBITION was a goddess of the ancients. 

AMBRACIUS, a judge, who, in the Metamor- 
phosis of Ovid, is mentioned as changed to a 

AMBROSIA is commonly represented as the so- 
lid food of the gods, in contradistinftion to the 
liquid, which was called NeSlar ; but those ap- 
pellations were sometimes inverted. Lucian, 
rallying the gods, tells us that Ambrosia and 
Neftar were not so excellent as-the poets de- 
scribe them, since they would leave them for 
blood and fat, which they came to auck from 
thealtars, like flies. 

Ambrosia, in Grecian antiquity, a feast celebra- 
ted by the Aconians, in honour of Bacchus.— 
The Ambrosia were also denominatedCixjaand 
Lenaea, and were kept in the month Lena. 

Ambrosia, one of the seven daughters of Atlas, 
by his wife Acthra ; which daughters were 
called by one general name Hyades. 

AMBULUS: Jupiter was so called; Minerva .*^m- 
buUa, and Castor and Pollux Ambulii ; because 
those divinities had altars near a large portico 
where the Lacedemonians were accustomed to 

AMBURBIA, AMBURBIUM, in Roman anti- 
quity, a procession made round the walls of 
Rome, in which the people led a viiStim, and 
afterwards sacrificed it, in order to avert some 
calamity with which the city was supposed to 
be threatened. Hence we have Amburbiales 
vi&imae, the viflims carried along in the pro- 
cession, and afterwards sacrificed. Scaliger, 
followed by many others, maintains the Am- 
burtna to be the same with Ambarvalia ; but 

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Servius expreesly distinguishes between the 
Ambiirbift and Ambarvalia, the first being per- 
formed in the city, or its environs, and the o- 
ther in the country. 
AMENTHES : Pluto was thus called from his 
having been deprived of the nymph Menthes, 
by Proserpine. 
AMIGA, an epithet of Venus among the Athe- 
nians, because she joins lovers together, the 
Greek word ET<up« being used both in a good 
and bad sense, signifying as well a prostitute, 
as 3 mistress. 
AMIDAS, a Japanese idol : he is their sovereign 
lord and alraolute ruler of Paradise ; the protec- 
tor of human souls, and the father and god of 
all those who are partakers of the delights of Pa- 
radise : he is, in short, the mediator and sa- 
viour of mankind ; for, by his intercession, 
souls obtain remission of sins, and are accoun- 
ted worthy of eternal life. Amidas has such 
influence over Jemma, the Japanese god of 
hell, and solicits that stem judge in such pre- 
vailing terms, that he not only mitigates the 
transgressor's pains, but frequently discharges 
him, and sends him into the world again, be- 
fore the term allotted for his chastisement is 
fully expired. Amidas is revered after a very 
singular manner by some devotees, who vo- 
luntarily sacrifice their lives to him, and drown 
themselves in his presence. The viftim enter- 
ing into a little boat, gilt and adorned with 
silken streamers, ties a considerable quantity 
of stones to his neck, waist, and legs, after which 
he first dances to the sound of instrumental mu- 
sic, and then throws himself into the river. — 
On this occasion, being attended by a nume- 
rous train of relations, friends, and bonzes, they 
sometimes scuttle the boat, and so sink it to 
the bottom. Others of these enthusiastic Ja- 
panese, confine themselves within a narrow ca- 
vern, in form of a sepulchre, walled round a- 
bout, with only a little air-hole. In this grot, 
the devotee calls upon his god Amidas, without 
interruption, till the moment he expires. That 
Amidas is, in the opinion of the Japanese, the 
supreme being, is evident from the description 
his disciples give of him ; for, according to 
them, he is an invisible, incorporeal, immuta- 
ble substance, distinct from all the elements : 
he existed before nature ; is the fountain and 

foundation of all good ; without beginning and 
without end : he erefted the nniverae, and is 
infinite and immense. Amidas is represented 
on an altar, mounted on a horse with seven 
heads, which is an hieroglyphic of seven thou- 
sand years: he has a dog's head, and holds in 
his hands a gold ring or circle, which he bites. 
This bears a very near afl^nity to the Egyptian 
circle, which was looked upon as an emblem 
of time, and it shews that this god is an hiero- 
glyphic of the revolution of ages, or rather, of 
eternity itself. He is dressed in a very rich 
robe, adorned with pearls and precious stones. 

AMISODAR, a king on the banks of the Xar?- 
thus, whose principal force consisted in the 
Chimera which was killed by Bellerophon. 

AMITHAON, the father of Melampus, and bro- 
ther of Esm. 

AMMALO, a Grecian festival, of which nothing 
more is recorded than that it belonged to Jupi- 

AMMON, OR MAMMON, the name of the E- 
gyptian Jupiter, worshipped under the figure 
of a ram. Bacchus having subdued Asia, and 
passing with his army through ^e deserts of 
Africa, was in great want of water ; but Jupi- 
ter, his father, assuming the shape of a ram, 
led him to a fountain, where he refreshed him- 
self and his army ; in requital of which favour, 
Bacchus built there a temple to Jupiter, under 
the title ofAmmon, from the Greek Aftput, which 
signifies MHd, alluding to the sandy desertwhere 
it was built. Such is the poetical account ; but 
it is more probable that the Egyptians worship- 
ped the Sim under this name, for Hamma sig- 
nifies, in Hebrew, the Sun ; or, perhaps, they 
meant by it Ham, son" of Noah, whose posteri- 
ty settled in Libya. The temple of Jupiter 
Hammon, in Libya, was famous for its oracle, 
which continued til! the time of Theodosius : 
Lucan brings his hero, the great Cato, to con- 
sult it. The excessive vanity of Alexander the 
Great, put him upon bribing the priests of this 
god, to declare him the son erf Jupiter Ammon. 
With this view he marched at the head of his 
army, through the sandy deserts of Libya, till 
he arrived at the temple, where the most an- 
cient of the priests declared -him the son of Ju- 
piter, assuring him that his father had destined 
him for the empire of the world ; from which 

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time, in all his letters and orders, he assumed 
the title of Alexander the king, son of- Jupiter Am- 
man. Jupiter Ammon was usually represented 
under the figure of a ram, though on some me- 
dals he appears of a human shape, having only 
two ram-ho'ms growijig out beneath h^ ears. 

Ammon, an Athenian festival, of which we are 
able to trace no particulars. 

AMMONIA,a nameof Juno.froman altar ere^ed 
to her honour in the sands of Libya. 

AMMOTHAEA, a nymph, the daughter of Ne. 
reus and Doris. 

AMMUDATES, one of the gods of the Romans. 

■AMNIfilADES, OR AMNISIDES, nymphs so cal- 
led from Amnisus, a river of Crete. 

AMPELOS, the son of a satyr and nymph, was 
one of the adherents of Bacchus, who had also 
a priest of the name. This word, which signi- 
fies a vine, was the name also of a promontory 
of the isle Qf Samoa ; of a city in Crete, and a- 
nother in Macedonia. 

AMPELUSIA, a promontory of Africa, in Mau- 
ritania, where was a cavern sacred to Hercu- 

AMPHIALUS, a competitor in the games of the 
eighth Odyssey. 

AMPHIARAIDES; Alcmeon, son of Amphia- 

AMPHIARIA, a Grecian festival at Oropus, in 

. honour of Amphiaraus. 

AMPHIARAUS, one of the most celebrated 
prophets among the Pagans, was eon of Oicleus, 
and great-grand-son of Melampus,who received 
part of the kingdom of Argos for a material 
piece of service rendered the women of that 
country ; which division of the kingdom occa- 
sioned the discords that prevailed during the 
reign of Adrastus, king of Argos, who, not 
being able to withstand the partizans of Am- 
phiaraus, M as forced to abandon his kingdom ; 
for Amphiaraiis had usurped the crown, after 
putting to death Talaus, the father of Adras- 
tus. However, the match afterwards conclud- 
ed between Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, sister 
of Adrastus, put an end to the quarrel, and 
restored Adrastus to his throne. Amphiaraus 
I; noting, by the spirit of prophecy, that he 
should lose his life if he engaged in theTheban 
var, hid himself in order to avoid it ; but his 
w iie Eriphyle being prevailed on by the present 

of a necklace from Polynices, discovered where 
he lay concealed, ot that he was forcfd to ac- 
company Adrastus and the other princes on 
that expedition. Being exceedingly enraged 
at Eriphyle, he enjoined Alcmeon and his 
other children by her, to put her to death as 
soon as their age would allow, which order 
was afterwards executed by Alcmeon, but not 
before he had discovered his mother's perfidy 
to himself also. The war agmnst Thebes prov- 
ed fatal to all the princes engaged in it, Ad- 
rastus excepted, who owed his safety and life 
to the celebrated- horse Arion ; for the earth 
being split asunder by a thunderbolt, Amphi- 
araus and his chariot was swallowed up in the 
chasm, at least, according to common tradition ; 
though Strabo says he fell from his chariot in 
the battle, which was carried empty to another 
place. Those who relate that this happened 
the very day the army encamped before Thebes 
are mistaken, for he died the day of the re- 
treat, and the siege continued some time. Am- 
phiaraus Vas believed to excel chiefly in divin- 
ing by dreams ; but this was not all, for he was 
the first that divined by fire. Great com- 
mendations have been bestowed on him, and 
amongst others this, that he was what he ap- 
peared to be, an honest man. ApoHodorus is 
the only author who reckons him among the > 
Argonauts, for he is not ranked among them 
either by Apollonius, Hyginus, or Valerius 
Flaccus. By his wife Eriphyle he had two sons, 
Alcmeon and Amphilocus, and three daughters, 
Eurydice, Demonassa, and Alcmene. Pliny 
adds a third son called Tiburtus, founder of 
the city Tibur ; but according to Solinus, Ti- 
burtus was not the son, but the grandson of 
Amphiaraus; which opinion seems the better 
founded, since none of the Greek poets extant 
mention Tiburtus as a son of Amphiaraus, 
though they particularize his other children. 
The Pagans believed that Amphiaraus returned 
from hell, and even pointed out the place of 
his resurretflion. Some authors affeft to say 
only that he disappeared, among whom are 
Diodorufl Siculus ; Amphiaraus, when the earth 
opened, fell into the chasm, and was seen no 
more. ApoHodorus gives the reason of his 
disappearing, which was, that Jupiter rendered 
him immortal ; " He and his chariot were seen 

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no more, for Jupiter made him immortal." Am- 
phiaraus was ranked among the gods ; temples 
were dedicated to him, and his oracle, as well 
aa the sports instituted in honour of this new 
deity, were very famous. See Adrastus, Atc- 
meon, Ampbilocbus, EripbyU. 

AMPHICLUS. a hero in the sixteenth Iliad, slain 
by Phylides. 

AMPHICTYON, son of Deucalion, and third 
king of Athens, instituted that celebrated 
council of the Greeks called AmpbiByons ; 
though others, with less reason affirm, Acri- 
sius, king of the Argives, to ' have been the 
person who gave a form and laws to this body. 
The first assembly of the kind was held by 
direftion of Amphiflyon, who proposed, by 
means of it, to bind the Greeks more firmly 
together, so as to render them formidable to 
the surrounding barbarous nations. These 
met twice a year at Thermopylae, in the tem- 
ple of Ceres, which was built on a large plain 
near the river Asopus, and were called Am. 
pbi&yons ; from the name of their founder. 
Authors give difterent accounts of the num- 
ber of Amphiftyons, as well as of the states 
entitled to have their representatives in this 
council; according to Strabo, Harprocration 
and Suidas, they were twelve at their first in- 
stitution, sent by the following cities and states : 
The lonians, Dorians, Perhaebians, Boeotians, 
Magnesians, Achaeans, Phthians, Melians, Do- 
lopians, Aenianians, Delphians, and Phocaeans. 
Aeschines only reckons eleven ; instead of the 
Achaeans, Aenianians, Delphians, and Dolo- 
pians, he inserts the Thessalians, Oetaeans, 
and Locrians : lastly, the list of Pausanias con- 
tains only ten Amphiftyons, viz. lonians, Do- 
lopians, Thessalians, Aenianians, Magnesians, 
Melians. Phthians, Dorians, Phocaeans, and 
Locrians ; being silent as to the Eleans, Ar- 
gians, Achaians, andMessenians. In -the time 
of Philip of Macedon, the Phocaeans were ex- 
cluded the alliance for having plundered the 
Delphian temple ; and the Lacedemonians 
were admitted in their place ; but the Pho- 
caeans, sixty years after, having behaved gal- 
lantly against Brennus and his Gauls, were re- 
stored to their seat in the Amphitftyonic coun- 
cil. Under Augustus, the city Nicopolis was 
admitted intu this body, and to make room 
Vol. I. 


for it the Magnesians, Melians, Phthians, and 
Aenianians, who, till then, had distin6t voices, 
were ordered to be numbered with the Thes- 
salians, and to have only one common repre- 
sentative. Strabo speaks as if this council 
were extinft in the times of Augustus and 
Tiberius ; but Pausanias, who lived many 
years after, under Antoninus Pius, assures us 
it remained entire in his time, and that the 
number of Amphiftyons was then thirty. The 
members were of two kinds, each city sending 
two deputies under ditFerent denominations ; 
one called 'hfoiu^fMev, whose business seems to 
have been more immediately to inspeft what 
related to sacrifices and ceremonies of religion ; 
the other nvxetfyofm, charged with hearing and 
deciding causes and differences between pri- 
vate persons. Both had an equal right to de- 
liberate and vote in all that related to the 
common interests of Greece. The HUrotnnemon 
was elefted by lot; the Pylagoras by plurality 
of voices. Though the AmphifSyons were in- 
stituted at Thermopylae, M. de Valois main- 
tains, that their first place of residence was at 
Delphos, where, for some ages, the tranquillity 
of the times found them no other employment 
than that of being, if one may so call it, church- 
wardens of the temple of Apollo: afterwards, 
the approach of armies frequently drove them 
to Thermopylae, where they took their sUition, 
that they might be nearer to oppose the pro- 
gress of the enemy, and order timely succour 
to the cities most in danger. Their ordinary 
residence however was at Delphos ; here they 
decided all public differences and disputes 
Bul)sisting between any of the Grecian cities ; 
but before they proceeded to judgment, they 
jointly sacrificed an ox cut into small pieces, 
as a symbol of their union. Their determi- 
nations were received with the greatest vene- 
ration, and even held inviolable. The Am- 
phitflyons, at their admission, took a solemn 
oath never to divest any city of their right of 
deputation, never to avert its running waters, 
and, if any attempt of this kind were made 
by others, to wage mortal war against them ; 
more particularly, in case an attempt were 
made to rob the temple of any of its orna- 
ments, they were to employ hands, feet, ton* , 
. gue, their whole power in revenging such vio- 

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lationn. This oath was backed with terrible 
imprecations against such as broke it, e. gr. 
May they meet all the vengeance of Apollo, 
Minerva, Diana, &c. May their soil produce 
no fruit, their wives bring forth nothing but 
monsters ! &c. The stated times of their 
meeting were the spring and the autumn. 
On eactraordinary occasions, however, they 
met at any time of the year, or even conti- 
nued sitting all the year round. Philip of 
Macedon usurped the right of presiding in 
the assembly of the Amphiftyons, and of 
first consulting the oracle, which was called 



was killed by Hercules.— There was another of 
this name, brother of Cepheus, and son of Aleus. 
According to Apollonius, both brothers ac- 
companied Jason in his expedition for the golden 

AMPHIDROMIA, in Grecian antiquity, a fes- 
tival celebrated the first day of the birth erf" a 
child. It was so called from rurmmg round, be- 
cause it was customary to run round the fire 
with the infant in their arms. 

AMPHIGUEEIS, a name of Vulcan, because he 
was lame in both feet, accca-ding to Hesiod, 
who gives him this epithet. 

AMPHILOCHUS, son of Amphiaraus, was a cele- 
brated diviner, and brother of A Icmeon, whom 
he accompanied in the second warof Thebes, and 
assisted, according to some authors^ in dispatch- 
ing their mother Eriphyle, though most are of a 
contrary opinion. He was a king as well as a pro- 
phet, for he reigned at Argos. It is true he could 
not maintain himself in that kingdom, but re- 
tired in disgust, and built a city in the bay of 
Ambracia. Thucydides relates, that Amphi- 
lochus, son of Amphiaraus, returning home 
after the Trojan war, and not being pleased 
with the state of alfairs at Argos, founded Ar- 
gos Amphilochium, and the towns of Amphilo- 
chia, in the bay of Ambracia, calling the city 
Argos, after the name of his own country. — 
This city was the most considerable of all Am- 
philochia, being possessed by the most pow- 
erful inhabitants. The altar that was conse- 
crated to Amphilochus at Athens, did not con- 
tribute so much to the glory of his name, as 
^e oracle at Mallua in Cilicia, which city waa 

founded coiyointly by him and Mopsus after 
the Trojan war. Here Mopsus and Amphilo- 
chus quarrelling, the latter left that place and 
went to Argos, but not finding there what he 
expet^led, he rejoined Mopsus, who would have 
no further concern with him, upon which, en- 
gaging in a duel, they killed each other. 
Their tombs, which were shown at Marga- 
sa near the river Pyramus, were so situated, 
that the one could not be seen from the other. 
Strabo says, that Amphilochus was killed by 
Apollo. There are authors who ascribe the 
building of Argos Amphilochium to Alcmeon, 
and not to Amphilochus. See Alcmeon. 

There was another Amphilochus, son of Alcmeon 
and Manto. See Callirboe. 

AMPHIMACHUS : There were two of this name, 
the former son of Teatus, or Cleatus, (one of 
the Molionides) who carried ten vessels against 
Troy, and was killed by Heftor : the latter of 
Caria, who, with his brother Naustes, headed 
the Carians in favour of Troy, and was killed 
by Achilles. 


AMPHIMEDON, one of the Centaurs. Also, the 
son of Melantho, and one of the suitors of Pe- 
nelope, whom Telemachus slew, was of this 

AMPHINOME, one of the Nereids. Of this name 
also was the wife of Aeson, and mother of Ja- 
son, \vho killed herself for grief during her 
s(Hi's absence on the Argonautic expedition. 

AMPHINOMUS, one of Penelope's suitors : he 
reigned at Dulichium, and was put to death by 

AMPHION, king of Thebes, son of Jupiter «id 
Antiopc, daughter of Nicetus king of Boeotia, 
was instructed in the use of the lyre by Mer- 
cury, and became so great a proficient, that 
he is reported to have built the walls of Thebes 
by the power of his harmony, which caused 
the listening stones to ascmd voluntarily. He 
married Niobe daughter of Tantalus, whose 
insult to Diana occasioned the loss of their 
children by the arrows of Apollo and Di^ia. 
The unhaj^y father, filled with despair, at- 
tempting to revenge himself by the destruc- 
tion of the temple of Apollo, was punished 
with the loss of his sight and skill, and thrown 
into the infernal regions. See Ktobe^ 

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There was oneof the Argonauts alsb named Am- 
phion, and likewise a king of Orchomenes, the 
son of Jasius, and father of Chloris. 

AMPHIPYROS, that is, holding in either band a 
Jiame, was an epithet of Diana. 

AMPHIRROE, one of the Nymphs of the O- 


AMPHITHOE, a sea nymph, the daughter of 
Kerens and Doris. 

AMPHITRITE, daughter of Nereus and Doris, 
was wife of Neptune. This god was long ena- 
moured of her, whilst she scornfully rejefted 
his addresses ; till at length Neptune sent the 
Dolphin to intercede for him, as a fish the most 
aSive^most endowed with ingenuity and know- 
ledge, the greatest lover of mankind, and that 
makes his approaches to the Sun upon the sur- 
face of the waters, whereas the others are stu- 
pid, lie at the bottom of the ocean, and have 
little more to boast of than mere motion. The 
Dolphin, it is fiabled, found her at the foot of 
Mount Atlas, and prevailed upon her to relent, 
which favour the deity requited by placing his 
messenger amongst the stars, and making him a 
constellation. The offspring of this union was 

Triton. The poets, says Mr. Spence, have 

scarce any personal descriptions of this goddess. 
All that I can collect of that kind is a passage 
of Ovid, in which it is doubtful whether he 
speaks personally of her, or literally of the cle- 
ment over which she presides. If there were 
anciently ^y figures of Amphitrite embracing 
a globe, it might relate to them ; though, to 
say the truth, if there aflually was any repre- 
sentation of this kind, it would apply with more 
projMnety to a TeUiys than to an Amphitrite. 

AMPHITRYON, son of Alcacus and grand-son 
of Perseus, by some authors stiled king of The- 
bes, is less known by his own exploits, than by 
the adventure of his wife Alcmena, with Jupi- 
ter. The sons of Pterelaus made an irruption 
into the territories of this prince, which proved 
fatal to them ; for in destroying the brothers 
of Alcmena, they also lost their own lives, Elec- 
tryon, in preparing for the revenge of his chil- 
dren's death, trusted Amphitryon with his king- 
dom, and his daughter Alcmena, obliging him 
to take an oath that he would not enjoy her. — 
Those who accompanied the sons of Pterelaus, 

had driven along with them all theflocks of Elec- 
tryon,intothecountryofElis. Theseflockswere 
redeemed by Amphitryon, who, in delivering 
them to their lawful owner, was unfortunately 
the cause of that prince's destruflion ; for, ac- 
cording to Apollodorus, Amphitryon struck 
one of the cows which had run away with a club, 
and it rebounding from her horns to Eleftryon's 
head, was the occasion of his death. As this in- 
cident was eagerly laid hold on to drive him 
out of the country of the Argians; he fled with 
Alcmena to Creon king of Thebes, and received 
from him the ceremonies of expiation. After- 
wards he prepared for a war against the Tele- 
boes, a people who inhabited an island near A- 
carnania, with a design to revenge the death of 
Alcmena's brother, she being determined to 
to marry none but the person who should un- 
dertake that war. In order to understand this, 
the reader must know that Mestor, son of Per- 
seus, had, by Lysidice, a daughter named Hip- 
pothoe, who was carried by Neptune into the 
islands Echinades, where she bore him a son, 
named Taphius. This Taphius settled a colony 
at Taphos, named the inhabitants Teleboae, 
and had a son named Pterelaus, who was father 
of six sons and one daughter. These six sons, 
going to Mycenae, demanded Mestor's kingdom, 
but being unable to succeed with Eleftryon, 
king of Mycenae, the son of Perseus, and bro. 
ther of Mestor, they plundered his country. — 
The sons of Eleflryon, endeavoured to repd 
force with force, but were all killed, as was 
their father, whilst preparing to revenge their 
death, as has been already related. Alcmena was 
obliged to retire to Thebes, but being unwil- 
ling to leave the death of her father and bro- 
thers unpunished, she promised to marry him 
who should avenge her. Amphitryon ofltred 
to do it, and having assembled all the forces he 
could colIeiSt, made a descent upon the country, 
of the Teleboae ; but in order to engage Creon 
in the expedition, he was forced to deliver him 
from a fox which had occasioned a great deal 
of mischief. This he accomplished by means 
of Cephalus, who lent him the dog that Pro- 
cris had brought from the island of Crete. Am- 
phitryon ravaged some of their islands, but he 
could not take Taphos till Comaetho, who had 
fallen in love with him, had plucked ofTfrom 
I 2 

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the head of her father Pterelaus, the golden hair 
.-^ which made him imm<irtal. The unfortunate 
Pterelaus died on the spot, and Amphitryon 
possessing himself of all his dominions, put Co- 
maetho to death, and returned, loaded with 
spoils, to Thebes, where he was informed of 
the adventure of his wife with Jupiter, as rela- 
ted under the article Alcmena. 

DES, a name of Hercules, considered as the 
son of Amphitryon. 

AMPHOTERUS, son of Callirhoe and Alcmeon. 
See Callirboe. 

Also one of the Trojan party, slain by Patroclus. 

AMPHRIS A, a river of Thesaaly, on whose banks 
Apollo kept the flock of Admetus, flayed the 
satyr Marsyas, loved Evadne, Lycoris, and Hy- 

From this river, as being inspired by Apollo, the 
Cumaean Sibyl was stiled Ampbrisia Votes. 


AMPICUS, AMPIX, OR AMPYX, was the son 
of Chloris, and father of Mopsus. 

One of the sons of Pelias was likewise so called. 

AMSANCTUS, a deep lake, surrounded by pre- 
cipices and forests, in the territory of Hirpi- 
nium. So dreadful a stench was exhaled by it, 
as caused it to be deemed an outlet from hell. 

AMULIUS was brother of Numitor, fatlier of 
Rhaea Sylvia. The kings of Alba being lineal 
descendants from Aeneas, the succession de- 
volved upon these two brothers, who deeming 
the treasures brought from Troy equivalent to 
the kingdom, they divided the inheritance into 
two shares. Numitor chose the kingdom, but 
Amulius, by means of the money, being more 
powerful than Numitor, took his kingdom from 
him ; and, that his daughter might have no 
offipring, made her a priestess of Vesta. Not 
long after, however, she brought forth two boys 
of extraordinary figure and beauty ; whereupon 
Amulius, becoming yet more fearful, com- 
manded a servant to destroy them. The chil- 
dren, notwithstanding, who were no other than 
the celebrated twin brothers Romulus and Re- 
mus, escaped ; and afterwards attacking Amu- 
lius in one of his cities, took it, and put him to 
death. See Faustulus, Rbaea Sylvia, Romulus, 
and Reims. 

AMUN, the same with Ammon. 
AMYCLA, one of the daughters of Niobe, whom, 
as well as her sister Meliboea, Latona exemp- 
ted from the generiJ fate of their family. See 

AMYCLAEUS : a surname of Apollo, from a 
very magnificent temple erefted to him at A- 
mycla, a city of Laconia. The same surname 
was also given to Pollux. 

AMYCUS, son of the nymph Melia by Neptune, 
was king of the Bebryisans. . It was his prac- 
tice to challenge strangers to fight, and having 
circumvented them by stratagem, to kill them. 
Pollux, however, when engaged with him, ob- 
serving his design, called together some of his 
brother Argonauts, and, by their assistance, 
slew him. See the Ai«rxowi"» °*^ Theocritus. 

Of this name also were, one of the principal Cen- 
taurs, son of Ixion and Nubes ; a brother of 
Hippoly ta, queen of the Amazons, whom Her- 
cules slew; and the companion of Aeneas, who, 
with another bo called, was slain by Tur- 

AMYMONE, daughter of Danaus, king of the 
Argives, as she was shooting in the woods, hap- 
pened to wound a Satyr, who, in return, at- 
tempted to ravish her. Others say that Dana. 
us having sent his daughter to draw water for 
a sacrifice, a Satyr offered her violence. How- 
ever this might have been, the affllfted Amy- 
mone, imploring aid of the gods, Neptune came 
to her assistance, saved her from the Satyr, but 
deflowered her himself. By him she had Nau- 
plius, the father of Palemedes. It is probable 
that this adventure, which happened near one 
of Neptune's temples, in the neighbourhood of 
Argos, whither Danaus, who came from Egypt, 
was going to offer sacrifice, refers to some priest 
of that god. Amymone is said to have been 
changed into a fountain. 

AMYNTOR, king of the Dolopians, was killed 
by Hercules, for denying him a free passage 
through his dominions. 

There was another of tlie same name, whom his 
wife put to death on the night of their marri- 
age ; and a third the father of Phoenix. 

AMYTHAON, son of Cretheus and Tyro, and 
brother of Pheres and Aeson. Homer, in the 
eleventh Odyssey, represents him as panting af- 
ter military glory. 

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ANACAEUS, son of Lycurgus, one of the Ar- 

ANAC ALYPTERI A, a festival among the Greeks 
on the day the bride was permitted to lay aside 
her veil, and appear in public. It is derived 
from a Greek word signifying to mcover. 

ANACEIA, an Athenian festival in honour of the 
Dioscuri. It derived its name from those dei- 
ties, who were also called Attuat, and honoured 
with a temple called Ammum. The sacrifices 
were named SamfMi (because these divinities 
were g»«, or strangers) and consisted of three 
offerings, which were called Tjhto*. Athenaeus 
mentions plays afted in honour of these deities. 
See Dioscuri. 

ANACES : Castor and Pollux were so called, ei- 
ther from the cessasion of the war, ai^oxi* which 
they had undertaken, to rescue their sister He- 
len, whom Theseus had carried off"; or from 
their singular care, when they had reduced the 
city of Aphidnae, that none should suffer any 
injury from the army within its walls : for the 
phrase «»«)»>; tj(tt», signifies to keep^and take care 
of. Others say, that from the appearance of their 
Btar in the heavens they were thus called ; for, 
in the Attic dialeft umoa^ and airtxaB» signify a- 
have. See AnaBes. 

AN ACHIS, one of the four Lares revered by the 
Egyptians: the other three wereDymon, Ty- 
chis, and Heros. 

ANACLETERIA, a solemn festival, celebrated 
by the ancients when their kings or princes 
came of age, and assumed the reigns of govern- 
ment. It was so called, because proclamation 
being made of this event to the people, they 
went to salute the prince during the Anacle- 
teria, and to congratulate him upon his new dig- 

ANACLETHRA, was a stone on which Ceres 
was believed by the Greeks to have reposed, 
after her fatigue in the search of Proserpine.— 
The women of Megara held this stone, which 
was kept at Athens, near the Prytanaeum, in 
great veneration. 

ANACROSIS, in antiquity, denotes that part of 
the Pythian song in which the combat of Apollo 
and Python is described. 

ANACTES : Cicero speaks of three races of A- 
naftes j the first, sons of an ancient Jupiter, 
king of Athens, and Proserpine, their names 

Tritopatreus, Eubuleus, and Dionysius: the 
second. Castor and Pollux, sons of the third 
Jupiter and Leda : the last were Aloe and Me< 
lampus. Some writers reckon a much greater 
number of them, since they confound them with 
the twelve great gods ; accordingly Pausanias 
tells us that Hercules, after avenging himself 
of Augeas, by pillaging Elk, set up six altars 
to the twelve great gods or Anatfles, so 
that there were two of these gods for each 
altar. Authors are not agreed about the ety- 
mology of the names by which these deities 
were distinguished. Plutarch thinks they were 
given to the Tyndaridae, either upon account 
of their having procured peace, or because they 
had been placed among the stars. Castor and 
Pollux, however, were neither the only nor the 
most ancient deities of that name ; which was 
not known to the Greeks till the arrival of the 
Phoenicians. Ana&es was not a name given to 
all kings in general, although in the Greek 
language it signifies fut^s. Homer applies it 
to most of his gods and kings to denote the care 
which they took of their people : we also findit 
on medals ; it comes from a Greek word impor- 
ting I reign. See Anaces, Castor and Pollux. 

ANACTON, a Grecian festival at Amphissa, the 
capital city of Locris, in honour either of the 
Dioscuri, Curetes^ or Cabiri; for authors differ. 

ANADYOMENE, an epithet of the Marine Ve- 
nus, which imports emerging out of the waters; 
hence came the custom, that those who had es- 
caped any danger by water, used to sacrifice to 
Venus Anadyomene. The most celebrated j)ic- 
ture of antiquity was that of this goddess, . by 
Apelles, for which, according to some authors, 
Campaspe, his favourite mistress, who va& gi- 
ven him so generously by Alexander, sate. 

ANAGOGIA: solemn sacrifices to Venus at E- 
ryx in Sicily, where she was honoured with a 
magnificent temple. The name of this solem- 
nity was derived ttim n *va,ytiT^*t, i. e. from re- 
turning ; because the goddess, who was said to 
leave Sicily and return to Africa, at that time, 
was solicited in tbem to come speedily back, 

ANAIDEIA, OR IMPUDENCE, was a divinity 
amongst the Athenians. < 

ANAITIS, an idol, or goddess, answering to Ve- 
nus, particularly worshipped by the Armeni- 
ans. The greatest men of the country dedica- 

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ted their daughters to her service, who thought 
it an honour to prostitute themselves to all who 
came to sacrifice to this deity ; after which they 
wereeagerly solicited in marriage, being thought 
to have acquired extraordinary sanflity by such 
an. initiation. Upon the festival of this idol, 
the men and women gathered in crowds, arid 
intoxicated themselves with wine. The origin 
of the festival was this: Cyrus having under- 
taken an expedition against the Sacae, was bea- 
ten, but afterwards encamping in the place 
where he had left his baggage, when his army 
was refreshed, he coimterfeited a flight The 
Sacae pursued, and finding the camp, though 
deserted^ abounding with wine and provisions, 
they ate and drank to excess, when Cyrus, re- 
turning, slew them all, and consecrated that 
day to the goddess Anaitis. See Sacaea. 

Pliny says, that the statue of this goddess was the 
first made of gold, and was destroyed in the 
war of Antony against the Parthians. 

ANAMALECH, an idol of the Sepharvaites, who 
are said, in scripture, to have burnt their chil- 
dren in honour of Adrammelech and Aname- 
lech. These idols probably signified the Sun 
and Moon. Some Rabbins represent Aname- 
lech under the figure of a mule, others of a quail 
or pheasant. See Adrammelech. 

ANAPIS, OR ANAPUS, the river to which the 
nymph Cyane joined herself when she became 
a lake. 

ANATHEMA, in Heathen antiquity, denotes a 
gift to somp god, hung up in his temple ; in 
which sense the word is written Afxhi*ti. In 
reality, most Greeks writers distinguish Ana- 
thema written with an n, from Anathema with 
an I, though Beza and others rejeft this distinc- 
tion. Pollux, in his lexicon, observes that the 
word properly signifiesa^i/i dedicated to ibegods, 
which interpretation is confirmed by Hesychius, 
who explains Anathemata by ornaments. Mak- 
ing presents to the gods was a custom even 
from the earliest tiroes, either to deprecate their 
wrath, obtain some benefit, or acknowledge 
some favour. These donatives consisted of gar- 
lands, garments, cups of gold, or whatever 
conduced to the decoration or splendor of their 
temples, and were commonly termed (»«9»i/*«t«, 
and sometimes utxratfuta., from their being de- 
posited in the temple, where they sometimes 

were laid on Uie floor, sometimes hung ujXrn 
the walls, dooi-s, pillars, roof, or any other con- 
spicuous places. Sometimes the occasion of the 
dedication was inscribed, either upon the thing 
itself, or a tablet hung up with it. When any 
person left his employment or way of life, it 
was customary to dedicate the instruments be- 
longing to it as a grateful commemoration of 
the divine favour and proteftion. Thus, in an 
ancient Greek epigram, we find a fisherman pre- 
senting his nets to the nymphs of the sea. 

Shepherds hung up their pipes to Pan, or some 
f of the country deities ; and Lais, when decayed 
with age, dedicated her mirror to Venus. Pau- 
sanias has left a particular description of the 
Anathemata in the Delphian temple ; the richest 
of any in Greece. Anathema is particularly 
applied to the vidtim devoted to the Dulnfemi, 
or infernal gods. In allusion to the Heathen 
ofierings, Socrates thinks the term Anathema 
was introduced for excommunication, because 
thereby a man's condemnation was published 
and proclaimed, as if it were hung upon a pil- 
lar. Anathema, among the Jews, or in the 
Christian churches, signified something set a- 
part, separated, devoted ; as also one of the a6ls 
.0^ excommunication, ov cutting off' ; in which lat- 
ter sense the praftice arrived at length to such 
a pitch, that in the council of Trent a whole 
body of divinity was put into canons, and an 
Anathema subjoined to every one of them. 


ANATOLE, one of the Hours. Also the name 
of a mountain near the Ganges, on which the 
Sun is said to have met the nymph Anaxibia. 

ANAURUS, a river of the Troas, on whose banks 
Paris kept the sheep of Priam. 

ANAX, son of Coelus and Terra, This title sig- 
nifies supreme, sovereign, and was revered as of 
the highest dignity. When bestowed on he- 
roes and denii-gods, it was expressed in the plu- 
ral by Anaces, or AnaBes. 

ANAX ARETE, dwelt in the island of Cyprus: 
she was of royal descent, and unrivalled beauty. 
Iphis, of the same city, fell deeply in love with 
her, but not being able to obtain her, was so 
overwhelmed with grief, that one night he hang- 
ed himself before her door. As his funeral pro- 
ceeded along, attended by a numerous compa- 
ny, according to his quality, Anaxarete beheld 

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the procession from the top of her house, but 
without remorse, upon which Venus, for her 
cruelty, turned her to stone. 

ANAXANDRA, a heroine, whom the people of 
Laconia worshipped as a goddess. 

ANAXIBIA, a nymph who betook herself to the 
temple of Diana as an asylum against the at- 
tempts of Apollo ; but, being pursued thither, 
suddenly disappeared. She is said by some to 
have been the daughter of Bias, wife of Peliaa 
king of Thessaly, and mother of Acastus. A- 
gamemnon had a sister of the same name. 

ANAXIRHOE, the daughter of Coronus, and 
wife of Epeus. 

ANAXIS, the son of Castor and Ilaira. 

ANAXITHEA, one of the Danaids, who bore 
Olenus to Jupiter. 

ANAXO, the daughter of Ancaeus, and accord- 
ing to some, mother of Alcmena. 

ANCAEUS, one of the Argonauts, was the son 
of Neptune by Astypalaea, and brother of Eu- 
phemius and Erginus, chiefs in the same ex- 
pedition. On the death of Tephys, jalotofthe 
ship Argo, which conveyed the Greeks to and 
from Colchisj Ancaeus was aj>pointed to suc- 
ceed him. One of his slaves is said to have one 
day told him, that he should never again taste 
the wine of his vineyard. He, however, to fal- 
sify the prediftion, ordered a cup of it to be 
immediately brought him ; but whilst the slave, 
as he gave him the wine, was observing, that 
strange things sometimes happened between 
the cup and the lip, Ancaeus was informed, 
that the Calyd<mian boar had entered his vine- 
yard. In his haste he dropped the cup, and 
run against the animal, which rushed upon him 
and killed him. 

ANCHEMOLUS, son of Rhetus, an Italian king. 
Having offered violence to his step-mother, he 
fled to avoid his father's resentment, and join- 
ed himself to Tumus. 

ANCHI AL A, mother of Tytias and Cyllenus, two 
of the priests of Cybele, called Daftyli Idaei. 

ANCHIALE, daughter of Japetus, one of the 
giants who revolted against Jupiter. She was 
born before that war, and founded a city of 
her own name in Cilicia. 

ANCHIALUS, a Grecian, who, according to 
Homer, was killed by Heftor. One <rf the 

competitors in the games of the 8th Odyssey, 
was of the same name. 
ANCHISES, a Trojan prince descended from 
Dardanus, and son of Capys, was so beloved 
of Venus, that she appeared to him in the form 
of a*" beautiful nymph, to make known her 
passion for him. The goddess told him she 
was constrained by her destiny to come and 
offer herself in maiTiage to him, assuring him 
he would find her a virgin, and conjuring him 
to present her to his relations, that the mar- 
riage might be speedily solemnized ; but An- 
chises being unwilling to wait for the cere- 
monial, Venus yielded to his importunity. 
■ Aware after the goddess had left him, that she 
was not a mortal, he was apprehensive, ac- 
cording to the belief of the times, that this ad- 
venture would shorten his days ; but Venus 
comforted him, told him she should bear him 
a son, who would be called Aeneas, and would 
cause Sylvan nymphs to breed up the child 
till he attained the age of five years, when she 
would put him into his hands. At the same 
time she warned Anchises not to boast (^ her 
favour, declaring, that should he fail in dis- 
cretion, he would be stricken by the thunder 
of Jupiter. Anchises, however, being unable 
to conceal his intrigue, the menace of Venus . 
was realized ; but, though wounded by the 
bolt, its stroke was not mortal : some say, it 
occasioned only the loss of his sight, whilst 
others pretend, that the wound never closed. 
Anchises is said to have reached the age of 
eighty, and to have been buried in Mount Ida, 
where the shepherds paid honours to his mo- 
nument. This opinion differs widely from 
that of Virgil, according to whom Aeneas, 
the night on which Troy was taken, bore his 
father on his shoulders to a place of safety, and 
carried him with htm to Sicily. Pausanias re- 
lates, that Anchises died at the foot of a moun- 
tain in Arcadia, and was there buried ; whence 
the mountain was called AncbUia. He adds, 
that the ruins of a temple of Venus were to 
be seen near this sepulchre. Stephanus of 
Byzantium, oti the authority ofTheon, main- 
tains, that Anchises was buried in a city of 
Thrace, built by Aeneas: and Tzetzes is of 
opinitm, that the city was in Macedonia. Ac- 
cording to SenriuB, the monument of Anchises 

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was on Mount Eryx near Drepanum. Virgil 
also makes Drepanum in Sicily the scene of 
his death.- — Qito, Dionysius Halicamaasensis, 
and Strabo, place hia death in Italy. The pie- 
ty of Aeneas for his father is much celebrated 
by the poets. They have said, that when he 
took the old man on his shoulders, the very 
Dames showed him respeft ; and that, for fear 
of hurting such a son, they separated, to leave 
a space free for his escape .with his venerable 
burthen. If what Apollodorus relates be true, 
that Venus brought Anchises a second son, 
her passion for him was not of the transitory 

ANCHISIADES, Aeneas the son of Anchises. 

ANCHURUS, son of Midas king of Phrygia. 
Near Cclaenon, a town in Phrygia, the earth 
opened, and swallowed up men, horses. Sec. 
Midas consulting the oracle, was told, that the 
most precious thing they had must be cast 
into the gulf; accordingly, treasures of every 
tort were thrown into the chasm, but without 
tffe&. ; when Anchurus, thinking nothing more 
precious than man's life, and himself, his fa- 
ther excepted, the best man in the kingdom, 
mounted his horse, and plunged into the abyss, 
which immediately closed. 

ANCILE, ANCILIA. Inthe eighth year of Nu- 
ma's reign, a terrible pestilence spreading itself 
over Italy, miserably infested Rome. The ci- 
tizens, rendered almost desperate by this cala- 
mity, were suddenly comforted, at the report 
of a brazen target having fallen^ into Numa's 
hands, from heaven. The king, by the inter- 
course he maintained with the nymph Egeria 
and the Muses, was assured, that this target 
was sent from the gods for the cure and safety 
of the city ; which was soon verified by the mi- 
raculous ceasing of the sickness : at the same 
time a voice was also heard declaring, that 
Rome should be mistress of the world so long 
as she preserved, this sacred pledge. To ae* 
cure so inestimable a treasure, Numa was ad- 
vised to make eleven other targets of the same 
dimensions and form, that in case there should 
be a design of stealing it away, as Ulysses stole 
the palladium, the true one might not be known. 
This difficult work was executed by Veturius 
Manuirius so successfully, that Numa himself 
could not discover the difference. For the 

keeping of these ancilia, Numa instituted an 
order of priests called Salii, or. Priests of Mars. 
Whoever had undertaken the conduft of any 
war, went into the vestry of the temple of Mars, 
and first shaking the ancilia, afterwards the 
spear of the image of the god, said, Mars, watcb! 
for in his temple the ancilia were preserved. 
They were carried every year in the month of 
March in procession round the city of Rome, 
and, on the 30th of that month deposited again 
in their place of safety. No one could marry, 
or set about any business* during the ceremony 
of carrying the ancilia, which, some writers 
say, lasted thirteen days. There are authors 
who ascribed the ill success of the emperor 
Otho against Vitellius, to his departure from 
Rome during that festival. See Salii. 

ANCULAE, ANCULI, according to Festus, the 
tutelar deities of servant maids; whence, no 
doubt, their name AncUlae is derived. To these 
they addressed their prayers. 

ANDATE, OR ANDRASTE, the goddess of 
vi<5tory among the ancient Britons, worsliipped 
particularly by the Trinobantes, or people of 
Essex. They sacrificed captives to this deity, 
in a grove consecrated to her. Cambden con- 
je<aures, that possibly the true name of this 
goddess might be Anarbaitb, an old British word 
signifying to overtbroiv. 

ANDIRINE, a surname of the mother of the 
gods, adopted from the city Andira, where 
they had a temple. 

ANDRAEMON, father of Thoas, a Grecian 
chief at the siege of Troy. Another of the 
same name was son-in-law ofOeneus. 

ANDRIA, public entertainments instituted in 
Crete by Minos, and, after his example, ap- 
pointed by Lycurgus at Sparta, of which a 
whole tribe or city partook. They were ma- 
naged with the greatest frugality ; and youth, 
in particular, were obliged to repair thither, as 
to schools of sobriety and temperance. 

ANDROCLEA, sister of Heraclea, daughters 
of Antipaenus. An oracle having pronounced 
that they should conquer their enemies, if the 
beaj person in the city killed himself, which 
Antipaenus, the greatest man in the place, 
being unwilling to do, the two sisters volun- 
tarily submitted to death, for the safety of their 
country. 2 

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ANDROGEA. daughter of Mino». 

ANDROGEONIA: annual games celebrated in 
the Ceramicus at Athens, by command of Minos 
king of Crete, in memory oiF hi* son Androgeus, 
called B\soEurygyas, who was barbarously mur- 
dered by the Athenians and Megarensians. 

ANDROGEOS, a valiant Greek, killed by Coroe^ 
bus and his party, at the sacking of Troy, ac- 
cording to the second Aeneid. 

ANDROGEUS, son of Minos, king of Crete, was 
murdered by the Athenian youth, and those of 
Megara, who envied his being always vi6tor at 
the Attic games. To avenge this murder, Mi- 
nos distressed the Athenians by war ; and the 
gods also, according to Plutarch, laid waste 
their country, their rivers being dried up, and 
the people themselves oppressed by famine and 
pestilence. Being told, on consulting the ora- 
cle, if they appeased Minos, the anger of the 
gods would cease, and themselves be relieved 
from the miseries under which they laboured ; 
they dispatched ambassadors to Minos, and 
obtained peace upon this condition, that every 
ninth year they should send into Cretea tribute 

of seven young men and as many virgins. 

Thus far writers in general are agreed; but 
the fabulous and tragical account of this story 
adds, that the Minotaur destroyed them in 
the Labyrinth, or that they were left to wan- 
der about in it. and finding no possible means 
of escaping, miserably ended their lives there, 
till Theseus delivered them. Some say, that 
Aigeus king of Athens, caused Androgeus to 
be murdered, because he was in the interest 
of the Pallantidae, and had promised to assist 
them ; othersj that he was slain by the bull of 
Marathon ; and that Minos unjustly accused 
the Athenians as the perpetrators of his death. 
However this might have been, the death of 
Androgeus seems to have given birth to the 
stories of the Labyrinth and the Minotaur, &c. 
See Labyrinth, Minotaur, Tbesem.. 

ANDROGYNES: creatures of whom, according 
to the fable, each individual possessed the pow- 
ers and characters of both sexes, having two 
heads, four arms, and two feet. The word it- 
self is compounded of two Greek radical words, 
tvnf, in the genitive fti^iief, A jnaU, and yvim, a 
Jemale. Many of the Rabbinical writers pre- 
tend, that Adam was created double, one body 
Vol. I. 

being male, the other female, which, in their 
origin, not being essentially joined, God after- 
wards separated. The gods, i^ays Plato in his 
Banquet, had fornied the stru<5ture of man. 
round, with two bodies and two sexes. This fan- 
tastical being possessing in itself the whole hu- 
man system, was endowed with a gigantic force 
which rendered it insolent, insomuch, that it 
resolved to make war against the gods. Jupiter 
exasperated, was about to destroy it, but sorry 
at the same time to annihilate the human race, 
he satisfied himself with debilitating this dou- 
ble being, by disjoining the male frcan the 
female, and leaving each half to subsist with 
its own powers alone. He assigned to Apollo 
the task of repolishing these two half bodies, 
and of extending their skins, so that their 
whole surface might be covered. Apollo 
obeyed, and fastened it at the umbilicus: if 
this half should still rebel, it was once more 
to be subdivided by another section, which 
would only leave it one of the parts of which 
it was then constituted, and even this fourth 
of a man was to be annihilated if it should 
persist in its obstinacy and mischief. The 
idea of these Androgynes might well be bor- 
rowed from a passage in Moses, where that 
historian, of the birth and infancy of nature, 
describes Adam as calling Eve, boiu of bis bone, 
and Jlesb of bis Jlesb. The fable, however, of 
Plato, has been used with great ingenuity by a 
French poet, who has been rendered almost aa 
conspicuous by his misfortunes as by his ver- 
ses. With the anicient philosopher, he attri- 
butes the propensity which attrafla one of the 
sexes towards the other, to the natural ardour 
which each half of the Androgynes feels for a 
re-union ; and their inconstancy to the diffi- 
culty which each of the separated parts en- 
counters in its eflfbrts to recover its proper and 
original state. If a woman appear to us ami- 
able, we instantly imagine her to be that moi- 
ety with whom we should only have constituted 
one whole, had it not been for the insolence of 
our original double-sexed progenitor. 
ANDROMACHE, daughter of Eetion king of 
Thebes, wife of Heflor, and mother of Asty- 
anax. On the destruction of Troy she fell to 
the lot of Phyrrhus, who carried her to Epirus, 
and there married her. After his decease, ihe 





became the wife of Helenua^ son of Priam. Her 
afleftion to He<5lor, however, notwithstanding 
these engagements, still remained ; and, in spite 
of the jealousy it occasioned, she erected a mag- 
nificent cenotaph to commemorate the husband 
of her heart. 

ANDROMEDA, daughter of Cepheus, or Cephus, 
king of Ethiopia and Cassiope, was bound to a 
rock to be devoured by a sea monster, because 
her mother proudly preferred her beauty to 
that of the Nereids. From this situation Per- 
seus delivered Andromeda, whom he after- 
wards married. At his death, this princess, 
with Cassiope, or Cassiopeia, her mother, was 
placed among the celestial constellations. See 

ven to Venus, who, to avenge the death of 
Lais, killed by the Thessalians in her temple, 
destroyed numbers of them by a pestilence. 


ANDRUS, son of Anius, priest of ApoHo, at 
Delphi. The deity endowed him with the 
gift of augury. This Andrus, leaving his native 
country, gave his name to the island of Andros. 

ANEMOTIS, that is, ubicb lulls the -wind, a sur- 
name of Pallas. 

ANGELIA, the daughter of Mercury, who him- 
self was named Angelas. 

Angelus, was also a son of Neptune. 

ANGERONA, the goddess of silence, supposed 
to have been the same with Vofupia, the god- 
dess of pleasure. 

ANGERONALIA, feasts instituted among the 
Romans, in honour of the goddess Angerona. 
They were celebrated on the twenty-first of 
December. Some derive the name from Angi- 
na, the Squinancy, and suppose the goddess thus 
denominated, because she presided over that 
disease ; others suppose it formed from angor, 
grief, pain ; to intimate she gave relief to those 
afflifted with it: others deduce it from ofl^-oj, 
to press, or close, as being reputed the goddess 
of silence. See Angerona Divalia. 

ANGITIA, OR ANGUITIA, the surname of 

ANGUIPEDES, monsters, whose progression re- 
sembled the crawling of serpents. Ovid be- 
stows this appellation on the giants that at- 
tempted to dethrone Jupiter. 

ANGUITIA, the daughter of Aeetes, and sister 
of Medea. 


ANGUIGENAE, the Thebans, so described by 
Ovid, because fable attributes to them the teeth 
of dragons. 

ANICETUS, the son of Hercules and Hebe. 

ANIENUS, tHe god of the river Anio. 

ANIGRIDES, nymphs of the river Aniger, who 
were supposed to possess the power of revers- 
ing the natural qualities of its water. 

ANIMALES, divinities so called from being the 
souls of those who, after death, were received 
into the number of the gods. 

ANIPPE, the wife of Pierius. 

ANIUS, high priest of Apollo, at Delphi, or, ac- 
cording to some, king of Delos, had four daugh- 
ters, to whom Bacchus gave the power of chang- 
ing whatever they touched into corn, wine, and 
oil. Annon would have carried them into the 
Grecian army, that Agamemnon might main- 
tain his soldiers by this heavenly gift ; but they 
fled into the island of Andros j where their 
brother Andrus had settled. To save them 
from being bound in' chains, and forcibly car- 
ried away by Agamemnon, Bacchus, out of 
pity, transformed them into pigeons. Anius 
kindly entertained Aeneas in his retreat from 

ANNA, sister of Pygmalion and Dido, followed 
her sister into Africa. After the death of 
Dido, Pygmalion being desirous of caiTying 
her off, she fled to Italy, and was protefted 
by Aeneas ; but Lavinia becoming jealous, 
resolved to destroy her. Dido, in a dream, 
made known to her her danger, which to avoid, 
she fled by night, threw herself into the ri- 
ver Numicusj and became a nymph of the 

ANNA PERENNA, whom the Romans deified, 
was daughter of Belus, and sister of Dido and 
Pygmalion king of Tyre. She fled to Battus, 
or Bollus, king of Malta, when larbus, king 

of the Getuli, attempted to take Carthage. 

-Not finding herself safe with Battus, on account 
of the threats of larbu'^, she fled into Italy, to 
Laurentum, where Aeneas was settled, who, 
walking one day along the bank of the river 
Numicus, met Anna, and conducted her to his 



house. Lavinia.wife of Aeneas, becoming jea- 
lous of Anna, plotted her destruftion ; butshe 
being admonished of it in a dream, escaped to 
the river Numicus, and plunging into it, be- 
came one of the nymphs. Others think she was 
the moon itself that had taken the name of Anna, 
from the year ab anno, because the year, at that 
time, consisted of lunar months. But the most 
common opinion is, that she was an honest coun- 
try woman, who supplied theRomans with cakes, 
when they had made the secession to the Aven- 
tine Mount, and that they in gratitude decreed 
her perpetual honours. She is reckoned among 
the rural deities, upon the authority of Varro, 
who places her in the same rank with Pales, 
Ceres, &c. The Romans instituted feasts, and 
sacrificed to her on the Idea of March." The 
celebration of the day consisted in drinking and 
feasting largely amongst friends. The com- 
mon people met for that purpose in the fields 
nearthe Tiber, and building themselves booths, 
spent the day in jollity, wishing one another to 
live as many years as they drunk cups. On 
this festival the young maids took very inde- 
cent liberties, and sung obscene songs, the rea- 
son of which is assigned by Ovid. 
ANNI- As the ancients personified almostevery 
thing in nature, so they represented personally 
even the Anni, or years, to whom the poets as- 
cribe a certain silent and gliding motion. When 
thear charatflers were introduced in the great 
processions, or on any other public occasion, 
the persons who afted their parts probably en- 
deavoured to express this in their way of walk- 
ing. There are some expressions in the poets 
which countenance the conjefture, that Annus 
was sometimes represented with more dignity, 
and as moving. along silently, though swiftly, 
jn a chariot. Not only the year itself, but the 
four different seasons of it, were all represent- 
ed as persons by the ancients. The artists, as 
well as the poets, seem sometimes to have ah 
eye to the four ages of life, in their representa- 
tions of the four seasons ; Ver is infantile and 
tender, Aestas young and sprightly, Autumnus 
mature and manly, and Hiems old and decripid. 
Ver, besides his youth, is marked out generally 
by the coronet of flowers on his head, or the 
bushel of them in his hand ; Aestas is crowned 
with com, or holds a sickle ; Autumnus is usu- 


ally distinguished by his garland of diflPerent 
fruits ; and Hi«ns by his wreath of reeds, by 
the birds he holds, or the beast at his feet, and 
by his being clothed, whilst the others are na- 
ked. Though the seasons appear so often on 
the remains of the ancients, we may learn se- 
veral manners of their representing them from 
. the poets, different from those either on gems, 
paintings, or relievos. Autumnus, in parti- 
cular, was perhaps sometimes represented as 
pouring fruit out of his lap, and sometimes 
holding a vine- branch, loaded with grapes; at 
other times he was painted as all stained and 
discoloured from the vintage, and with grey 
hairs intermixed with those of their natural co- 
lour. It is probable he was sometimes exhibit- 
ed with a wan, feeble look, which is but too just 
a characteristic of this season. Hiems, as old 
and decrepid, should be either quite bald, or 
only with a few grey hairs ; his look should be 
rough, melancholy, and severe ; he is slow in 
his motions, and shivei-s as he goes. Possibly 
they sometimes represent him with icicles on his 
garments, and hoar frost upon his beard. His 
retreat during the warmer months, according 
to Statins, was towards the north pole ; and 
Virgil, perhaps from some picture or relievo, 
describes Sol as driving him out of the sight of 
men, into some deep, gloomy cave there. The 
year represents the ages of mankind ; for as 
there are four parts of the year, so, according 
to tlie opinion of Pythagoras, childhood con- 
tinues twenty yeai-3, youth twenty, manhood 
twenty, and. old age twenty. Childhood re- 
sembles the spring, youth summei', manhood 
autumn, and old age winter. 
AN NONA, (me of the goddesses of plenty. She 
differs from Abundantia as having a smaller di- 
strict, and as presiding over one season only ; 
for, as the word seems to signify, she was look- 
ed on as the giver of plenty of provision for the 
current year ; whereas Abundantia was Uie 
giver of other tilings as well-as provision ; and 
at all times and in all places. Annona is re- 
presented with corn in her hand, and the beak 
of a ship by her, to shew some temporary sup- 
ply of com, which was generally brought by 
sea to Rome, as may be seen from a figure of her 
on the reverse of a medal, in honour of the em- 
peror Antoninus Pius. See Abundantia. 

K 2 






ANOBRET, a Phoenician nymph, the wife of I. 
lus, or Saturn, and mother of Jeud, who was 
sacrificed on an altar which he himself had e- 

ANOSIA: i.e. tbe unrelenting : an epithet of Ve- 
nus, given her for the s^me reason as Andro- 
phonos ; which see. 

ANTANDROS, a city of Phrygia, whence Ae- 
neas embarked. 

ANTAEUS, the giant, was king of Lydia and son 
of Neptune and Terra, or the Earth. He is 
Baid to have been sixty-four cubits high, and so 
inhuman that he first forced all strangers to 
wrestle with him, and then killed them. One 
of the most remarkable among the voluntary 
labours of Hercules, was his combat with him, 
whom, in travelling over the world to rid it of 
monstere, he found in Africa. Their method 
of fighting partook both of wrestling and box- 
ing.; Buch as was frequently used in the Circus 
at Rome. In this sort of combat Hercules foiled 
his antagonist several time?, but, as often as 
he fell on his mother, the Earth, she constantly 
supplied him with fresh strength, and enabled 
him to renew the confliiS with vigour. Her- 
cules, after fatiguing himself a long time in 
vain, having at length found out the mystery, 
instead of Hinging him on the ground, as he 
had done, lifted him up from the earth, and 
pi^ssed him to death against his bosom. There 
are no antiques representing the former part of 
this combat, but statues of the viAory were 
common. It is also to be met with on gems 
and medals. There pMsibly may have been o- 
ther representations which agreed with Ovid's 
account, who seems to make Hercules hold this 
mighty giant under his left arm, whilst with 
his right hand he throttles him.— Antaeus was 
the name also of a Latian chief. 

ANTELIUS, OH ANTHELIUS, one of the Ante> 
luDaemones, divinities worshipped at Athens. 

ANTELUDIA, a day of shew or parade preced- 
ing the GrcCnses, in which the preparations 
made for thrte solemnities were expMed in great 
form and pomp. 

ANTENOR, a Trojan prince, thought to have be- 
trayed his country, because he entertained the 
Grecian ambassadors, who were sent to demand 
Helen, and did not discover Ulysses when he 
knew him in his disguise : Aeneas and Antenof 

alone advised to restore Helen, and make peace. 
Antenor made his way through themidst of the 
Greeks, arrived safe to the territories of Ve- 
nice, and built a city called Antenorea, after- 
wards Patavium, from the river Padus, and 
now Padua. Tacitus informs us, that it was be- 
lieved in his time, that the games celebrated at 
Padua had been instituted by this Trojan ; alid 
some authors maintain, that the bonnet of the 
Doges of Venice is made to resemble those of 
the ancient Phrygians. Antenor, to establish 
himself in these territories, formed an alliance 
with the Henetes, ancestors of the present Ve- 
netians, and, by their assistance, expelled the 
Euganians, and built the city already mention- 
ed, where it is said his tomb is still extant. — 
There are authors who rejeft that part of the 
■account which makes Antenor the builder of 
Padua. Antenor was father of Iphidamas and 
Coon, by Theano, daugliter of Cisseus. 

ANTENORIDAE, the descendants of Antenor. 

ANTEROS, son of Mars and Venus. Themis 
had told this goddess that her son Cupid, or 
Eros, would not grow up till she had another 
son, which accordingly she had by Mars, and 
called him Anteros, i. e. Anti-Cupid ; whence 
Venus is stiled by Ovid, the mother of two 
Loves or Cupids. The Athenians erefted an 
altar and a statue to Anteros, representyig him 
naked, under the form of a beautiful youth, 
holding two cocks upon his la-east, and endea- 
vouring to make them peck his head. It is 
thought that the two winged Cupids which draw 
the chariot of Venus, in a medal of the Julian 
family, are Eros and Anteros. This deity is 
generally taken for mutual and reciprocal love ; 
but Servius, upon Virgil, understands Anteros 

as the opposite, or a remedy against love. 

Others make Nox and Erebus, or Hell and 
Night, the parents of Cupid Anteros ; whom 
they stile a vulgar god, whose companions are 
Drunkenness, Sorrow, Contention, and the like. 

ANTEVORTA, and POSTVORTA, deities a- 
mong the Romans, so Called because th^ were 
supposed to preside over events both past and 
future. These deities were regarded as the 
counsellors rf Providence, and were particu- 
larly invoked by women in child-bed. Ante- 
vorta caused the child to present itself in a 
ri^ht position ; and Postvorta gave it bvth 

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when it came forth with its feet foremost. Post- 
vorta allayed the pains of child-bearing, and 
Antevorta restored the lying-in woman to 
health. These goddesses were also sometimes 
called Prosa, Prorsa, and Porrima. 

ANTHESPHORIA, a Sicilian festival instituted 
in honour of Proserpine. The word is derived 
from the Greek «K&iir ajtower, and ^tfu to carry; 
because that goddess was forced away by Pluto 
when she was gathering flowers in the fields of 
Enna, a beautiful plain situated near the mid- 
dle of the islandj and therefore called The Na- 
vel ofSicUy. Festus, however, does not ascribe 
the feast to Proserpine, but says, it obtained its 
appellation from the ears of com which were 
carried on this day to the temples. Anthespho- 
ria seems to be the game thing with the Flori- 
sertum of the Latins, and answers to the harvest- 
home of modem days. Another si^emnity of 
this name seems to have been observed at Ar- 
gos in honour of Juno, to whom a temple was 
dedicated under the name of Av9m«. 

ANTHESTERIA, an Athenian festival, observ- 
ed in honour of Bacchus, upon the 11th, 12th, 
and ISth days of the month Anthesterion. The 
first day was named Jlihtyut, a-wo m v%^a( mytn, 
i. e. because they then broached their barrels. 
The same day was by the Chaeroneans called 
AyoSou A«i(Mw, t. e. the day of the good genius ; 
because it was customary to make merry upon 
it. The second day was called Xwt, from the 
measure x**> because every man drank out 
of his own vessel, in memoty of an accident 
which happened in the reign of Pandion, or, 
as others say. Of Demophoon, when Arestes, 
having slain his mother, fled to Athens before 
he had undergone the purification for murder. 
The Athenians were at that time busy in cele- 
brating the festival Of Bacchus, stiled Lenarus-, 
from Ms having thecare of wine presses, which 
in Greek are called Av«t«. Orestes was kindly 
received ; but, to prevent the contamination 
which might adheretothe company, by drink- 
ing with a polluted person, and yet, that he 
might not take it unkind to be forced to drink 
alone, it was ordered, that every man should 

• have a distinct vessel of wine, and drink- only 
of his own cup. The first day they cmly opened 
their vessels, and tasted their wine ; but, on 
the second, it was the cust<Hn to drink copi- I 

ously, in emulation of each other, and the 
viilor was rewarded with a crown of leaves and 
a vessel of wine. It was usual also to ride in 
chariots, out of which they jested upon all who 
passed by. The professors Of sophistry feasted 
at home with their friends, and had presents 
sent them in abundance. From this day called 
Xfttt, it was that Bacchus had the surname of 
Xtowont, or the bouser. The third day was cal. 
led XvTfn from xyrf»> a Pot, which was brought 
forth full of all sorts of seeds, which they ac- 
counted sacred to Mercury. .The comedians 
used to aft on this day, and at Sparta, Lycurgus 
ordered that such of them as excelled should 
be enrolled amongst the free citizens. During 
this festival, the slaves were allowed to drink 
and revel ; andtherefore, attheend of it, it was 
usual to proclaim 9vf»^t K«pi(, ew rr' Ai^epift*. 
Retire ye Carian slaves! the Anthesteria are 

ANTHEMOISIA, daughter of Lycus, and mo- 
ther of Pelops by Tantalus. 

ANTEUS, son of Antenor, whom Paris killed 
by mistake. A leadpr under Aeneas was also 
of this name. 

ANTHI A, a name of Juno. Pausanias mentions 
a temple er^ed to her under this appellation. 
ThesisterofPriam,taken captive by theGreeks, 
was so called. There was also another Anthia^ 
wife of PiTwtus. 

ANTHION, a well in Boeotia, by which Ceres 
is said to have sat, in the figure of an old wo- 
man, during her search of Proserpine. 

ANTHIUS; a surname of Bacchus, signifying 
jlorid, blooming, in the prime of life. He was wor- 
shipped under this title at Athens. The Pra- 
tenses had also a statue of him thus denomi- 
nated. Thepoets have a frequent retrospeft to 
this particular. Thus, Catullus : 

Parft tx alia sLOn.ttiS'veiilaiat laeeitu. 

ANTHOR, OR ANTHORES, of Argos, was a 
companion both of Hercules, and also of Evan- 

ANTIANIRA, daughter of Menechus, and mo- 
ther of Echion and Erytus (heroes in the Col- 
chian expedition) by Mercury. 

ANTIAS, Fortune, so denominated from a cele- 
brated temple erefted to her at Antiuni, a city 

ANTIGLEA, the daughter of Diodes, wife of 

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Laertes, and mother of Ulysses, was not only 
said to have been surprized by Sisyphus, but 
that he was the real father of Ulysses. 

ANTICYRA, an island in the gulf of Corinth 
that abounded with helebore. 

ANTIGONE,daughter of Oedipus kingofihebes, 
by his mother locasta. When that prince disco- 
vered that he had not only killed his father, but 
married his mother, he was seized with such 
frenzy, that he plucked out his own eyes, and 
would have killed himself, if his daughter .An- 
tigone, who led him about in this deplorable 
condition, had not prevented him. Antigone, 
with her sister Agria, was afterwards put to 
death by Creon king of Thebes, when attend- 
ing the funeral of their brother Polynices ; but 
Theseus soon revenged their deaths, by killing 
Creon, whose son, Haemon, being in love with 
Antigone, slew himself at her tomb. There 
was another Antigone, daughter of Laomedon, 
who, thinking herself, on account pf the parti- 
ality of Jupiter, more beautiful than Juno, was 
changed by the jealous goddess to a stork. 

ANTIGONEIA, sacrifices in honour of Anti- 

ANTILOCHUS, son of Nestor, was slain by Hec- 
tor, according to Ovid ; but, according to Ho- 
mer, by Memnon. Antilochus is said in the 
Iliad to have been the first Greek who slew a 
Trojan, having with his lance stricken Eche- 
polus through the head. 

There was another Antilochus, son of Amphiraus. 

ANTIMACHUS. See Pismder. 

ANTINOEIA, annual sacrifices and quinquennial 
games in honour of Antinous the Bithynian. 

. They were instituted at the command of Adri- 
an the Roman emperor at ManCinea inArcadia, 
where Antinous had a temjde, and was wor- 

ANTINOUS, one of the suitors of Penelope, 
whom Ulysses killed at a feast of the other 
Antinous, (who was deified by Adrian, and to 
whose memory the jintlnoeia were instituted) ; 
there remains at Mandragone a CcJossal head, 
in the most perfect perservation, and conceived 
on the great principles of art, so exquisite in 
its beauty, that, excepting the Apollo Belvj- 
dere and the Laocoon, -scarce any york of an- 
tiquity, transmitted to our times, can bear to 
: be compared with it. If. permission could be 

obtained to take a cast from it, our artists 
might study it as a model of beauty. Inde- 
pendant of the lineaments of the countenance, 
the details have uncommon merit, and the hair 
in particular is treated in a manner that no 
remains of ancient art can equal. In respe6t 
to the gems of Antinous, one of the most beau- 
tiful extant, and which was in the cabinet of 
the Zanetti of Venice, is now in the collcfftion 
of the duke of Marlborough. 

ANTIOPE, queen of the Amazons, was subdued 
and .taken by Hercules, who presented her to 
Theseus. There was another Antiope, daughter 
of Nyfteus, who borer two wms to Jupiter. 
Her father attempted to kill her, but she es- 
caped from him, and after his death was pur- 
sued by Lycus her uncle, who committed her 
to the custody of Dirce his wife, from whose 
ill treatment she was rescued by her sons. 

ANTIPHATES, son erf Sarpedon by. a woman 
of Thebes, was slain by Tumus.-"Of the same 
name was a. savage, king of the Lestrigons. 
Ulysses having been cast on his coast, sent 
three of his companions to solicit his aid. One 
of them he devoured, and the other two, with 
difficulty, escaped.-— A third Antiphates, was 
the son of Melampus, and father of Oielus. 

ANTIPHONj one of the nine sons of Priam, who 
survived the death of Hector. 

ANTIPHUS, with his brother Phidippus, were 
descendants of Hercules by their father Thes- 
salus. The two brothers led thirty ships against 
Troy, Priam also hada son of this name, kil- 
led by Agamemnon, and Ulysses a friend. 

ANTORES, had been the companion of Hercules, 
but being sent from Argos, joined Evander in 
Italy, according to Virgil, who makes him fall 
by the dart of Mezentius aimed at Aeneas. 

ANUBIS, an Egyptian god represented under 
the form of a man with ^ dog's head, holding 
a palm branch in one.han4> and a caduceus, 
or wand with two wings ,<hi the top, and en- 
twined by two Berpents,' on the other. This 
god the poets generally call the Barker, a god 
half a dog, a dog half a man. He is also called 

' Hermanubis, because hia^aagMity is so great, 

thataortie take him to be the same vfith Mer;^ 

cury. "Piodorus Sic ulxis: tells us, that Anubis,' 

following his father Osiris to war, bore the fi- 

; gune of :a dog on his shieldj for which reason 

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lie was worshipped after his death under the 
resemblance of that animal. 
Anubis was also the name of one of the sons of 

Bacchus, and brother of Macedo. 
OR AXUR, that is, without a. beard ; was a title 
under which Jupiter was worshipped as a child, 
in Campania, and particularly at Anxur, a city 
of the Volsci. 
ANXUR, a hero mentioned by Virgil, whose 

left arm Aeneas lopped of with his sword. 
ANYGER, a river in Thessalyin which the Cen- 
taurs bathed the wounds they received from 
AON, son of Neptune. Being compelled to flee 
from Apulia, he settled in Boeotia, on the 
mountains which were called from his name, 
AONIDES, one of the many appellations common 
to the Muses, so called from the Aonian moun- 
tains, a part of ancient Boeotia. 
AONIUS Deus: Bacchus, because he was of Boeo- 
tia, was so stiled, and the epithet Aonius was 
given to Hercules for the same reason. 
AORASIA, invisibility. The opinion ofthe^n- 
cients with regard to the appearance of the 
gods to men, was, that they never shewed 
themselves face to face, but were known from 
their backs as they withdrew. ■ Neptune as- 
sumed the form of Calchas to speak to the two 
Ajaxes, but they knew him not till he turned 
his back to leave them, and discovered the god 
by his majestic step as he withdrew. Venus 
appeared to Aeneas in the charafler of a hun- 
tress, but her son knew her not till she de- 
parted from him ; her divinity was then be- 
trayed by her radiant head, her flowing robe, 
and her majestic pace. 
AORNOS. See Avernus. 
AORSA : Diana is so stiled by Hesychius, from 

a mountain of that name in Argolis. 
APATURIA, a Grecian festival, first instituted 
at Athens, and thence derived to the rest of the 
lonians, except those oT Ephesus and Colophon, 
It received its name from a-rai-n, which signifies 
deceit, being first instituted in memory of a 
stratagem by which Melanthius, king of Athens, 
overcame Xanthus, king of Boeotia; for,acon- 
troversy happening between the Athenians and 
Boeotians about a piece of ground, situated on 

APA 71 

the confines of their two countries, Xanthus 
made a proposal that himself and Thymoetes, 
who then reigned at Athens, should decide the 
quarrel by single combat ; but Thymoetes de- 
clining the fight, he 'was deposed. Melanthius, 
his successor, a Messenian, son of Neleus and 
Periclymene, accepted the challenge, and met 
his antagonist at the appointed place. At the 
instant of commencing the confiifS, Melanthi- 
us thinking, or pretending that he saw at Xan- 
thus' back, a person habited in black goat's 
skin, cried out that the conditions of the con- 
test were violated, upon which, Xanthus look- 
ing back, was treacherously slain by Melan- 
thius. In memory of this success, Jupiter was 
sumamed Air*lmup, or the Deceiver, and Bac- 
chus MfAavteiyif, i- e. invested in a black goat's skin. 
The latter was also honoured with a new tem- 
ple, and the institution of this festival. Others 
are of opinion that the v^/w/i/no were denomi- 
nated from KvxTBVfid, of the same impwrt with 
ofAirtrxTOfix ; because on this festival children ac- 
companied their fathers to have their names en- 
tered in the public register. Others suppose 
the festival to have been so named, because chil- 
dren were to the time of its oljservance airseTo/wf, 
(. e. witbout fathers in a civil sense ; it not being 
till then publicly recorded whose they were. — 
This festival was celebrated in the month Pya- 
nepsion, and lasted three days. The first day 
was called Jo/htk* from Jspfnij, a supper ; because 
on the evening.of that day, each tribe had a se- 
parate meeting, at which a sumptuous enter- 
tainment was provided. The second day was 
named Au«p/ii'9-if, because on this day viftims 
were offered to Jupiter fp«Tpiet, or the protcBor 
of tribes, and Minerva, in whose sacrifices, as 
in all that were offered to the celestial deities, it 
was usual to turn the heads of the victims up- 
wards towards Heaven. At this sacrifice the 
children enrolled among the citizens, were pla- 
ced close to the altar. It was usual also for 
persons richly apparelled to take lighted torches 
from the sacred hearth, and run about singing 
hymns in praise of Vulcan, as the first who 
taught men the use of that element ; which cus- 
tom is by Meursius referred to this day, though 
Harpocration, to wliom we are indebted for the 
mention of it, has left us in the dark as to its 
time. The third day was named xouptwrij, from 



xtufot, a youtb ; or usfa, a shaving ; because the 
young men who till then remained unshaven, 
had their hair cut off before they were presented 
to be registered. Their fathers at this time 
were obliged to swear that both themselves and 
the mothers of the young men were free-born 
Athenians. It was also usual to offer a sheep in 
sacrifice to Diana. This viftim was to be of a 
certain weight, and because it once happened 
that the standers-by cried out in jest/Anor, fum, 
as though it were too little, it was ever after cal- 
led Mim, and the persons who offered it/Miar^yai. 
To these Hesychiua adds a fourth day, which he 
tells us was called miSm. This name, however, 
is not peculiar to this festival, but was generally 
applied to any day celebrated after the end of 
another solemnity, being derived «»■• tw txtCai- 
vM, because it was a sort of appendage to the 
great festival. 

APAULIA, the third day of a marriage solem- 
nity. It was thus called because the bride, re- 
turning to her father's house, lodged apart from 
the bridegroom. Some pretend the Apaulia to 
have been the second day of the marriage, or 
that on which the chief ceremony was per- 
formed, thus called in contradistin^ion to the 
first day, or itfixxvUct. On the day called atmuXim, 
the bride presented her bridegroom with a gar- 
ment called (MncuXfim^Ms. 

APENE, a kind of chariot in which the images 
of the gods were carried on particular days in 
procession, attended with solemn pomp, songs, 
hymns, dances, &c. It was very rich, made 
sometimes of ivory or silver, and variously 
decorated. The Apene or sacred chariot of 
the Greeks, is called by Latin writers. Then- 

thet given to Jupiter from Apesas, a mountain 
of Nemea, consecrated to him. 

APHACITIS, a tiUe of Venus from Aphaca, a 
place in Syria situated between Heliopolis and 
Byblos, near Lebanon, where she had a temple. 
Near this place was a lake, round which fire 
usually burst forth, and its waters were so 
heavy, that bodies of considerable gravity 
floated on them. The temple was destroyed 
by Constantine, as being a school for inconti- 
nence. The word Apbaca is of Syriac origin, 
and signifies embraces. 


APHAEA, a surname of Diana. Under this title 
Britoniarte was worshipped at Aegina. 

APHAEUS, a surname of Mars. 

phone and Perieres, and brother of Leucippus 
and Arene, daughter of Gorgopbone by her 
second husband Oebalus. Aphareus married 
his sister Arene. See Gorgopbone. 

There was another ^^/uireuj one of the Argonauts, 
and father of Lynceus, whom Ovid stiles Apba- 
reia proles. Homer mentions a Greek also of 
this name, slain before Troy. 

APHARIUS, a Greek noticed in the 9th Iliad. 

APHETERII: Castor and Pollux were so name4 
from a temple within the course where compe- 
titors contended in running, and from the ves- 
tibule of which they started. 

APHETOR, a surname of Apollo, from the ora- 
cles which he delivered at Delphi, and like- 
wise of the priest who promulged them. 

APHIDNUS, one of Aeneas' leaders, killed by 
Turn us. 

APHNEUS, OR APHNIUS, a surname of Mars. 

APHRODISIA, festivals in honour of Venus, 
called Apbrodite or Aphrodites, sever a} of which 
were observed in divers parts of Greece. The 
most remarkable of them was that at Cyprus, 
instituted by king Cinyras, out of whose family 
certain priests of Venus were elected, and for 
that reason named*t*i. At that solemnity 
several mysterious rites were practised : all ini- 
tiated into them offered a piece of money, and 
received, as a token of the goddesses favour, a 
measure of salt and a**w,oi ; the former, because 
salt is a concretion of sea water, whence Venus 
was thought to have sprung ; the latter, because 
she was the goddess of wantonness. At Ama- 
thus, a city of Cyprus, solemn sacrifices were 
offered to Venus, and called mupmont;, a term de- 
rived from xofTot, fruit ; perhaps because this 
goddess presided over generation. At either 
Paphos the festival of this goddess was observed, 
being celebrated not only by the inhabitants 
themselves, but by multitudes that thronged 
to it out of other cities. At Corinth it was ce- 
lebrated by harlots. 

Venus Marina, which imports emerging from 
the foam of the sea. 

APHTHAS. SeeOpas. 

Digitized by 



APIA: underthis name the Earth was worshipped, 
as a powerful deity, by the Lydians. The Pe- 
loponnesus likewise was anciently so called from 
king Apis. 

on the sideof Priam. HewaskilledbyLycomedes. 

APIS, one of the Egyptian gods, worshipped in 
the form of a living bull. Mythologists say 
that Apis was a king of the Argives, who, leav- 
ing his dominions to his brother, went into £- 
gypt, where he was known under the name of 
Osiris ; that he married Isis, and, having civi- 
lized the Egyptians, taught them the manner 
of planting the vine. They revered him, after 
his death, as a god, under the figure of a bull. 
This singularity the ingenious Abbe la Pluche 
explains in the following manner : Chance 
having produced a calf at Memphis, which had 
some spots nearly in the figure of a circle or 
crescent, symlx>ls highly reverenced among 
the Egyptians, these marks were taken for the 
charafteriatics of Osiris and Isis, stamped upon 
the animal ; and some extravagant persons ima- 
gined and persuaded others, that this was an 
apparition of their ancient governor, on a visit 
which as proteflor of Egypt he condescended to 
make them. This miraculous calf was there- 
fore lodged in the finest palace in Memphis ; all 
his motions were judged prophetical ; the peo- 
ple flocked to him with their offerings, and he 
received the name of Apis, which signifies the 
migbtygod. At his death, they took care to 
replace him with another that had nearly the 
same spots, and when the marks were not ex- 
aA, they improved them with a pencil. After 
a certain time, to prevent the indecency of his 
dying, they led him, with great ceremony, to 
a certain place, where they drowned him, and 
then interred him very devoutly. This me- 
lancholy ceremony was intermixed with abun- 
dance of tears, and was emphatically called S«- 
rapis, or the retreat of Apis ; his successor was 
sought for, and then this strange devotion was 
perpetuated. Pliny thus describes the form and 
quality of this bidl, or ox : An ox is worship. 
ped in Egypt as a god ; they call him Apis : — 
there is a white shining spot upon his right side, 
horns like the moon in its increase, and a node 
under his tongue, which they call Cantbaris. — 
His body, according to Herodotus, was all black. 
Vol I. 



on his forehead he had a white, squavej shining 
figure ; the eflSgiesof an eagle on his hack; and, 
besides the Cantharis in his mouth, he had hair 
of two sorts on his tail. If he live beyond an 
appointed period of time, they drown him in 
the priest's fountain : the priests then shavetheir 
heads, mourn and lament, and seek another to 
supply his room. When they have found one, 
he is brought by the priests to Memphis. He 
hath two chapels, which they call chamtiers, 
and hither the people resort. In one he fore- 
tells good, in the other evil. He gives his an- 
swers in private, and takes meat from those who 
consult him. He refused meat, however, from 
the hands of Germanicus Caesar, who died not 
long after. He afls for the most part in secret, 
but when he pleases to appear publicly, the offi- 
cers go before and clear the way, and a crowd of 
boys attend him singing verses to his honour. 
He seems to have intelligence, and to expert 
worship. Once a year acow is shewn to him, 
who hath her marks, though different from his, 
and this cow is always both found and killed the 
sapie day. To this Aelian adds, that the cow 
which conceives Apis, conceives him not by a 
bull, but by lightning. Cambyses, king of As- 
Syria, gave no credit to these trifles, and struck 
Apis in the thigh with his sword, to shew, by 
the blood issuing from the wound, that he waa. 
no god : but it is pretended that this sacrilege 
did not pass unpunished. Cambyses, as the E- 
gyptians say, being immediately seized with lu. 
nacy, became raving mad. A like story is told 
of Darius Ochus, king of Assyriaj who having 
also subdued Egypt, caused the god Apis to be 
sacrificed to an c&s, and then ordered his cook 
to dress the flesh of the slain god for his atten- 
dants. Under Ptdemy Lagus, Apis being dead, 
the expence of burying him amounted to above 
500,000 crowns. The Egyptians sacrificed 
bulls to Apis, in the choice of which they were 
so scrupulous, that if they found but a single 
black hair upon them, they were judged impro* 
per victims. When they happened on a beast 
without blemish, they sacrificed him, and, cut- 
ting off his head, carried it into the market, and 
sold it to some Grecian, if they could meet with 
any ; if not, they threw it into the river, with 
this form of execration— Afay the evils impending 
over tbe btads of the perwts now sacr^cing, or tbe 

DigHzed by VjOOQIC 





Egyptians in general, fall upon this bead ! The 
golden calf which Aaron made for the Israelites 
in the wilderness, and the calves set up by Je- 
roboam, to be worshipped by the ten tribes 
were plainly borrowed from the superstitious 
adoration paid by the Egyptians to Apis. Some 
have thought that the patriarch Joseph was wor- 
shipped by the Egyptiansunderthenameof A- 
pis, for the Egyptians say that Apis was a king 
of Memphis ; who provided food for his sub- 
jects during a very great famine. The worship 
of this ridiculous divinity was abolished long 
, before the other religions of paganism, for want 
of finding an animal with the proper marks.— 
Spartian relates, that in the reign of Adrian, 
there was a great sedition at Alexandria, on 
occasion of the Apis being found after many 
years search for him in vain ; the people of E- 
gypt quarrelling who should have possession of 
the god. Ammianus Marcellinus tells us, that 
the emperor Julian could not restore the idola- 
trous worship of the Egyptians, for want of 
finding the Apis. 

APOBOMIOI, sacrifices offered, without altars, 
on the bare earth. 

APOLLlNEA^o/fij, Aescxilapius, the son of A- 

APOLLINEUS vates, Orpheus. 

APOLLO : Cicero mentions four of this name, 
the most ancient of whom was the son of Vul- 
can ; the second, a son of Corybas, born in 
Crete ; the third, an Arcadian, called Nomion, 
from his being a great legislator ; and the last, 
to whom the greatest honours are ascribed, the 
son of Jupiter and Latona, daughter of Coeus, 
the Titan. Of these four, it appears that the 
three last were Greeks, and the first an Egyp- 
tian, who, according to Herodotus, was the son 
of Osiris and Isis, and called Orus. Pausanias 
is of the same opinion with Herodotus, and 
ranks Apollo among the Egyptian divinities.— 
The testimony of Diodorus Siculus is still more 
express, for in speaking of Isis, after saying tliat 
she had invented the practice of medicine, he 
adds, that she taught this art to her son Orus, 
named ApoUo, who was the last of the gods that 
reigned in Egypt. It is easy to trace almost all 
the Grecian fable and mythologies from Egypt; 
for, if the Apollo of the Greeks was said to be 
the eon of Jupiter, it was because Orus, the A- 

poUo of the Egyptians, had Osiris for his father, 
whom the Greeks confounded with Jupiter. If 
the Greek ApoUo were reckoned the god of elo- 
quence, music, medicine, and poetry, the rea- 
son was, that Osiris, who was the symbol of the 
Sun among the Egyptians, as well as his son 
Orus, had there taught those liberal arts. If 
the Greek Apollo were the god and conductor 
of the Muses, it was because Osiris carried with 
him, in his expedition to the Indies, singing 
women and musicians. This parallel might be 
continued still further, but enough has been said 
to prove that the true Apollo was probably of 
Egypt. Whether Apollo were a real personage, 
or only the great luminary, many have doubt- 
ed. Indeed Vossius has taken pains to prove 
this god to be only an ideal being, and that there 
never was any Apollo but the Sun. He was 
stiled the son of Jupiter, says this author, be- 
cause that god was reckoned, by the ancients, 
the creator of the world : his mother was called 
Latona, a name which signifies bidden, because, 
before the Sun was created, all things were co- 
vered with the obscurity of a chaos: heisal- 
ways represented as beardless and youthful, be- 
cause theSun never decays, or grows old : and 
what else can his bow and arrows imply, but his 
piercing beams ? He adds, all the ceremonies 
performed to his honour, had manifest relation 
to the great source of light which he represent- 
ed ; whence he concludes it to be in vain to seek 
for any other divinity than the Sun, adored un- 
der the name of Apollo. Though this in ge- 
neral may be true, yet, from many passages in 
ancient authors, it appears that there was some 
illustrious personage named Apollo, who, af- 
ter his Apotheosis, was taken for the Sun ; as 
Osiris andOrusofEgyptwere,after their deaths, 
confounded with the same luminary, of which 
they became the symbols, either from the glory 
and splendor of their reigns, or from a belief 
that their souls resided in his orb. The Apollo, 
however, of this article, was son of Jupiter and 
Latona, and brother of Diana, and of all the 
divinities in the pagan world, the chief cherisher 
and protestor of the polite arts, and the most 
conspicuous charafter in Heathen theology.- — 
Nor unjustly, from the glorious attributes as- 
cribed to him, as being the god of light, me- 
dicine, eloquence, music, poetry, and prophe- 

ized by 





cy ; the prote6lor of the Muses and polite arts. 
Latona his mother having, by her extreme beau- 
ty, attrafted the notice of Jupiter, became preg- 
nant by him. This circumstance being disco- 
vered by Juno, Latona was exiled from hea- 
ven, and the serpent Python was commissioned 
to destroy her. From his pursuit she fled in 
the shape of a quail, to the island of Deloa, 
where she was delivered of twins, Diana and 
Apollo. The latter is said, soon after his birth, 
to have destroyed the monster Python with his 
arrows ; but some postpone this viflory till he 
came to riper years. After her delivery Lato- 
na fled into Lycia, whence, having there settled 
Apollo, she returned to Delos. Amongst the 
most remarkable adventures of this god, was 
the quarrel with Jupiter, on account of the 
death of his son Aesculapius, killed by that 
deity on the complaint of Pluto, that he de- 
creased the number of the dead by his cures. 
Apollo, to revenge this injury, killed the Cy- 
clops who forged the thunder- bolts. For this 
he was banished heaven, and endured great 
sufferings on earth, being forced to hire him- 
self as a shepherd to Admetus king of Thes- 
saly. During his pastoral servitude, he is said 
to have invented the lyre to sooth his troubles. 
In this retirement an odd accident happened 
to him. Mercury, who was born in the morn- 
ing, and by noon had learned music, came to 
him in the evening, and so amused him with 
the testudo, as to steal his cattle unperceived. 
Apollo, however, discovering the theft, insisted 
upon restitution, but the sly deity contriving 
in the midst of the contest to purloin both his 
bow and his arrows^ the resolution of revenge 
was changed into merriment. From Thessaly 
Apollo removed to Sparta, and settled near 
the river Eurotas, where, taking a fancy to 
Hyacinthus, and accidentally killing him while 
playing at quoits, he changed him to the 
flower that bears his name. Cyparissus also, 
a beautiful and favourite youth , he transformed 
to a cypress. From Sparta he proceeded to 
Laomedon kipg of the Troas, where finding 
Neptune in no better plight than himself, they 
agreed with Laomedon to make bricks, and 
build the walls of Troy. Long did they labour 
for this ungrateful master, but saw no hopes 
of their promised meed. At length, in re- 

venge, Apollo sent a pestilence among his peo- 
ple, which caused great dest^u£tion. He also 
assisted Alcathous in building a labyrinth, in 
which, the stone whereon he was wont to de- 
posite his lyre, acquired the capacity of emitting 
melodious tones, if stricken with any thing 
hard. Though Apollo was distinguished for 
his skill in music, he was extremely jealous of 
rivalship. Midas, king of Phrygia, being con- 
stituted judge in a competition between him 
and Pan, and giving judgment for the latter, 
was rewarded with the ears of an ass ; whilst 
Linus, grandson of Neptune, who excelled all 
mortals in music, presuming to sing with Apol- 
lo, was punished for his temerity with death. 
Nor had Marsyas, the Satyr, a better escape, 
for having been vanquished in a contest on 
the flute, the god, in his anger, flead him 
alive. Apollo was so' skilled in the bow, that 
his arrows were always fatal. Python and the 
Cyclops experienced their force. When the 
giant Tityus endeavoured to ravish Diana, he 
transflxed and threw him into hell. Niobe, 
daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Amphion, 
being happy in seven sons and as many daugh- 
ters, was so foolish as to prefer herself to La- 
tona; this so enraged Apollo and Diana, that 
they put her offspring to death. Apollo resem- 
bled his father Jupiter in his great propensity 
to love^ He passed some time with Venus in 
the island of Rhodes, during which, it is said, 
the skies rained gold, and the earth was covered 
with lilies and roses. From the latter flower, 
it is pretended by wme, that the island took 
its name ; by others, from the nymph Rhodia, 
who was beloved by Apollo. He became ena- 
moured of Daphne, daughter of the river Pe- 
nfus of Thessaly, who was herself prepossessed 
in favour of Lucippus. The god pursued her, 
but she flying to preserve her chastity, ■ was 
changed into a laurel, whose leaves Apollo im- 
mediately consecrated to bind his temples, and 
become the reward of poetry. The nymph 
Bolina, rather than yield to his suit, threw 
herself into the sea,' for which he rendered 
her immortal. He had the same passion for the 
nymph Castalia, who vanished from him in the 
form of a fountain, which was afterwards sacred 
to the Muses. He introduced himself to Leu- 
cothoe, daughter of Orcamus, king of Babylon, 





in the shape of her mother Eurynome ; but 
Clytie her sister being jealous, and discovering 
the intrigue, was utterly deserted by him. 
The children of Apollo were by Coronis, 
Aesculapius ; by Atria Arabus, Miletus ; 
Oaxes ; by Cyrene, Aristacus ; by Anathrippe, 
ChiuS^ by Persis, Circe; byAchalide, Delphus; 
by Arethusa, Elutherus ; by Evadne, Janus ; 
by Astaria, Idmon ; by Melia, Ismenius and 
Taenarus ; by Tei-psichore, Linus ; by Manto^ 
Mopsus ; by Calltope, Orpheus ; by Clymene, 
Phaeton, Phaethusa, Phoebe, and Lampetia ; 
and by Aglaia, Thestor ; but the mother of 
Dryops is not known. Apollo, like the other 
gods, had a great variety of names, either taken 
from his principal attributes, or the places 
where he was worshipped. He was called 
Agraeus, Archagetas, Cynthius, Delius, Del- 
phicus, Delphinius, Delphis, Didymaeus, Epi- 
delius. Healer, Hyperborean, Liber Pater, 
LyciiiB, Nomius, Paean, Phanaeus, Phaneta, 
Phiialexandnis, Phoebus, Pythius, Sol, Vul- 
turius, &c. &c.— There can be no doubt but 
that Apollo was more generally received in the 
pagan world than any other deity, his worship 
being so universal, that, in almost every re- 
gion, he had temples, oracles, and festivals, as 
innumerable as his attributes. The jnost fa- 
mous of his temples were those of A6lium, 
Miletus, and Mount Palatine, and. the most 
conspicuous of his oracles, which were nume- 
rous, those at Abaeain, Phocis ; at Qaros in 
Ionia ; at Deles, Delphi, and Didyma ; at Eu- 
tresis ; Ptous, Tegyrae, and on Mount Isme- 
nus, in Boeotia; atLarissa among the Argives, 
and at Heliopolis in Egypt. His temple at 
Delphi especially became so frequented, that 
it was called the oracle of the earth ; all nations 
and princes vieing in their munificence to it. 
The Romans erefled to him many temples. 
After the battle of Allium, which decided the 
fate of the world, and secured the empire to 
Augustus, who not only reared one on that 
promontory, and renewed solemn games to 
his honour, but soon after raised a most mag- 
nificent temple to him on Mount Palatine at 
Rome, the whole of Clarian marble. He had 
a celebrated shrine at Mount Sorafte in Italy, 
where his priests were so remarkable for sanc- 
tity, that they could walk on burning coals 

unhurt. The festivals and solemn games con 
secrated to him were chiefly the Aftian, Age^ 
toreian or Agetoria, Alia, Apollonia, Carneia. 
Delphina, Daphnephoria, Ebdome, Epidemta, 
Epithricalia, Galaxia, Hydrophoria, Mityle- 
naion, Neomenia, Polieia, Septerion, Thar- 
gelia, Theoxonia, and Thrio. The usual sa 
crifices to Apollo were lambs, bulls, and oxen. 
The animals sacred to him were the wolf, 
from his acuteness of sight, and because he 
spared his flocks when the god was a shepherd 
the crow and ^e raven, because these birds 
were supposed to have, by instinft, the faculty 
of prediction ; the swan, from its divining its 
own death ; the hawk, from its boldness in 
flight ; and the cock, because he announces the 
rising of the sun. It is remarkable, that most 
of the things Apollo delighted in, depended 
upon the Sun, or bore a resemblance to it ; and 
hence of trees, the palm, laurel, juniper, and 
olive, were most in esteem with him. The 
palm and olive, under whose shelter he was 
bom, are natives of warm countries ; the laurel 
is of an arid quality, always flourishing and 
conducing to divination and poetic raptures ; 
and the juniper, whose branches and fruit are 
used by the Scythians in their mysteries, is of 
an extraordinary hot nature. The cicada, on 
account of its singing, was reckonet^ agreeable 
to the god of music, especially, as it has its 
birth and nurture from the Sun. Most of 
the ancient poets have celebrated this insert, 
but none to greater purpose than Anacreon. 
Plato says, that it sings all summer without 
food, like those men, who, dedicating them- 
selves to the Muses, forget the common con- 
cerns of life. All young men, when their 
beards grew, consecrated their locks in his 
temple, as the virgins did their girdles in 
that of Diana.— As to the signification of this 
fabulous divinity, all are i^reed, that, by A- 
pollo, the Sun is understood in general, though 
several poetical fifliona have relation only to 
the Sun, and not to Apollo. The great attri- 
butes of this deity were divination, healing, 
music, and archery, all which manifestly refer 
to the Sun. Light dispelling darkness is a 
strwig emblem of truth dissipating ignorance. 
What conduces more to life and health than 
the-Bolar warmth? or can there be a juster 





symbol of the planetary harmony than Apollo's 
lyre, the seven strings of which are said to re- 
present the seven planets f As his darts are re- 
ported to have destroyed the monster Python, 
so his rays dry up the noxious moisture which 
is pernicious to vegetation and fertility. The 
Persians had a high veneration for this planet, 
and adored it, and the light proceeding from 
it, by the names <^ Mithra uid Orasmanes ; 
the Egyptians by those of Isis and Orus. From 
their antiquities some insight may perhaps be 
obtained into the origin of the history and ad* 
ventures of Apqllo. The Isis, which pointed 
out the neomenia, or monthly festival, before 
their annual inundation, was the symbolical 
figure of a creature with the upper part of a 
woman, and the hinder of a lizard, placed in 
a reclining posture : this they called I^to, and 
used it to signify to the people the necessity of 
providing olives, parched com, and other 
kinds of dry food for their subsistence during 
the flood. When the waters of the Nile de- 
creased, time enough to allow them a month 
before the entrance of the Sun into Sagitta- 
riuB, the Egyptian husbandman was sure of 
leisure to sow his ground, and of remaloing 
in absolute security till harvest. This con- 
quest of the Nile was represented by an Orus, 
or image armed with arrows, subiduing the 
monster Python, which they called Ora or 
Hores, a destroyer or waster ; or Apollo, which 
admits the same interpretation. The figure 
of Isis, above mentioned, they stiled Deione or 
Diana, from Dei, su^iency coming from the 
word Deione, abundance ; and they placed in 
her hand the quail, which, with them, was the 
symbol of security. These emblems carried 
by the Phoenicians into Greece, gave rise to 
the fable of Latona persecuted by the Python, 
and flying to Delos in the form of a quail, 
where she bore Orus and Dione, or Apollo 
and Diana. Thus, these hieroglyphics, de- 
signed only to point out the regular festivals, 
and to instruct the people in what they were 
to do, became the obje6ls of a senseless and 
gross idolatry.-— Apollo was very differently 
represented in different countries and times, 
according to the character he assumed. In 
general he is described as a beardless youth, 
with long flowing hair floating as it were in 

the wind, comely and graceful, crowned with 
laurel, his garments and sandals shining with 
gold. In one hand he holds a bow and ar- 
rows, in the other i lyre ; sometimes a shield 
and the Graces. At other times he is invested 
in a long robe, and carries a lyre and a cup of 
ne£lar, the symbol of his divinity. He has 
a threefold authority; in heaven, he is the Sun ; 
and by the lyre intimates, that he is the source 
of harmony : upon earth he is called Uber Pa- 
Ur, and carries a shield to shew he is the pro- 
twSor of mankind, and their preserver in 
health and safety. In the infernal regions he 
is stiled Apollo, and his arrows shew his autho- 
rity ; whosoever is stricken with them being 
immediat^y sent thither. As the Sun, Apollo 
was depifted in a chariot, drawn by the four 
horses, Eom, Etlxm, PbUgon, and Pyrtos. In 
this chara^M- the Persians represented him, 
by a figure with the head of a lion covered 
with a tiara, and holding a mad bull by the 
horns : a symbol plainly of Egyptian origin. 
The Egyptians sometimes symbolized him by 
a radiated circle, and, at others, by a sceptre 
with an eye above it ; though their more fre- 
quent emblem of the solar light, as distin- 
guished from the orb itself, was the golden 
seraph, or, fiery flying serpent. The Hieoro- 
politans gave him a pointed beard, to intimata 
the strong emission of his rays downward ; 
over his head was a basket of gold, to repre- 
sent the etherial light: he.^had on his breast a 
plate, and, in his right hand, a spear, with an 
image c^ Viftory on its top ; this bespoke him 
irresitable, and ruling all things: in his left 
hand was a flower, intimating the vegetable 
creation nourished, matured, and continued 
by hisbetims: around his shoulders he wore 
a vest, adorned with gorgons and snakes, to 
express the virtue and vigour of the solar in- 
fluence enlivening the apprehension, and pro- 
moting wisdom : near him were the expanded 
wings of an eagle, representing the ether ex- 
panding from him, as from its proper centre; 
at his feet were three female figures encircled 
by a seraph, that, in the midst, being the em- 
blem of the earth, rising in beauty from be- 
tween confusion and nature ; the other two, 
by the emanation of his light, signified by the 
seraph or dragon. In the charafter of Sol, 

y Google 




the poets feign, that, at night, he rested with 
Thetis in the ocean, and that in the morning, 
the Hours prepared his horses for the renewal of 
his course, and opened for him the gates of day. 
Of all the produftions of art which have escaped 
the ravages of time, the Belvidere (or Vatican) 
Apollo is indisputably the most sublime. The 
artist hath conceived his work on the principles 
of ideal beauty. The stature of the god exceeds 
the human, and is in the highest degree ma- 
jestic. The body is neither cherished by veins, 
nor afluated by nerves ; a celestial spirit seems 
not only to pervade, but to flow over all the 
contours of the figure. He had pursued the 
Python, against whom he hath just extended 
his formidable bow, ahd having stopt him in 
his flight by an unerring arrow ; in the height 
of his joy, his august look penetrating into 
infinity, extends far beyond the scope of his 
viflory. Disdain sits on his lips, and the in- 
dignation which swells his nostrils, extends to 
his eye-brows ; but an unalterable serenity re- 
poses on his forehead, and his eye is as full of 
sweetness as though he were in the midst of 
the Muses, all emulous to obtain his favour. 
The individual beauties of every other god are 
united to complete his form. His forehead is 
the forehead of Jupiter pregnant with wisdom. 
His eye-brows, by their motion, import his 
will. His eyes, in their arched orbits, are the 
eyes of Juno ; and his mouth, a mouth that 
inspires the purfcst delight. Like the young 
tendrils of the vine, his fine locks flow round 
his divine head, as if lightly waved by the 
breath of the zephyrs ; they seem even bedew- 
ed with the essence of the gods, and negli- 
gently composed by the hands of the Graces. 
His limbs are great from their unity, and con- 
formable to the perfection of youth, in one not 
the minion of Venus, delighting in the shade, 
and reclining on beds of roses, but formed to 
execute the most sublime designs. Apollo 
considered in his poetical charafler, is called 
indiffferently either Fates ovLyristes, music and 
poetry, in the earliest ages of the world hav- 
ing made but one and the same profession. 
Sometimes you see him naked, his hair col- 
le<5led on his forehead, a lyre in one hand, and 
a pleftrum in the other ; or, as described by 
Propertius, leaning against a rock- At others. 

his hair looselyflowing, is crowned with laurel, 
whilst a long robe, his proper and distinguish- 
ing habit, as the Apollo Vates or Lyristes, de- 
scends to his feet. In this dress he was sup- 
posed to appear at the feasts of Jupiter ; and 
especially that solemn one after his vi^ory over 
Saturn, under which character he may most 
properly be called the festal Apoilo. One of 
his most celebrated charafters, among the 
Romans, particularly in the Augustan age, 
was that of the ABian Apollo. There was a 
promontory near ACtium, called indifferently 
the promontory of Aftium or Leucate, famous 
in antiquity, for the lovers leap, and the statue 
of this god. This statue standing high, served 
as a sea-mark, and was by mariners greatly re- 
vered. Augustus himself, before his contest 
with Antony off this cape, addressed his devo- 
tions to it, and in gratitude to the god for his 
supposed interposition, built one temple to 
him on the spot, and another afterwards at 
Rome on the Palatine Mount. In the latter 
was placed the statue of Apollo by the famous 
Scopaa, under the charafter of the Apollo Ly- 
ristes, which is generally that the poets describe, 
and corresponds with the figure on the medal 
of Augustus. The representations of Apollo 
presiding over the Sun, are almost as frequent in 
the works of the ancient artists, as in the writ- 
ings of the poets, with which they agree. In 
them, you see him either labouring up a lofty 
steep, or easily descending it in his chariot. 
Sometimes the Zodiac is represented over 
him, which falls in usually with the head of 
the god : this point of coincidence is chosen 
by design, as serving to ascertain the season 
of the atSion. The Apollo Medicus is often 
mentioned by the poets, and it probably is 
on account of this character, that the serpent 
is placed at the feet of the statues, though 
the antiquaries of Italy pretend it to be the 
Python. Their opinion, however, seems the 
less probable, from the consideration, that the 
other deities, who participate with Apollo in 
his character of healing, are almost invari- 
ably distinguished by a serpent. But what 
decides the dispute is, that in the figures of 
Apollo with a serpent by him, he has gene- 
rally an aspect placid and lenient ; whereas, 
if the object in question were the Python, the 

y Google 





(MSt of his features would rather be severe. 
Thus he appears with a face that almost 
makes one tremble, on a gem, where he is 
ordering Marayas to be flead. It should be 
added, however, in justice to the god, that 
Nero is there exhibited in his person. The 
figures relating to this story of Marsyas, 
were anciently common, and many of them 
still remain. There is said to have been in 
the Forum, one, and in a different distri<5t 
another, exhibiting Apollo as himself inflifling 
the punishment ; whence he obtained the name 
of Apollo the Tormentor. In his charadter of 
the ApoUo Venator, he presides over the chace. 
The piftures and statues of him, probably in 
this capacity, are described by Maxinius Ty- 
rius as representing a youth, whose naked 
side appears from under a chlamys, armed 
with a bow, and his feet raised in the a<aion 
of running. Such may we suppose him when, 
according to the poets, he quits Lycia and 
the chace, to assume his state in Delos ; and such 
is he described by Virgil, where Aeneas, when 
a hunting, is compared to this god. 

APOLLONIA: feasts instituted in honour of A- 
pollo, at Aegialea, whither he is said to have 
retired with Diana, his sister, after the defeat 
of Python ; and whence it is added, they were 
driven into Crete. The Aegialeans were soon 
after visited with a plague ; upon which, con- 
sulting the oracle, they were advised to send 
seven young men, and "as many virgins, to ap- 
pease those deities, and intreat their return. — 
Apollo and Diana accepted their piety, and 
came back with them to Aegialea. In memory 
of this event, the inhabitants not only dedica- 
ted a temple to Pytho, the goddess of persua- 
sion, but a custom also arose of appointing an- 
nually as many young men and virgins, to make 
a solemn procession, as were sent to those dei- 
ties to implore their return. 

APOMYOS DEUS, a name under which Jupi- 
ter WM worshipped at Elis, and Hercules, as 
well as Jupiter, at the Olympic games. These 
divinities were supplicated under this name, to 
destroy, or drive away, the great number of 
flies which constantly attended at the great sa< 
orifices : and in those which accompanied the 
Olympic games, the first was always to the A- 
pomyos, or Myiagrus Deus, that he might keep 

oiFthe flies from the rest. The usual sacrifice 
was a bull, which, when offered, these insefils, 
according to Pliny, would depart in clouds, 
and return not agmn during the remain- 
ing solemnities. See Myiagrus, Myiodes, Achor. 

A PONE, a fountain in Italy, near Padua, the waters 
of which communicated the gift of divination. 

APOPEMPTIC. The ancients had certainly holy 
days on which they took leave of the gods, as 
supposing each of them returning to his own 
country. The deities having the patronage of 
divers places, it was but just to divide their pre- 
sence, and allow some time to each. Hence, 
among the Delians and Milesians, we find feasts 
of Apollo, and among the Argians feasts of Di- 
ana, called Epidemia, as suppo^ng these deities 
then more peculiarly amongst them. On the 
last day of the feast they dismissed them, fol- 
lowing them to the altars with Apopemptic 
hymns. Pottersays, thatthe£/»«fcmio were pri- 
vate rejoicings for a friend returned from a 
journey. See Epidemia. 

APOPOMPAE, certain days in which sacrifices 
were offered to the gods, called Pompaei. Who 
these deities were is doubtful ; but certain it is 
that vofiiFMoi, denotes any person who conduits 
another on his way, ancl therefore was applied 
to Mercury, who was believed to condu<5l the 
souls of the deceased to the shades below. Pot- 
ter is inclined to think that these days belonged 
the gods Averrunci, because they were thought 
to avert evils : Such were Jupiter, Hercules and 

APOSTROPHIA : Venus was invoked under this 
appellation, by those who prayed to be deliver- 
ed from the influence of illicit passion. The 
name was first given her by Cadmus. 

APOTHEOSIS, a Heathen ceremony, by which 
their emperors and great men were placed a- 
mong the gods. After the Apotheosis, which 
they also called delation and consecration, tern-, 
pies, altars, and images, with attributes of di- 
vinity, were erected to the new deity, sacrifices 
offered, and colleges of priests instituted. It 
was one of the doftrines of Pythagoras, bor- 
rowed from the Chaldeans, that virtuous per- 
sons, after their death, were raised to the rank 
of the gods. Tiberius proposed to the Roman 
senate, the Apotheosis of Jesus Chrbt, as is re- 
lated by Eusebius, TertuUian, and Chrysostom. 

ized by 



Juvenal, rallying the frequent Apotheosis, in- 
troduces Atlas as complaining that he was rea- 
dy to sink under the accumulation of gods, 
which were daily added to the heavens. He- 
rodian, in speaking of the Apotheosis of the 
emperor Severus, gives a very curious descrip- 
tion of the ceremony. After tlie body of the 
deceased emperor, says he, had been burnt 
with the usual solemnities, they placed-an image 
of wax, perfeftly like him, but of a sickly as- 
pect, on a large bed of ivory, covered with 
cloth of gold, in the vestibule of the palace.— - 
The greatest part of the day the senate sat ran- 
ged on the left side of the bed, dressed in robes 
of mourning, the ladies of the first rank sitting 
on the right side, in plain white robes, without 
any ornaments. This lasted for seven days suc- 
cessively, during which the physicians came 
from time to time to visit the sick, always mak- 
' ing their report that he grew worse, till at 
length they announced his decease. This done, 
the young senators and Roman knights took the 
bed of state upon their shoulders, carrying it 
through the Via Sacra, to the old forum, where 
the magistrates were used to resign their offices : 
they ttiere deposited it in the midst of a sort of 
amphitheatre, in one recess of which were the 
youth, and in the other the maidens of the first 
families in Rome, singing hymns, set to solemn 
airs, in praise of the departed. At the close of 
those hymns, the bed was carried out of the ci- 
ty, into the Campus Mart'ms : in the middle was 
ereftedakind of square pavilion, within, full of 
cumbustible matters, and hung on the outside 
with cloth of gold, adorned with ivory and va- 
rious paintings. Over this edifice were several 
others, like the first in form and decoration, 
but gradually diminishing towards the top. On 
the second of these was placed the bed of state, 
strewed with a profusion of aromatic drugs and 
vegetables, and attended by the knights, who 
paraded in solemn measures about the pile ; 
round which also several chariots were driven, 
those who conduced them being clad in pur- 
ple, and bearing the images of the most re- 
nowned emperors and generals. This ceremo- 
ny concluded, the new emperor, with a torch 
in his hand, advanced towards the pile, and, 
in an instant, fire was set to it on all sides, the 
spices and combustibles kindling at once. In 


the mean time, from the top of the building, an 
eagle was let to fly, which mounting into the 
air with a fire-brand, was believed to carry the 
soul of the dead emperor to heaven, and thence- 
forward he was ranked among the gods. It is 
for this reason that the medals on which an A- 
potheosis is represented, have usually an altar 
with fire upon it ; or, however, an eagle taking 
its flight into the air, and sometimes two. A 
gem in the museum of Branden burgh represents 
the Apotheosis of Julius Caesar, mounted up- 
on the celestial globe, and holding an helm in 
his hand, as if he were now the governor of hea- 
ven, as before he had been of the earth. Pliny 
the younger, speaking of the Apotheosis of the 
Roman emperors, observes: Tiberius conse- 
crated Augustus, that he might raise him to the 
dignity of a god ; Nero also consecrated Clau- 
dius, but it was to ridicule him : Titus deified 
Vespasian, and Domitian Titus, the first that 
he mijght be the son, the second that he might 
be the brother of a god : but if you, Trajan, 
deified your father, it was not to awe your ci- 
tizens, dishonour the gods, or do honour to 
yourself: it was because you believed him in- 
deed to be a god. See Consecration. 

APOTROPAE, verses composed for averting the 
wrath of incensed deities. 

APOTROPAEl, aXijHuowi, averranci, or gods a- 
verters of evil ; to whom a small ewe lamb wa» 
usually offered. 

APPIADES, a title of both Pallas and Venus, 
from a temple dedicated to them near the Ap- 
plan waters at Rome. 

APULUS, was a shepherd in the country of La- 
vinia, in which country Pan had a cave over- 
shadowed with trees, which the Nymphs used 
to frequent ; but Apulus terrifying them with 
saucy language, they turned him into the wild 
olive-tree, the fruit of which tree, by its bitter 
juice, emblematizes the rough carriage of shep- 

AQU ARIUS,a sign of the zodiac,8aid to have been 
Ganymede, raised to the heavens by JupiterT 

AQU I LIC! A, sacrifices performed by the Romans, 
in times of excessive drought, to obtain rain of 
the gods. 

AQUILO, or the North East, one of the wind 
deities. He is described as of an elderly ap- 
pearance, with a plate of olives in his hand. 

ized by 



tiiat vegetable being the chirf produce of the 
territory about Athens, where the beautiful 
temple ofthe winds, and the figures of the eight 
wind deities were. Aquilo 13 mentioned by the 
poets in the chara^er of a person, as indeed are 
all the other winds. Ovid speaks of Hiems as 
trembling at the presence of Aquilo, or the 
North-East. There is an expression in Statius 
relating to the same personage, which may pos- 
sibly have been borrowed from ancient figures, 
not unlike those blustering faces commonly re- 
presented in the corners of maps. 

ARABUS, the son of Apollo by Atria, gave his 
name to Arabia. Some have supposed him the 
inventor of medicine. 

ARACHNE, a princess of Lybia, was daughter 
of Idmon; son of Apollo by Asteria, and sister 
of Phalanx. Ovid makes her daughter of Id- 
mon, a dyer of Lydia. Having the presump- 
tion to challenge Minerva in weaving tapestry, 
or, according to others, in spinning, the god- 
dess, after a trial of skill, struck her on the fore- 
head with the spindle, at which, being filled 
with despair, and attempting to hang herself, 
Minerva turned her into a spider, and in this 
shape doomed her to exercise the art in which she 
had been so vain of her skill. Abbe la Pluche 
gives an ingenious explication of this fable.>- 
According to him, the Egyptians, to remind 
the peopleo the importance of their linen ma- 
nufacture, exposed in their festivals the figure 
of a woman bearing in her right hand the beam 
round which the weavers rolled the warp of their 
cloth : this image they called Minerva, from Ma- 
nevrab, a weaver's loom. Near this figure they 
placed that of a spider, to which they gave the 
name of Aracbne, from Aracb, to make linen 
cloth ; and these emblems being transplanted 
into Greece, that people, fond of the marvel- 
lous, converted them into real objefts, which 
gave scope for the imagination of the poets to 
invent the transformation of Araclme. See 

ARACYNTHA, a mountain of Boeotia, sacred 

. to Minerva. 

ARAEA, one of the daughters ofthe river Aste* 
rion, claimed, in conjunction with her two sis- 
ters, the honour of nuraing Juno. 

ARATEIA, a festival of Sicyon, on the birth-day 
of Aratus, whom they honoured with a priest, 
VoL I. 


who wore a ribband bespangled with white and 
purple spots. It was celebrated with music, at 
which the choristers of Bacchus assisted with 
their lyres. There was likewise a solemn pro- 
cession, in which the public schoolmaster, ac- 
companied with his scholars, went first, and 
the senators and citizens, adorned with garlands, 
followed. S^ Aratus. 

AR ATRIUS : The Phoenicians of Azotus called 
their idol Dagon, Jupiter Aratrius ; because he 
taught them how to plow the ground, and sow 
their grain. 

ARATUS, a Bebrycian, who, with Omytus, as- 
sisted in equipping Amycus for the combat with 
Pollux, in which Amycus fell. 

ARATUS, of Sicyon, son of Chinias and Aristo- 
dama, was general of the Achaeans, and one of 
the greatest captains among the Grecians. He 
restored the liberies of his country, which had 
been destroyed by Abantides, who killed his 
father. Having surprised the fortress of Co- 
rinth, he drove out the king of Macedon, con- 
quered Niocles, tyrant of Sicyon, and delivered 
Argos from its tyrants, but was at last poisoned 
by Philip, king of Macedonia, whom he had 
newly restored. He was interred at Sicyon, and 
received the greatest honours from his country- 
men, who instituted a festival to his memory. 
See Areteia. 

ARBITRATOR, a surname of Jupiter. 

ARCADIA, a part of Peloponesus, whose inha- 
bitants were celebrated for their taste in poetry 
and music 

ARCADIUS BEUSjbe god of Arcadia, that is. Pan. 

ARCAGETUS, a title of Apollo, as tutelar god 
of theNaxians. 

ARCAS, son of Jupiter and Calisto, daughter of 
the tyrant Lycaon, gave his name to Arcadia, 
a country concerning which more fables have 
been related, than of all the rest of Greece ; nor 
are the historians of Areas more eonsistant, or 
true. He is said, by Pausanias, to have instruct- 
ed his subjects, the Pelasgians, in agriculture, 
weaving, and other arts ; and to have had three 
sons by the Dryad, Erato. The same author 
relates that his bones, by direction of the ora- 
cle at Delphi, were carried from Maenahis, 
and deposited at Mantinea, in the temple of 

Juno. Others represent him, however, as 

transferred to the heavens, and changed into 

,,y,u.ed by Google 





the constellation of the tittle bear, as his mo- 
ther Calisto, whom, to prevent hia shooting in 
the chace, was into thegreater. 
ARCESSILAS, one of the chiefs of the Boeotians 

in the Trojan war. 
ARCESILAUS, son of Jupiter, by Torrebia. 
ARCESIUS, the son of Jupiter, and father of La- 
GETES, that is, cbkf, or principal, a surname of 
Apollo and Hercules. Arrhegetis was a title 
of Minerva. 
ARCHEMORUS, or OPHELTES, was son of 
Euphetes and Creusa, or ofLycurgus, a king 
of Nemaea, or Thrace, by Eurydice, and nursed 
by Hypsipyle, who, leaving the child in a mea- 
dow, whilst she went to shew the besiegers of 
Thebes a fountain, at her return found him 
dead, with a serpent twined about his neck, 
whence the fountain before called Langia, was 
named Arcbemorus. The leaders of the troops 
against Thebes, to comfort Hypsipyle for the 
loss of Archemorus, instituted the Nemean games 
to his honour. 
ARCHEPTOLEMUS, Heftor's charioteer, killed 

by Teucer. 
ARCHETIUS, one of the heroes in Virgil, over- 
thrown by Mnestheus. 
ARCHIEROSYNES, in Grecian antiquity, a high 
priest invested with authority over the rest of 
the priests, and appointed to execute the more 
sacred and mysterious rites of religion. The 
Athenians had several of these Archieroq'nes, 
almost every god having his high-priest, who 
presided over the rest of the ministers of that 
deity, as the Daduchus over the priests of Her- 
cules, the Stephanaphorus over those of Mi- 
nerva, &c. Among the Opuntians there were 
only two high-priests, one belonging to the ce- 
lestial gods, the other to the demons, or demi- 
gods. The Delphians had five, who were de- 
nominated fiffioi, or holy, one of whom had the 
care of the sacrifices, and was called Oa-iwlm, or 
the purifier ; another had the care of the oracle, 
and was called u/pnrtof. 
ARCHIGALLUS, the high-priest of Cybele, or 
chief of the eunuch priests of that goddess, cal- 
led Galli. SceGalU. 
ARCHILOCHUS, a leader of the Dardan troops 
under Aeneas, fell by the hands of Ajax. 

ARCHINUS, king of Argos. See Hecatombta. 
ARCHIPPE, wife of Sthenelus king of Mycene, 
being pregnant at the same time Alcmena, wife 
of Amphitryon, was by Jupiter, the god or- 
dained that the child first born should have the 
superiority or command over the other. Juno, 
apprised of Jupiter's intrigue with Alcmena, 
caused Archippe to be delivered, at the end of 
seven months, of a son, who was afterwards 
called Eurystheus ; and, to retard the delivery 
of Alcmena, she, in the form of an old woman, 
sat at the gates of Amphitryon's palace, with 
her legs across, and her fingers interwoven ; by 
which secret enchantment that princess was 
seven days and nights in extreme pain. Galan- 
this, one of the maids of Alcmena, deceiving 
the jealous Juno, her mistress was that moment 
freed from her burthen, and brought forth 
Hercules and Iphiclus, to whom some add Lao- 
damia. See Alcmena, Amphitryon, Eurystheus, 
ARCHITIS, a name under which Venus was wor- 
shipped by the Assyrians. 
ARCITENEUS, i. e. holding the bow, an epithet 
given to Apollo, and more frequently to Sagit- 
tarius, the sign in the zodiac. 
ARCTOPHYLAX, an appellative of Bootes. 
ARCTOS, theconstellationofthe Bear. SeeCii- 

ARCTURUS, though properly the name of a star 
only, in the constellation Bootes, the poets ge- 
nerally use it for the Bear itself. 
ARCULUS, the god of coffers and strong boxes. 
ARDALIDES, the Muses were thus named from 
Ardalus, to whom hath been attributed the in- 
vention of the pipe. 
ARDALUS, son of Vulcan, and, according to 
some, by Aglaia, one of the Graces, was believ- 
ed to have been the inventor of the pipe called 
tibia : it is added that he also construAed the 
grotto of the Muses among the Troezenians. 
ARDEA : Turnus beingslain by Aeneas, his city, 
Ardea, was burnt to ashes, whence arose the 
bird called the Ardea, or Heron. 
ARDIA : Pliny tells us that this goddess had a 
temple adorned with fine paintings, under the 
name of Juno Ardia, and an altar under that of 
Lucina, where the ashes that remained from the 
sacrifice continued unmoveable, whatever wind 
blew. See Lucina. 

Digitized by 



ARDUENNA, a surname of Diana given her 
from a large forest in Gaul, now called the 
forest of Ardenne. 
AREIUS, a name of Jupiter, who could decide 

doubtful events on which ever side he chose. 
Of this name also was the son of Bias, and bro- 
ther of Talaus and Leodocus, one of the Ar- 
AREOPAGUS, the celebrated tribunal of Athens. 
T'his appellation is composed of two Greek 
terms, signifying the dhtr'iB or bill of Mars, 
because Mars was there tried and acquitted of 
a murder laid to his charge. 
ARES, a name of Mars among the Greeks, ei- 
ther from the destruftion and slaughter which, 
he causes, or from the silence which is ob- 
served in war, where aftions, not words, are 
ARESTHANAS, was a goat-herd, who having 
left a she-goat and his dog on Momit Titthion, 
near Epidaurus, in his search of th^ra disco- 
vered an infant, round whom a celestial efful- 
gence beamed forth. This child was no other 
than Aesculapius, whom his mother Coronis 
had abandoned. 
ARETE, wife of Alcinous, king of the Phaea- 
cians. She was the only daughter of Rhexenor, 
and mother of Nausicaa and her three bro- 
ARETAON, a brave Trojan slain by Teucer. 
ARETHUSA, daughter of Hesperus, and sister 
of Aegle and Hesperethusa, who, together, 
were called HesperuUs, and had gardens in 
which were trees that bore golden apples. See 

There was also anothervf«*iuso,daughterofNere- 
UB and Doris, who was one of Diana's nymphs, 
and of virtue equal to her beauty. When 
bathing in a crystalline river, to which the 
warmth of the season, and the amenity of the 
place had invited her, Aipheus, the god of the 
stream, assuming the shape of a man, emerged 
from the waters, and attempted to seize her. 
The nymph, however, fled his embraces, and 
having implored the assistance of her goddess, 
was changed by Diana to a fountain. Aipheus 
resuming his watry form, endeavoured to mix 
with her stream, but Arethusa continued her 
flight, and by a passage through a cavity of 



the earth, passed under ground into Sicily : 
■ Aipheus followed by the like subterraneous 
passage, till at last both streams united in that 
island. Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, makes 
Arethusa relate the following account of her- 
self to Ceres : They called me the most beau- 
tiful of the Naiad nymphs; and the river Ai- 
pheus falling in love with me, took upon him 
the form of a man, and followed me. To 
avoid his pursuit, I invoked Diana, of whom I 
had been a companion : she heard my prayers, 
and covering me with a cloud, that 1 might 
not be discovered by my pursuer, I was turned 
into a fountain. Aipheus seeing my waters 
knew them, and reverted to his proper form, 
that he might mingle with me; but Diana 
breaking up the earth, gave me a passage by 
a hidden way into the island Ortygia near Si- 
cily : Aipheus, however, through subterraneous 
passages, followed me thither. 
Arethusa is a celebrated fountain near the city 
Syracuse in Sicily, famous for the quantity of 
its waters, and of which many fables were in- 
vented by the ancients, who also entertained a 
notion, that the river Aipheus nm under, or 
through the waters of the sea, without mixing 
with them, from Peleponnesus to Sicily. Mr. 
Brydon remarks, that it still continues to send 
forth an immense quantity of water, rising at 
once to the size of a river. At some distance 
from Arethusa is a fountain of fresh water, 
which boils up very strongly in the sea, inso- 
much that, after piercing the salt water, it 
may sometimes be taken up very little afl^efted 
by it. This fountain, Mr. Brydon thinks, the 
ancients were ignorant of, or they would not 
have failed to have used it as an argument for 
the submarine journey of Aipheus. See Al- 

AREIUS, OR AREUS, that is, the -warrior, or, 
to ivbom prayers are addressed. A title of Jupiter, 
as Areia was of Minerva. 

ARETIA. If the fictitious Berosus of Annius Vi. 
terbiensis might he credited, the Armenians 
were the first who worshipped Noah, on ac- 
count of his inventing wine, under the name 
of Janus, and his wife under that of Aretia, 
whom they called Hestia, or Vesta. Annius 
feigned the name Aretia, from the Hebrew 
Erets or Arets, i. e. Terra, or the Earth. The 





Earth is the universal mother, so is the wife 
df Noah, whom he calls Vesta, because the 
Romans held Vesta to be the deity both of 
earth and fire. 

ARETSA : Some authors pretend to have found 
out an idol of this name in scripture, viz. 
1 Kings xvi. 9; but who this deity was, if we 
are really to understand an idol in that passage, 
is very uncertain. The Jews, and the common 
translations, make Artxab, or Aretsa, to be the 
king's steward, in whose house he was carous- 
ing when he was surprised by the conspirator, 
and slain. 

ARETUS, a young chief of Troy, killed by Au- 
tomedon. Also, one of Nestor's sons, mention- 
ed in the third Odyssey. 

ARGAEI, in Roman antiquity, human figures 
made of rushes thrown annually by the Vestals 
into the Tyber, on the ides of May. This ce- 
remony we learn from Festus and Varro, the 
latter of whom, however, says, they were cast 
by the priests ; unless by sacerdotibus we sup- 
pose he meant priestesses. He adds, that the 
number of figures were thirty. Plutarch, in 
his Roman questions, inquires into the origin 
of their name, and two reasons are assigned 
for it ; one, that the barbarous nation who 
first inhabited these parts, cast all the Greeks 
they could find into the Tyber, (for Argians 
was a common name for all Grecians) ; but 
that Hercules persuaded them to quit a prac- 
tice so inhmnan, and to purge themselves of 
the crime by instituting this solemnity : the 
other, that Evander, the Arcadian, a sworn 
enemy of. the Argians, to perpetuate his en- 
mity amongst his posterity, ordered the figures 
of his enemies to be thus treated. 

ARGAEUS, the son of Pelops, and father of 
Aleftor. There was another, the son of Ly- 
cimniuB, who, going a voyage with Hercules, 
died during it ; but the hero having sworn to 
bring him back dead or alive, reduced his 
body to ashes, that he might be enabled to 
preserve his oath. The custom of burning 
the dead is said to have arisen from hence. 

wife of Rhesus. She was so afflifted by the 
death of her husband, who fell at the siege 
of Troy, as to die of grief. 

ARGE, a celebrated huntress, whom Apollo 

changed to a deer. This was also the name 
of a daughter of Jupiter. 

ARGEION EORTAI: festivals at Argos, the ' 
names of which are lost. One we find men- 
tioned in Parthenius, upon which there waa 
a public entertainment. Another is taken 
notice of by Plutarch, upon which the boys 
called one another in jest B«AA«;(;f«J«(, i. e. S*\- 
XevT»( K^aia(t by which words are signified 
persons that throw wild figs, a custom pro- 
bably instituted in memory of their ancient 
diet in the time of Inachus, when they lived 
upon this fruit : a third is mentioned, in which 
great numbers of the citizens made a solemn 
procession out of the city, in armour. 

ARGENTINUS, a deity worshipped by the an- 
cients as the god of silver coin, as Aesculanus, 
whom they made his father, was the god of 
brass money, which was in use before silver. 
As their current coin was of different metals, 
the superin tendance of the whole was thought 
too much for one divinity ; a particular one 
therefore was appointed for the coinages of 
each metal ; the chief reason of the emperors 

. and kings in this institution being, to prevent 
their subjects from countiferfeiting or adulterat- 
ing the coin, for fear of the presiding divinity. 
The Aes, or most ancient money, began to be 
stamped by Servius Tullus, whereas, formerly 
it was distinguished only by weight, and not 
by any image, the first of which was that of 
Pecus, or small cattle, whence came the name 
of Pecunia: afterwards, it had on one side the 
beak of a ship, on the other a Janus; and 
such were the stamps of Aes : for, as to the 
triens, quadrans, and sextans, they bore the im- 
press of a boat. The Romans used this and no 
other money, till after the war with Pyrrhus. 
In the year, from the building of the city 989, 
five years before the first Punic war, silver be- 
gan to be coined. The stamps upon the silver 
denarius are, for the most part, waggons with 
two or four beasts in them, on the one side, 
and on the reverse, the head of Roma, with 
an helmet : the viStoriati have the image of 
Vi<aory sitting: the sestertii, usually Castor 
and Pollux on one side, and both have on the 
reverse the figure of the city : this custom 
continued during the commonwealth. Au- 
gustus caused Capricorn to be stricken upon 




his coin, and the succeeding emperors ordi- 
narily their own effigies. Last of all, was in- 
troduced gold coin, sixty -two years after that 
of silver, in the consulship of M. Livius Sali- 
nator, with the same stamp and images. See 
Aes Pecunia. 

ARGES, one of the Cyclops. SeeCyclops. 

ARGESTES, one of the Winds, son of Aurora, 
by Astreas, her husband. 

ARGIA, daughter of Adrastus king of Argos, 
and wife of Polynices : she, for burying her hus- 
band, was, together with Antigone his sister, 
put to death by Creon. Argia was afterwards 
said to have been changed to a fountain. 

There was another Argia, priestess of Juno, who 
going on some emergency to the temple of 
the goddess, and her horses being tired, was 
drawn thither by Biton and Cleobis her sons. 
To requite their piety, she begged of the god- 
dess the best gift which the gods could confer 
on mortals. In consequence of her petition 
the two youths, after having eiyoyed a plentiful 
supper, retired to rest, and awoke no more. 

ARGIOPE, the name of a nymph, an inhabitant 
of Parnassus, and mother of Thamyris, who 
sung and conquered in the Pythian games. 

ARGIPHONTES, an epithet of Mercury, from 
his having killed Argus. 

ARGIVA, a name of Juno, from the Argivi, 
amongst whom the sacrifices called Heraia 
were celebrated to her honour. They made 
her image in gold and ivory, holding a pome- 
granate in one hand, and in the other a sceptre, 
upon the top of which stood a cuckoo, because 
Jupiter changed himself into that bird when he 
fell in love with her. See Heraia. 

ARGO, a ship or vessel celebrated among the 
poets, being that wherein the Argonauts made 
their expedition to Colchis. The critics are 
divided about the origin of the name ; some 
deriving it from Argus, the person who built 
it; others, by antiphrasis from the Greek 
word eifyix, slow, as being a light sailer ; others, 
from the city Argos, where they suppose it 
built ; others, from the Argives, who went on 
board it. Ovid calls Argo a Mcrcd ship: sacram 
conscendis m Argum, because, say some, Mi- 
nerva contrived the plan, and even assisted in 
the building it ; or rather, on account of a 
[dank in its prow, which spoke and rendered 

oracles. This plank is mentioned by several 
authors, and is said to have been cut in the 
sacred forest of Dodona. Jason having hap- 
pily accomplished his enterprise, consecrated 
the ship Argo to Neptune, or, according to 
others, to Minerva, in the isthmus of Corinth, 
where it did not remain long before it was 
translated into heaven, and made a constella- 
tion. The generality of authors represent the 
ship Argo, as of considerable length, resem- 
bling the modem gallies, and furnished with 
thirty banks of rowers. The scholiast of Apol- 
lonius observes, that it was the first long ves- 
sel ever made, those in use among the Greeks 
before being round ; and Pliny relates the 
same after Philostephanus, who had affirmed, 
that Jason was the first that trusted himself at 
sea in a long vessel. It could not, however, 
be of any great bulk, since theArgonauts were 
able to carry it on their backs from the Danube 
to the Adriatic. Plutarch says, the ship in 
which Theseus and the youth of Athens em- 
barked and returned safe, had tfiirty oars, and 
was preserved by the Athenians even down to 
the time of Demetrius Phalereus (that is near 
a thousand years ; for Demetrius was contem- 
porary with Ptolemy Philadelphus, who put 
him in prison, where he died of the bite of an 
asp) ; for they took away the old planks as they 
decayed, putting in new timber in their place, 
insomuch that this ship became a standing ex- 
ample among the philosophers, whenever they 
disputed concerning the identity of things 
which are continually changing. Whatever 
the constru6tion of this vessel might have 
been, or how long it subsisted, its fame was 
such, that when the voyage was determined 
on, it brought together above fifty of the most 
accomplished youths of the age to accompany 
Jason in the projefted expedition. See Argo- 
nauts, Jason, Golden Fleece. 
ON. To discuss this article with precision, it 
will be necessary to revert to its origin, which 
may properly be referred to the marriage of 
Ino with Athamas king of Orchomenos. This 
marriage, with whatever favourable omens it 
might have been celebrated, proved but of 
short duration, for Athamas, on some pre- 
tence, concerning which authors are not a- 

ized by 





greed, divorced Ino for the sake of Nephele. 
Nephele, however, soon incurring his displea- 
sure, was discarded in her turn for the repu- 
diated Ino. By her he had two sons, Laerchus 
and Melicerte, and by Nephele, Phryxus and 
Helle. Ino beheld the children of her rival 
with a jealous eye, for they being the eldest, 
had a prior claim to their father's inheritance. 
Resolving, therefore, on their destruction, she 
concerted her measures accordingly. As a 
grievous famine had for some time desolated 
the country, it was judged expedient to con- 
sult the oracle for relief. Ino having gained 
over the priests to lier interest, prevailed on 
them to return this answer: That the ravages 
of famine could no otherwise be ended, than 
by the sacrifice of Nephele's children. Phryxus 
apprized of Ino's purpose, freighted a vessel 
with his father's treasures, and embarked with 
his sister for Colchis. Tlie voyage proved fa- 
tal to Helle, and the sea into which she fell, was 
from her named the Hellespont: but Phryxus 
arrived safe at Colchis, and was protetfted from 
the cruelties of his step-mother Ino, in the court 
of Aeetes, his kinsman, who bestowed on him 
his daughter Chalciope in marriage. Upon his 
arrival, he consecrated his ship, on whose prow 
was represented the figure of a ram, to Mars.— 
This embellishment, it is supposed by some of 
the historians, gave rise to the fiifiion of his hav- 
ing swam to Colchis on the back of that animal, 
and after having sacrificed it to Mars, hung up 
its fleece in the temple of that god. Concern- 
ing this imaginary fleece, which is celebrated 
by the poets as having given birth to the expe- 
dition of the Argonauts, a variety of strange 
conjectures have been formed. Some are of opi- 
nion that it was a book of sheep-skins, contain- 
ing the mysteries of the chyniic art ; others, 
that it signified the riches of the country, with 
which their rivers abounding in gold, supplied 
its inhabitants ; and that from the sheep-skins, 
used in coUefting the dust, it was called the 
golden fleece. For a further illustration of this 
subject it will be necessary to insert the follow- 
ing history. Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, had 
two sons, Neleus and Pelias, by Neptune; and 
by CretheuB, son of Aeolus, Aeson, Pheres^ 
and Amithaon. The city of lolcos, in Thessaly, 
which Cretheus built, was the u^itai of his do- 

minions. He left his kingdom at his death to 
Aeson, his eldest son, but made no provision 
for Pelias, who growing every day more power- 
ful, at length dethroned Aeson ; and hearing 
tijat his wife Alcimeda was delivered of a son, 
was resolutely bent on his destruftion : for he 
had been forewarned by the oracle that he must 
be dethroned by a prince descending from Aeo- 
lus, who should appear before him with one 
foot bare. Aeson and Alcimeda, informed of 
the tyrant's intention, conveyed their son to 
Mount Pelion, where he was educated by Chi- 
ron. Having attained to manhood, he consult- 
ed the oracle, which encouraged him to repair 
to the court (rf lolcos. Pelias informed of the 
arrival of this stranger, and of the circum- 
stance of his appearing with only one sandal, 
concluded him to be the person whom the ora- 
cle had foretold. Having made himself and 
his situation known to his uncle, Jason de- 
manded of him the crown, which he had so un- 
justly usurped. Pelias was greatly alarmed at 
this requisition ; but knowing that a thirst for 
gloi-y is the darling passion of youth, he con- 
trived to appease the resentment of his nephew, 
by disclosing to him the means of gratifying 
his ambition ; with this aim, he assured him, 
that Phryxus, when he sailed from Orchomenos, 
had carried with him a fleece of gold, the ac- 
quisition of which would load him with riches, 
and immortalize his fame. The incentive 
produced its desired efFeft, and Jason imme- 
diately colle^ed the most illustrious princes 
of Greece, who were eager to embark in a 
cause at once both advantageous and honour- 
able. Who those heroes, were, the route they 
took, the dangers they encountered, and the 
success that followed, we shall endeavour 
briefly . to shew. Authors differ as to the 
names or number of the Argonauts ; some 
reckon them forty-nine, some fifty-two, and 
others fifty-four. Apollonius, however, in his 
Argonautics, makes them fifty-five, and reca- 
pitulates their names in the following order. 
Jason son of Aeson ; Orpheus son of Oeagrus ; 
Asterion ; Polyphemus son of Elatus; Iphiclus 
son of Amphitryon ; Admetus son of Pheres ; 
Aethalides, Echion, Eurytus, sons of Mercury ; 
Coronus son of Caeneus ; Mopsus son of ApoUo ; 
. Eurydamus ; Menoetius; Eurytionson of Irus; 

y Google 




Eribotes son of Teleon ; OileiJs ; Canthu?'; Cly- 
tiiiB, Iphitus, sons ofEurytua; Telarobn, Pe- 
leus, sons of Aeacus ; Phalems ; Tipbys ; Phlias, 
son of BacchuB ; Areius, Talaus, Leodocus, sons 
of Bias; Hercules, son of Jupiter ; Hylas, son 
of Theodamas ; Nauplius, son of Neptune ; Id- 
mon, son of Apollo ; Pollux, son of Jupiter ; 
Castor, son of Tyndanis ; Lynceus, Idas, sons 
of Aphareus ; Periclymenus, son of Neleus ; 
Amphidamas, Cepheus, sons of Aleus ; Ana- 
caeus, son of Lycurgus ; Augeas, son of Apollo; 
Asterius, Amphion, sons of Hyperasius ; Eu- 
phemus, Erginus, Ancaeus, sons of Neptune ; 
Meleager, son ofOeneus; Laocoon ; Iphicius, 
son of Thestius ; Palaemonius, son of Lemus, 
or of Vulcan ; Iphitus, Zethes, Calais, sons of 
Boreas ; Acastus, son of Pelias ; and Argus.— 
These illustrious personages having embarked on 
board the ship Argo, built by Argus,Tiphys their 
pilot was charged with the helm, and Lynceus, 
who of all mortals possessed the most astonish- 
ing and piercing sight, was their looker-out in 
cases of danger. After setting sail from Thes- 
saly, they landed on the isle of Lemnos, then 
inhabited by the Amazons ; whence they pro- 
ceeded to the country of the Dolians, and were 
kindly received by Cyzicus the king. Embark- 
ing thence in the night, and being driven back 
by contrary winds, they were mistaken for Pe- 
lasgians, with whom the Dolians were then at 
war : a battle ensued, and the hospitable Cyzi- 
cus, with many of his subjects, were slain. — 
Their next course was dire^ed towards Mysia, 
where Hercules having broken his oar, and be- 
ing gone to the wood for a new one, Hylas was in 
the mean time stolen by a nymph, as he stooped 
to take up water. Hercules and Polyphemus 
went in quest of him, and, during their ab- 
sence, the Argonauts sail to Bithynia. A battle 
ensues between the Bebrycians and Argonauts, 
in which the Argonauts come ofiF conquerors, 
Amycus being slain by Pollux. They then 
steeredibr Salniydessus, a city of Thrace, w here 
they consult Phineus on the success of their ex- 
pedition, who promised, if they would deliver 
him from the Harpies, to direft them safely to 
Colchis. They grant his request, and he gives 
them instru6lions. T hey sail through the Sym- 
plegades, andonward to the isIandThynia, where 
they land. Proceeding thence to the coast of 

Maryandyni, they are hospitably entertained by 
Lycus, king of that country. Here Idmon was 
killed by a wild boar, and Tiphys the pilot 
dying, was succeeded by Ancaeus. In conti- 
nuance of this voyage, they sail to the monu- 
ment of Sthenelus, whose ghost Proserpine re- 
leased from the infernal regions, and grati- 
fied with the sight of the Argonauts. They 
next made the island of Mars, where they 
met the sons of Phryxus, who had just before 
been shipwrecked. The Argonauts received 
them kindly, and took them on board. Weigh- 
ing anchor, they passed by Mount Caucasus, 
and came in sight of the eagle that preyed on 
the entrails of Prometheus. Thence, they ar- 
rived at Colchis. Juno and Pallas interceding 
with Venus, request that she would persuade 
Cupid to inspire Medea, daughter of Aeetes, 

king of Colchis, with a passion for Jason. 

The goddess consents, and the shafts of Cupid, 
at her suit, produce the desired effeft. Jason, 
Augeas, and Telamon proceed to the court of 
Aeetes, where they are kindly received ; but 
having heard the occasion of their voyage, Aee- 
tes is incensed, and refuses to bestow the golden 
fleece on Jason, but on such conditions as he 
thought impossible to be executed. Medea re- 
pairs to the temple of Hecate, whither Jason, at 
the suggestion of Mopsus, follows her. Having 
obtained, by Medea's instructions, a victory 
over the brazen bulls and armies of giants, Ja- 
son carries off the golden fleece, and Medea 
embarking with him, the Argonauts depart for 
Greece, and are pursued by Aeetes. After hav- 
ing crossed the Euxine, these adventurers, by an 
arm of the river Ister, enter the Adriatic. Ab- 
syrtus, son of Aeetes, to retard his pursuit, is 
treacherously murdered by Medea. The Argo- 
nauts continue their voyage into the Sardinian 
sea, by the Eridanus and the Rhone ; and the mur- 
der of Absyrtus is expiated by Circe, on whose 
island they land. Thetis and her Nymphs con- 
du(S the Greek heroes through the straits ol" 
Scilla and Chary bdis, and passing the island in- 
fested with the Sirens, they are secured from 
their enchantments by Orpheus. At Corcyra, 
once called Drepane, they meet with the Col- 
chians, who pursuing them through the Sym- 
plegades, request Alcinous, king of the island, 
to deliver up Medea. He agrees to send her 





back to her father, if unmarried ; but, if mar- 
ried to Jason, he refuses to separate them ; 
upon this determination their nuptials are ini- 
. mediately celebrated. They again put to sea, 
are driven upon the quicksands of Africa, and 
being extricated from their distresses by the tu- 
telary deities of the country, they bear the ship 
Argo on their shoulders as far as the lake Tri- 
tonis. The Hesperides, who were bewailing 
the death of the serpent slain the preceding day, 
by Hercules, give them some account of that 
hercr." Canthus and Mopsus die. Triton gives 
them directions concerning their voyage. They 
approach Crete, but are interrupted in their 
passage by the brazen monster Talus.who dies 
by the enchantments of Medea. At Hippuris 
they sacrifice to Phoebus, who^ standing upon 
the top of an hill, enlightens their way. The 
clod of earth given by Triton to Euphemus, be- 
comes an island called Caliste. They anchor at 
Aegina, and, loosing thence, arrive, without 
further interruption, in Thessaly. Such is the 
route assigned to the Argonauts by Apollonius, 
in his celebrated poem, and such the history of 
the golden fleece, as delivered down by the an- 
cient poets and historians. This famous expe- 
dition is generally supposed to be the first de- 
terminate eraof true history. Sir Isaac Newton 
places it about thirty years before theTrojan war, 
forty -three years after the death of Solomon, and 
nine hundred and thirty -seven years before the 
birth ofChrist. He apprehends that tlie Greeks, 
hearing of the distractions of Egypt, sent the 
most renowned heroes of their country in the 
ship Argo, to pei-siiade the nations on the coast 
of the Euxine, to throw off the Egyptian yoke, 
as the Libyans, Ethiopians, and Jews had be- 
fore done ; and he endeavours, from the Ar- 
gonautic expedition, to settle and recSify the 
ancient chronology. This he shews, by several 
authorities, to have happened at the eras above 
stated ; in confirmation of which, he gives an 
astronomical proof, which may be reduced to 
what follows. The sphere, says this great man, 
appears to have been first formecj, at the time 
of the Argonautic expedition, partly from the 
testimony of Laertius, who observes that Mu- 
saeus, one of the Argonauts, made a sphere ; 
partly from this, that Chiron, another of the 
Argonauts, is said by an ancient writer to have 

first framed the constellations ; and partly also 
from the consideration, that most of the ancient 
constellations delineated on the 'sphere are no 
others than the heroes who embarked in that 
voyage. Sir Isaac shews, that the first sphere 
was probably formed by Chiron and Musaeus, 
two of the Argonauts, for the use of this expe- 
dition itself: now, it is more than probable, 
that in the first sphere, the colures, or cardinal 
points of the equinoxes or solstices, were in the 
middle of the constellations Aries, Cancer, Che- 
lae, and Capricorn, consequently this was their 
situation at the time of the Argonautic expedi- 
tion ; and by computing backwards from the 
present situation of the colures, to the time 
when they must have been in the middle of the 
asterisms, we find it coincides very nearly with 
the time before alledged, i. e. about thirty years 
prior to the taking of Troy, and forty years 
posterior to the death of Solomon. Mr. Bryant, 
notwithstanding, has given a far different ac- 
count, in his very ingenious System o/Mytbole^y. 
The main plot, says this learned writer, as 
transmitted to us, is certainly a fable, and re- 
plete with inconsistencies and contradi6tions ; 
yet many writers, ancient and modern, have 
taken the account in gross, and without hesi- 
tation, or exception to any particular part, 
have presumed to fix the time of this transac- 
tion ; and having satisfied themselves in this 
point, they have ventured to make use of it for 
a stated era. Mr. Bryant is of opinion that this 
history, upon which Sir Isaac Newton built so 
much, did certainly not relate to Greece, though 
adopted by the people of that country. He 
contends that Sir Isaac's calculation rested upon 
a weak foundation ; that it Is doubtful whether 
such persons as Chiron or Musaeus ever existed, 
and still more doubtful whether tliey formed a 
sphere for the Argonauts. He produces many 
arguments to convince us that the expedition 
itself was not a Grecian operation, and that 
this sphere could not be a Grecian work; an<i 
if not from Greece, it must certainly be the 
produce of Egypt, for the astronomy of Greece 
confessedly came from that country, conse- 
quently the history to which it alludes must: 
have been from the same quarter. Many of the 
constellations, says Mr. Bryant, are of Egyp- 
tian original : the zodiac, which Sir Isaac New- 





ton supposed to relate to the Argonautic ratpe- 
dition, was, he asserts, an assemblage of Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics. After having enumerated 
all the particulars of their voyage, the different 
routes they are supposed to have taken, and the 
many inconsistencies with which the whole story 
abounds, Mr. Bryant proceeds to observe, that 
the mythology, as well as the rites of Greece, 
was borrowed from Egypt, and that it was 
founded upon ancient histories which had been 
transmitted in hieroglyphical representations ; 
these, by length of time, became obscure, and 
the sign was taken for the reality, and accord- 
ingly explained : hence arose the fable about 
the bull of Europa, and the like. In all these 
is the same history under a different allegory 
and emblem. In the wanderings of Rhea, Isis, 
Astarte, lona, and Demeter, is figured out the 
separation of mankind by their families, and 
their journeying to their places of allotment ; 
at the same time the dispersion of one particii- 
lar race of men, and their flight over the face 
of the earth, is principally described. Of this 
family were the persons who preserved the chief 
memorials of the ark in the Gentile world ; they 
represented it under dififerent emblems, and 
called it Demeter, Pyrrha, Selene, Meen, Ar- 
go, Argus, Archas, and Archaius or Archite. 
The Grecians, proceeds the learned writer, by 
taking this story of the Argo to themselves, 
have plunged into numberless difficulties. In 
the account of the Argo, we have undeniably the 
history of a sacred ship, the first that was ever 
constructed ; this truth the best writers among 
the Grecians confess, though the merit of the 
performance they would fain take to themselves : 
Yet after all their prejudices they continually 
betray the truth, and shew that the history was 
derived to them from Egypt. The cause of all 
the mistakes in this curious piece of mythology 
arose from hence ; the Arkites, who came into 
Greece, settled in many parts, but especially 
in Argolis and Thessaly, where they introduced 
their rites and worship : in th^ former of these 
regions they were commemorated under anotion 
of the arrival of Da-naus, or Danaus, who is sup- 
posed to have been a person who fiedfrom his bro- 
ther Aegyptus, and came over in a sacred ship 
given him by Minerva : this ship, like the Argo, is 
said to have been the first ship construAed, and 
Vol. I. 

he was assisted in the building of it by the same 
deity. Divine Wisdom. Both histories relate to 
the same event. Danaus, upon his arrival, built 
a temple, called Argus, to lona, or Juno, of 
which he made his daughters priestesses. The 
people of the place had an obscure tradition of 
a deluge, in which mMt perished, some few only 
escaping : the principal of these was Deucalion, 
who took refuge in the acropolis or temple. — 
Those who settled in Thessaly, carried with 
them the same memorials concerning Deucalirai 
and his deliverance, which they appropriated 
to their own country. They must have had 
traditions of this pi^at event strongly impressed 
upon their minds, as every place to which they 
gave name had some reference to that history : 
in process of time, these impressions grew more 
and more faint, and their emblematical worship 
became very obscure and unintelligible : hence 
they at last confined the history of Uiis event 
to their own country, and the Argo was sup- 
posed to have been built where it was originally 
enshrined. As it was reverenced under the 
symbol of the moon, called Man, or Mon, the 
people, from this circumstance, named their 
country Ai-mona, in after times rendered Ai- 
monia. Thus far Mr. Bryant, as to the origin 
of this story. In respeft of its meaning, my- 
thologists have differed much ; but the most 
rational account seems that of an ingenious mo- 
dern author, who observes that Colchis was one 
of the most ancient colonies of Egypt, whose 
manners and ceremonies resembled those of the 
mother country. As the river Phasis, which 
runs through 0)lchi8, was rich in gold-dust, 
the people, to coUeil this valuable metal, used 
the method still praftised in America, of laying 
sheep-skins in the stream, by which the parti- 
cles of gold were entangled. Now, as the Col- 
chians retained the Egyptian custom of expo- 
sing a public sign before particular seasons, or 
works, so the time for seeking the gold-dust, 
after the land floods, was made known by a 
standard of a golden fleece, attended with a 
serpent, to signify that the wealth arising from 
thence was the life of the colony. When the 
time of gat|^ering the gold-dust was over, and 
it became necesswy for the inhabitants to re- 
turn to the linen manufactory, they exposed a 
new signj which was a figure holding a shuttle 





and called Argontatb, or the work oftbe shuttles. 
This image the Greeks, who traded to Colchis, 
called Argonaut, or the ship^r^o ; hence arose 
the notion of an oracular ship, and a golden 
fleece guarded by a serpent or dragon. See 
Argo, Jason, Golden Fleece. 
ARGUS, son of Aristor, had an hundred eyesi 
fifty of which were always open. Juno made 
choice of him to guard lo, whom Jupiter had 
transformed into a white heifer; but Jupiter 
pitying lo for being so closely watcjied, sent 
Mercury, under the disguise of a shepherd, who 
with his flute charmed Argus to sleep, sealed 
up his eyes with his caduceus, and then cut off* 
his head. Juno, grieved at the death of Argus, 
turned him into a peacock, -and scattered his 
hundred eyes over his train. In attempting to 
unriddle this fable, some say that lo, priestess 
of Juno, was beloved of Jupiter Apis, king of 
Argos ; and that Niobe, his wife, who was like- 
wise called Juno, being jealous, put her under 
the guard of her uncle Argus, a man extremely 
vigilant, which made the poets give him so 
many eyes. According to other writers, th6 
fable of lo and Argus is of Egyptian original, 
and its true mythology this : The art of weav- 
ing, first invented in Egypt, was, by the colo- 
nies of that nation, carried to Greece and Col- 
chis, where it was praftised with this diflference, 
that the seasons for working were varied in each 
country according to the nature of the climate. 
February, March, April, and May, were the 
months for cultivating the lands in Egypt ; 
whereas, these being winter months with the 
Grecians, they kept, during them, the looms 
busy. Now the Isis, which pointed out the Ne- 
omeniae, or monthly festivals in Egypt, was 
always attended with an Horus, or figure ex- 
pressive of the labour peculiar to the season.— 
Thus the Horus of the weaving months was a 
little figure stuck over with eyes, to denote the 
many lights necessary for working by night : 
this image was called Argos, (from argotb or ar- 
gos, weaver's work) to signify his intention 

Now the vernal Isis being depicted by the head 
of a heifer, to exemplify the fertility and plea- 
santness of Egypt, on the sun's entrance into 
Taurus ; at the approach of winter she quitted 
this form, and so was sfud to be taken into cus- 
tody of Argos, from whom she was nott season 

delivered by the Horus, representing Anubis, or 
Mercury; that is, the rising of the Dog-star.- - 
The taking these symbolical representations 
in a literal sense, gave rise to the fable- 
See lo. 

Another Argus was the builder of the ship Argo, 
and one of the adventurers in the Argonautic 

A third, is mentioned as the son of Phryxus and 

Afourtb, as the son of Jupiter, by Eleflra, (or, 
according to others, by Laodamia) and brother 
of Sarpedon. 

hjipb Argus was he who, after having experienced 
the hospitality of Evander, sought to deprive 
him of both his kingdom and his life ; notwith- 
standing which, Evander, whose servants, with- 
out his knowledge had put the miscreant to 
death, because he had been his guest, honoured 
him with every funeral attention, and a monu- 
ment in the place afterwards, called Argilete. 

Another' j^/g-itf, son of Jupiter and Niobe, reigned 
at Argos, and first cultivated the soil of Greece. 

ARGYNNUS, a young Greek, being drowned as 
he was bathing, Agamemnon, in regard to his 
memory, ere6ted a temple, which he consecra- 
ted to Venus Argynnis. 

ARGYRA. See Selemis. 

ARGYT AE, a name of the Galli, priests of Cy bele. 
See Galli. 

in Grecian antiquity, two festivals at Naxos, in 
honour of two women named Ariadne. One 
c^ them daughter of Minos, king of Crete, sup- 
posed of a melancholy disposition, as, in the so- 
lemnity dedicated to her, a shew of sorrow and 
mourning was exhibited ; and, in memory of 
her being left by Theseus near the time of her 
delivery, it was usual for a young nlan to lie 
down and counterfeit all the agonies of a wo- 
man in labour. This festival is reported to have 
been first instituted by Theseus, in atonement - 
of his ingratitude to that princess. The other 
Ariadne was thought to possess a gay and 
sprightly temper, and therefore her festival was 
observed with music, and other expressions of 


ARIADNE, a daughter of Minos and Pasiphae„ 
king and queen of Crete, grand-daughter of 
Aeetes, king of Colchis, and sister of Phaedra, 

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falling deeply in love with Theseus, gave him 
a clue by which he escaped out of the Laby- 
rinth, after killing the Minotaur ; and having 
emancipated the Athenian prisoners, carried 
them off with Ariadne. His fair deliverer, 
however, he perfidiously left on the isle of 
Naxos, when near the time of parturition, 
where Bacchus finding her> fell passionately in 
love with her, made her his wife, and, as a tes- 
timony of his affe^ion, gave her a crown which 
Vulcan had wrought for Venus, adorned with 
either seven or nine stars. This crown was 
caWtAGnossia Corona, and Ariadne herself was 
sumamed Gnossis, from the city of that name 
in Crete. After Ariadne's death, which Diana 
was thought to have procured because she pre- 
served not her virginity, this crown was placed 
among the stars, Other authors relate, that 
Bacchus, seeing Ariadne young and beautiful, 
and peculiarly conspicuous for her golden 
locks, admonished Theseus to relinquish her, 
who, being struck with a divine terror, left 
her in a profound sleep, and set sail for Athens. 
To this they add, that Bacchus approaching 
her, proffered her immortality, free from old 
age, which gift he had, 9btained for her from 
Jupiter ; and that he likewise communicated 
to her his name Liber, she being called Libera. 
Plutarch, however, gives a still different ac- 
count Some relate, says he, that Ariadne 
hanged herself after being deserted by The- 
seus ; others, that she was carried away by his 
fi^lors to the isle of Naxos, and married to 
Onarus, one of the priests of Bacchus, and 
that Theseus left her, because he fell in love 
with Aegle. What the poets have generally 
related on this subjeft, is in every ones mouth ; 
but there is a very singular narration written 
by Paeon the Amathusian. He says, that The- 
seus being driven by a storm upon the island 
of Cyprus, and having with him Ariadne, who, 
being pregnant, and extremely discomposed 
with ,the rolling of the sea, set her on shore, 
and left her there alone, while he returned to 
help the ship ; that on a sudden, by a violent 
wind, he was again forced out to sea ; that the 
women of the island received Ariadne very 
kindly, and endeavoured to mitigate her grief 
by counterfeiting letters, and delivering them 
to her as if sent from Theseus ; that when she 

fell in labour they afforded her all necessary 
assistance, but that she died in childbed before 
she could be delivered, and was by them ho- 
nourably interred ; that Theseus returned just 
at tliat time, and was greatly affli<5led at her 
loss, and at his departure left a considerable 
sum of money among the people of the island, 
ordering them to sacrifice, and pay divine ho- 
nours to Ariadne ; himself previously causing 
two little statues, one of silver and the other 
of brass, to be made and dedicated to her. He 
further adds, that on the second day of the 
month Gorpiaeus, (September), among other 
ceremonies, a youth lies in bed, and with his 
voice and gesture counterfeits all the pains of 
a woman in travail ; and that the Amathusiaris 
call the grove in which they shew her tomb. 
The grove of Venus Ariadne. The same author 
proceeds : This story is differently related by 
some of the Naxians ; they say that there were 
two Minoses and two Ariadnes, one of whom 
was married to Bacchus in the isle of Naxos, 
and bore him a son named Stapbylus ; but that 
the other, of a later age, was ravished by The- 
seus, and being afterwards deserted of him, 
retired to Naxos with her nurse Corcyne, whose 
grave they yet show; that this Ariadne also 
died there, and was worshipped by the islan- 
ders, but in a different manner from the for- 
mer ; for her day is celebrated with festive re- 
vels, and universal joy ; whereas, all the sacri- 
fices performed to the latter are mingled with 
sorrow and mourning. This concluding pas- 
sage is remarkable : the feasts which were ce- 
lebrated in commemoration of the Ariadne, , 
whom Bacchus married, were more honour- 
able than those observed in memory of the 
Ariadne who had been stolen by Theseus. In 
the former nought was to be seen but joy ; in 
the latter, only expressions of sorrow. The 
one denoted, that the heroine was not dead, 
but become a divinity ; the other implied the 
reverse. See Ariadnaia, Bacchus, Tbeseus. 

ARICIA, the daughter of Pallas, king of Troe- 

ARICINA, a surname of Diana, taken from the 
worship rendered to her In the forest Aricicia, 
a few miles out of Rome. 

ARIELYCUS, a Trojan mentioned in the sixth 
Iliad, as wounded by Patroclus. 
N 2 

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ARIES. SeePbtyxus. 

ARIMANIUS, the evil god of the ancient Per- 
, sians. The Persian Magi held two principles, 
a good and an evil : the first, the author of all 
good> and the other, of all evil ; the former, 
they supposed to be represented by light, and 
the latter, by darkness, as their truest symbols. 
The good principle they named Tezad or Tez- 
dan, and Ormoxd or Hormizda, which the Greeks 
wrote Oromazdes ; and the evil demon they 
called Abriman, and the Greeks Ariman'ms.— 
Some of the Magians held both these principles 
to have been from all eternity ; but this se6l 
was reputed heterodox, the original doftrine 
being, that the good principle only was eternal, 
and the other created. Plutarch gives the fol- 
lowing account of the Magian traditions in re- 
lation to these gods, and the introduction of 
evil into the world, viz. That Oromazes con- 
sisted of most pure light, and Arimanius of 
darkness, and that they were at war with each 
other ; that Oromazes created six gods, the 
first, the author of benevolence ; the second, of 
truth ; the third, of justice, riches, and the 
pleasure which attends good actions ; and that 
Arimanius made aa many, who were authors 
of the opposite evils or vices : that then Oro- 
mazes triplicating himself, removed as far from 
the sun as the sun is from the earth, and adorn- 
ed the heaven with stars, appointing the dog- 
star for their guardian and leader ; that he 
also created twenty-four other gods, and en- 
closed them in an egg j but Arimanius having 
also formed an equal number, these last per- 
forated the egg, by which means evil and good 
became mixed together. However, the time 
will come when Arimanius, the introducer of 
plagues and famine, must, of necessity, be ut- 
terly destroyed by the former ; then the earth 
being made plain and even, mankind shall live 
in a happy state, in the same manner, in the 
same political society, and using one and the 
same language. Theopompus writes, that ac- 
cording to the Magians, these two gods, dur- 
ing the space of 3O0O yeare, alternately con- 
quer and are conquered ; that for 3000 years 
they will wage mutual war, and destroy the 
works of each other, till at last Hades, or the 
Evil Spirit, shall perish, and men become j>er- 
fcftly happy, their bodies needing no food. 

nor casting any shadow, t. e. being perfe6ily 
transparent. Some writers give us a very odd 
and particular account of the origin of Arima< 
nius ; for they tell us-that Oromazdes, consi- 
dering that he was alone, said to himself. If I 
have no one to oppose me, where is all my 
glory ? This single refle<5iion created Arima- 
nius, who, by his everlasting opposition to the 
divine will, contributed, against his inclina- 
tion, to the glory of Oromazdes. The detes- 
tation to Arimanius, or, the Evil God, was so 
great, that the Persians used always to write 
his name backward. Plutarch relates, that 
the same people used to pound the herh omomus 
in a mortar, and at the same time invoke Ari- 
manius and darkness ; they then mixed the 
blood of a wolf just killed with the herb oiao- 
mus, and carrying it out, threw it in a place 
where the rays of the sun never came. This 
doflrine of the good and the evil principle, 
bears such a resemblance to the notion of a 
God and a Devil, that possibly it might be 
borrowed from some ancient tradition con- 
cerning the Fallen Angels, which might not be 
unknown to the Persians ; or it might betaken 
from the account which Moses has left us con- 
cerning the creation of light, and its separation 
from darkness. See Abariman, Magi. 
ARION, was born atMethymna, of what parents 
is uncertain. He was a skilful musician, and 
famous Dithyrambic poet, if not the inventor 
of the Cyclian chorus. He flourished in the 
reign of Periander, tyrant of Corinth, at whose 
court residing some time> he had a desire to 
visit Italy and Sicily, where acquiring wealth 
by his profession, he sailed from Tarentum in 
a Corinthian vessel. ■ When at sea, the avari- 
cious crew agreed to throw Arion overboard, 
in order to share his money. Perceiving it in 
vain to resist, after using all his eloquence to 
no purpose, he brought forth the money, de- 
siring leave only to play one tune before leav- 
ing the ship, in hopes the harmony of his music 
might withdraw them from their purpose ; but 
this proving ineffectual, he played a farewell 
a.\T caX\ed Lex Ortbia, and, witha garland on his 
head and a harp in his hand, plunged into the 
sea ; where a dolphin, charmed with the melo- 
dy, received him on his back, and bore him 
safe to Taenaraus, whence he direCtly proceed- 

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ed to Corinth, and related the story to the king, 
Periander believing it a fiftion, kept him pri- 
soner till the mariners arrived, when asking 
news of Arion, they said they had left him well 
at Tarentum, upon which confronting them 
with Arion, they were astonished at the sight, 
confessed the truth, and suffered the punish- 
ment due to their perfidy. Arion speedily ac- 
quired riches, and the Dolphin, for his good 
services, was made a constellation. 
ARION, an admirable horse, much more famous 
in poetic story than Bucephalus in that of Alex- 
ander. Authors speak variously of his origin, 
though they agree in admitting it divine. His 
produftion is most commonly ascribed to Nep- 
tune. This deity, according to some, raised 
him out of the ground by a stroke of his 
trident ; according to others, he begot him on 
the Fury Erynnys ; or, as others pretend, Ceres, 
in the form of a mare, she having assumed that 
form to elude his pursuit. Some say that Nep- 
tune, being willing to procure to men the ser- 
vices which horses were capable of performing, 
struck the ground in Thessaly with his trident, 
and suddenly caused two horses to issue from 
it, one of which was Arion : others say, that 
Neptune, disputing with Minerva, who should 
name the city of Athens, the gods determined, 
that those who should procure the greatest 
blessing to man should give name to the city ; 
on which Neptune striking the shore, caused 
a horse to arise, whilst Minerva produced the 
olive. Those who speak of Ceres as his mother 
afifirm, that she admitted Neptune near the city 
of Oncium in Arcadia ; and add, tliat she not 
only bore to him the horse Arion, but a daugh - 
ter also, whose name was withholden from the 
profane. It is said by some, that Ceres was 
under the form of a Fury when she became 
pregnant by Neptune ; or that, in effe6t, a 
Fury procreated him from the embrace of 
this god. Antimachus, the poet, quoted by 
Pausanias, gives him no other origin than the 
earth in Arcadia ; but Quintus Calaber makes 
him the son of the windZepbyrus and one of 
the Harpies. Whatever doubts there may be 
as to the descent of this celebrated horse, it is 
agreed by most that he was fostered by the 
Nereids ; and being sometimes yoked with the 
■ca-horses of Neptune to the chariot of this 

god, drew him with incredible swiftness through 
the sea. He had this singularity, that his right 
feet resembled those of a man, and that be is 
said to have acquired the use of speech. Nep- 
tune gave him to Capreus, king of Haliartus : 
Capreus made a present of him to Hercules, 
who mounted him when he took the ci^ of 
Elis, gained the prize with him in the race 
against Cygnus the son of Mars ; and, accord- 
ing to Statius, after having used him in all his 
' travels, presented him to Adrastus, king of 
Argos. Under this last master Arion further 
signalized himself, not only by winning the 
prize at the Nemean games, which the princes 
who went against Thebes instituted in honour 
of Archemorus, but carried off Adrastus un- 
hurt, when all the other chieftans perished. 
ARISTAEUS, son of Apollo, by the nymph Gy- 
rene, daughter of Hypseus, king of the I.api- 
thae, was bom in Lybia, and in that part of 
it where the city Cyrene was built. He received 
his education from the nymphs, who taught 
him to extraft oil from olives, and to make 
honey, cheese, and butter ; all which arts he 
communicated to mankind. Going to Thebes, 
he there married Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus, 
and, byjier, was father to Aftaeon, who was torn 
in pieces by his own dogs. After the loss of 
this son, he consulted the oracle of Apollo, and 
in consequence of the answer made him re- 
spefting the honours he should receive in the 
isle of Cea, he transported himself thither. A 
pestilence raging at this time throughout 
Greece, he offered sacrifices, which caused 
that evil to cease ; and having left his family 
in the isle of Cea, returned to Lybia, whence, 
strengthened with a fleet which his mother 
gave him, he sailed for Sardinia. Here, chu- 
sing a residence, 'he cultivated the earth with 
great assiduity, and banished from the inha- 
bitants their ferocious manners. Induced by 
the fertility of the soil, and the increase of his 
cattle, to continue in Sicily, he imparted to the 
inhabitants his skill, for which, in 'return, they 
honoured him as a god. At length he passed 
into Thrace, where Bacchus initiated him into 
the mysteries of the Orgia, and taught him 
many things conducive to the happiness of life. 
Having dwelt some time near Mount Hemus, 
he disappeared, and not only the barbarous 

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people of that country, but the Greeks like- 
wise, decreed him divine honours. Aristaeus 
becoming violently enamoured of Eurydice, 
attempted to surprize her, but she in her 
flight was killed by a serpent. The Wood- 
Nymphs irritated at so flagitious an attempt, 
destroyed his bee-hives in revenge. Concern- 
ed at this loss he advised with his mother, and 
was directed by Proteus to offer, as a piacular 
sacrifice to the manes of Eurydice, four, heifers 
and as many bulls. He followed the advice, 
and there issued from the carcasses of the vic- 
tims a sufficiency of bees to compensate hia 
loss. It is remarked by Bayle, that Aristaeus 
found out the solstitial rising of Sirius, or the 
Dog-star ; and he adds, it is certain that this 
star had a particular relation to' Aristaeus ; for 
this reason, the heats of the Dog-star laid waste 
the Cyclades, and occasioned there a pestilence, 
which Aristaeus was entreated to put a stop 
to. He went dire<5tly into the isle of Cea, and 
built an altar to Jupiter, offered sacrifices to 
that deity, and some likewise to the malig- 
nant star, establishing an anniversary to 
it. These produced a very good effedt, for it 
was from thence that the Etesian winds had 
their origin, which continue forty days, and 
temper the heat of the summer. He goes on : 
Diodorus Siculus does not plainly enough inti- 
mate, whether the Etesian winds were the effect 
of Aristaeus' sacrifice. He seems to say, that 
this sacrifice being offered about the time of 
the Dog-star's rising, a time which concurs 
with the season of the Etesian winds, the plague 
ceased : but it is certain he pretends, that the 
vehement heats of the Dog-star were qualified 
by the religious adts which Aristaeus perform- 
ed ; and he finds therein a subjeift for admira- 
tion, that the same person whose son had been 
torn in pieces by dogs, corrected the malig- 
nity of a star called the Dog. Aristaeus had 
a daughter named Macris, of whom Apollonius 
makes mention. On his death, Aristaeus, for 
the services he had rendered mankind, was 
placed among the stars, and is the Aquarius 
of the Zodiae. Herodotus says, that Aristaeus 
appeared at Cyzicum after hja death ; that he 
disappeared a second time ; and after three 
hundred and forty years, shewed himself at 
Metapontum in Italy, where he enjoined the 

inhabitants to ereft a statue to him near that 
of Apollo, which injunftion, on consulting the 
oracle, they performed. The resemblance of 
the history of Aristaeus to that of Moses, has 
been variously and learnedly discussed by 
Huetius. Aristaeus was otherwise called A- 
graeus and Nomius, and is said by Cicero to be 
the son of Liber Pater, or Bacchus. See Cy- 

ARISTHENES. SecArestbanas. 

ARISTOR, the son of Crotopos, and father of 

ARISTORIDES, Argus son of Aristor. 

ARISTOTIMUS, tyrant of Elis. See Bac- 

ARMATA, an epithet given to Venus by the 
Lacedemonians, who worshipped that goddess 
under this title, in memory of the victory ob- 
tained by their wives over the Messenians, by 
whom they were besieged. 

ARMIFERA DEA, that is, Minerva, the armour 
bearing goddess. 

ARM IGER jOV IS, the armour bearer of Jupiter ; 
that is, the eagle. 

ARMILUSTRIUM, a feast among the Romans, 
in which they sacrificed, armed at all points, 
and with the sound of trumpets. Some define 
Armilustrium to have been a feast wherein a 
general review was made of all their forces in 
the Campus Martius. But this is an evident 
error, for Varro does not derive the word from 
arma and lustrare, but from the custom of hold- 
ing this feast in the place where their reviews 
were usually made ; or rather, from their go- 
ing round the place armed with bucklers ; and 
he prefers the latter opinion, being persuaded, 
that the place where the sacrifice was offered 
to the gods, was, from this ceremony, called 
Armilustrium or Armilustrura, a luendo, or a 
lustre, that is, quod circumibant ludentes, ancilibus 
armati. This sacrifice was intended as a piacu- 
lar for the prosperity of the arms of the people 
of Rome, and was celebrated on the 14th of the 
calends of November. Some will have the 
Armilustrium to have been a kind of sacrec 
game wherein arms were used, held annual! 
in honour of Titus Tatius. Donatus suppo* 
them to have been performed by the S^ 
armed with helmets, shields, and spears ; > 
at least, carrying those weapons in processir- 

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ARMIPOTENS, an epithet of Minerva, as the 
goddess of wan. 

ARNE, the daughter of Aeolus, to whom Nep- 
tune gained admission in the form of a young 
bull. Of the same name also was an Athenian 
princess, who was changed into a jack-daw from 
having betrayed her country, for the love of 
gold, to Minos. She is supposed to have been 
the same with Scylla, the daughter of Nisus. 

ARNO, the nurse of Neptune. See Neptune. 

AROUERIS, an ancient deity of the Egyptians, 
mentioned by Plutarch, whom some take for 
Apollo ; others, Orus the elder ; and Scaliger, 
Anubis ; but Bishop Cumberland thinks he is 
the same as is called, in Sanchoniatho's Phoeni- 
cian history, Agrouerus, or j^rotes, which sig- 
nifies the husbandman, one of the ninth genera- 
tion, who had a statue erected to him in Phoe- 
nicia, and a temple carried about by a yoke of 
oxen. If the y be allowed to melt away, as it 
often does, or if we take a.y^; and ofafu. for sy- 
nonymous terms, the name is the same ; for 
the termination is arbitrary. When the Egyp- 
tians added five intercalatory days to their year, 
they dedicated each of them to some god, viz. 
the first to Osiris, the second to Aroueris, the 
third to Typhon, the fourth to Isis, and the 
fifth to Neptha. 

ARREPHORIA, a festival among the Athenians, 
instituted in honour of Minerva and Herse, 
daughter of Cecrops, in the month Scirropho- 
rion. It w^ sometimes called Hersephoria, 
from Herse ; but commonly AffftTofofi* because 
something mysterious was carried about by four 
seleft noble virgins, or (according to the Ety- 
mologicon) boys not less than seven, nor above 
eleven, years of age, who were for that reason 
called Kffn^oi ', their apparel was white, and set 
off with ornaments of gold; and out of them 
were chosen two to weave, as the custom was 
a iriTXot, or garment for Minerva, which work 
they began upon the 30th of the month Pya- 

ARRICHION, a celebrated wrestler. 

ARSENOTHELEAE, gods so called from their 
forms participating of both sexes. * 

ARSINOE, daughter of Phegeus, and wife of 
Alcmaeon. See Callirboe, Alcmeon. 

ARSINOE, daughter of Nicocreon. She was be- 
loved by Arceophon, who, unable to engage 

her afffeftions, died of a broken heart. She be- 
held his funeral unmoved, which so incensed 
Venus, that the goddess changed her to a flint. 

ARSINOE. See Alcitboe. 

ARSINOUS. See Hecamede. 

ART, by the ancients was considered as a divinity. 

ART ACES, a chief of Cyzicus, king of the Do- 
lians, who with Itymoneus, was slain by Mele- 
ager, when the Argonauts were bound towards 

ARTEMIS, a n^me given to Diana, on account 
of her modesty and honour. Also to Daphne, 
the Delphic Sibyl. 

ARTEMISIA, wife and sister of Mausolus, king 
of Caria, and daughter of Hecatomnus, im- 
mortalized herself by the honours she paid to 
her husband. She built for him at Halicamas- 
sus, a tomb, called the Mausoleum, and es- 
teemed one of the seven wonders of the world. 
From this structure, the title of Mausoleum be- 
came the common name of all tombs remarka- 
ble for their grandeur. Artemisia survived 
her husband but about two years, and died of 
grief towards the end of the 106th Olympiad.— 
It is said that she steeped the ashes of her hus- 
band in water and swallowed them, that her 
own body might serve his for a living tomb. — 
Artemisia's grief did not, however, absorb her 
CKTC of her dominions; for the Rhodian^ having 
formed the design of dethroning her, she carried 
on a war against them, and having at length 
besieged and taken their city, erefted within 
the walls two brazen statues, one representing 
Rhodes, in the habit of a slave, and the other 
Artemisia, branding her with a hot iron. This 
monument, so disgraceful to the city, remained 
a considerable time in it ; for the citizens con 
sidered it a point of religion never to pull down 
even the trophies of their enemies. At length, 
hewever, to hide these witnesses of their shame, 
they encompassed the statues with a wall, and 
proliibited, on pain of death, all persons from 
entering it. Many confound this Artemisia 
with another of the name, daughter of Ligda- 
mis, who aided Xerxes against the Greeks, 
and afterwards favoured the Persians. Being 
infatuated with an unsuccewful passion for Dar- 
danus of Abydas, she threw herself from the 
promontory of Leucate, and perished. 

ARTEMISIA, a festival celebrated in several 

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parts of Greece, particularly at Delphi, in ho- 
nour of Diana, aumamed Artemis. Another 
solemnity of this kind was observed at Syracuse, 
for three days together, with banquets and 
sports. In the Artemisia a mullet was sacri- 
ficed to the goddess, from its being supposed to 
hunt aQd kill the sea>hare. 

ARTIMPASA, a title under which Venus was 
worshipped by the Sythians. 

ARVALES FRATRES:' Priests among the Ro- 
mans, who presided over the sacrifices of Bac- 
chus and Ceres, owed their institution to the 
following reason : Acca Laurentia, the nurse 
of Romulus, had a custom of offfering annually 
a solemn sacrifice for a blessing upon the fields, 
and was assisted in this solemnity by her twelve 
■ons. One of them however dying, Romulus, 
in token of his gratitude and respeft, proposed 
himself to fill up the vacancy, and gave the 
company the name of Fraires Arvales. This 
order was in great repute at Rome ; they held 
their dignity for life, unforfeited by imprison- 
ment, exile, or any other accident. They wore 
on their heads, at the time of their solemnity, 
crowns made of ears of corn, upon a tradition 
that Laurentia at first presented Romulus with 
one of the kind. Some ascribe to them the 
care of the boundaries and divisions of lands, 
and authority to decide all controveraies^at 
might happen about them, the processions or 
perambulations made under their guidance be- 
ing termed Ambervalia : others pretend that 
a different order was instituted for Uiat purpose, 
called Sodales Arvales, on the same account as 
the Fratres Arv(des. The Arval Brothers held 
their assemblies in the temple of Concord. 

ARUERIS, atitleofOrus, the son of Osiris and 

ARUNGUS, OR ARUNEUS. See Averruncus. 

ARUNS, . a chief in Virgil, killed by OpiS, a 
nymph of Diana. 

ARUNTICES, having contemned the feasts of 
Bacchus, was made by him to drink so much 
wine as to overpower his reason, and induce 
him to violate his daughter, who, in revenge, 
put him to death. 

ces owe their original to Romulus, who bor- 
rowed the institution from the Tuscans ; and 
these received it, as tradition relates, from a 

boy whom they strangely ploughed out of the 
ground. This boy, who, as was said, obliged 
them with a discovery of all the mysteries of their 
art, was called by them Tages. At first the 
natives of Tuscany only exercised this office at 
Rome ; and therefore the senate made an order 
that twelve of the sons of the principal nobility 
should be sent into that country to be instructed 
in the rites and ceremonies of their religion, of 
which this secret was a chief part. The busi- 
ness of the Aruspices was to inspeft the beasts 
oflfered in sacrifice ; and by them to divine the 
success of any enterprize. They took their ob- 
servations from four appearances ; First, from 
the beasts before they were opened ; secondly, 
from the entrwls afterward ; thirdly, from the 
flame that arose when they were burning ; fourth- 
ly, from the flour of bran, frankincense, wine, 
and water which they used in the sacrifice. In 
the beasts, before they were cut up, theyob. 
served whether they were forcibly dragged to 
the altar ; whether they escaped from the hands 
of the leader ; whether they evaded the stroke, 
or bounded and reared when they received it ; 
and whether they died with considerable an- 
guish : all which, with several other omens, were 
counted unfortunate: or, on the other hand. 
whether they followed the leader without com- 
pulsion ; received the blow without struggling 
and resistance; whetherthey bledeasily,and sent 
out a great quantity of blood, which gave equal 
assurance of a prosperous event. In the beast, 
when cut open, they observed the colour of the 
parts, and whether any were wanting. A dou- 
ble liver was counted higbly unfortunate ; a 
little or a lean heart was always unlucky ; if 
the heart were mining, nothing could bethought 
more fatal, as happened in two oxen together 
offered by Julias Caesar, a little before his mur- 
der ; if the entrails fell from the hands of the 
priest ; if they were besmeared more than or- 
dinarily with blood ; or if they were of a pale, 
livid colour, they portended sudden danger and 
ruin. As to the flame of the sacrifice, it fur- 
nished them with a good omen if it ascended 
with force, and presently consumed the viftim. 
If it were clear, pure, and transparent, without 
any mixture of smoke, and not discoloured with 
red, pale, or black ; if it were silent and steady, 
not jsparkling nor crackling, but arose in tho 

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form of a pyramid : on the contrary^ it always 
portended miBfortunes if at first it required 
much pains to light it ; if it did not bum up- 
right, but rolled into circles, and left void 
spaces between them ; if it did not presently 
catch hold on the whole nacrifice, but crept up 
by degrees from one part to another ; if it hap- 
pened to be spread about by the wind, or to be 
put out by sudden rain, or to leave any part 
unconsumed. In the meal, frankincense, wine 
and water, they were to observe whether they 
had their due quantity, their proper taste, co- 
lour, smell, &c. Thus we read in Virgil, that 
Dido, at the time of sacrificing, found the wine 
changed into black blood : and Xerxes, the 
evening before he attacked the city of Sparta, 
saw his wine three times changed into blood, — 
There were several other signs, which supplied 
them with conje6lurea too insignificant here to 
be mentioned. The business of the Auruspices 
was not restrained to the altars and sacrifices ; 
they had an equal right to explain all other 
portents : hence we find them often consulted 
by the senate on extraordinary occasions ; or, 
if the Roman Aruspices lay under a disrepute, 
others were sent for out of Tuscany, where this 
craft most flourished, and where it was first in- 
vented. The college of Auruspices, as well as 
those of the other religious orders, had their 
particular registers and records ; and their doc- 
trine or discipline was formed into a precise 
art, called Armpicina. Cato, who was an Au- 
gur, used to say, he wondered how one Arus- 
pex could look at another without laughing : 
whence may be perceived what opinion he en- 
tertained of the solidity of the Aruspicina. See 
Ai^ry, Dibmatkm. 

ASABINUS, the god Baal, so called by the Ethi- 

ASBAMEA, a fountain of Cappadocia, near Tay- 

ana, sacred to Jupiter, and to an oath.- 

Though it bubbled up as if boiling, its water 
was cold, and never ran over, but felt back a- 

ASBOLUS, one of the dogs of Aftaeon. 

ASCALAPHUS, was son of Acheron and the 
nymph Orphne; or Gorgyra. When Ceres, dis- 
consolate for the loss of her daughter Froser- 
pinCf wandered through the world in searcAi of 
her, she wa? at length iaformed thgt Plutp had 

carried her to hell. Upon this she complained 
to Jupiter, who promised that Proserpine should 
be restored to her, jn'ovided she had not tasted 
any thing in the infernal regions. The goddess 
joyfully bore this commission, and her daugh- 
ter was preparing to return, when Ascalaphus 
declared that he had seen Proserpine eat seven 
grains of a pomegranate, as she walked in the 
garden of Pluto. Ascalaphus, though the in- 
formation was true, was turned into a toad, or, 
as some say, an owl, a bird of evil omen. 

There wasanother person of this name, brother of 
lalmon, and son of Mars and Astyoche, These 
brothers led the Orchomenians, in thirty ves- 
sels, agunst Troy, Ascalaphus fell by the 
hands of Deiphobus. 

'ASCANIUS, a chieftain, who, with Phorcis, head- 
ed the Ascanian Phrygians against Troy. 

ASCANIUS, son of Aeneas and Creusa, succeed- 
ed his father in the kingdom of the Latins, and 
defeated Mezentius, king of the Tuscans, who 
had refused to conclude a peace with him. He 
founded Alba Longa, and died about 1139 years 
before the Christian era. The descendants of 
Ascanius reigned over the Latin territories till 
the time of Numitor, grand-father of Romulus. 
In the Aeneid, Virgil gives the name of lulus 
to Ascanius, whom he describes as distinguish- 
ed by a lambent flame a„bout his head, imme- 
diately before Aeneas left Troy, which An- 
chises, versed in omens, deemed of good for- 

ASCELES, king of Epidaurus. See Aesculapius. 

names of the Cabin. See Cabin. 

ASCLEPIA, a festival of Aesculapius, obsei-ved 
in several parts of Greece, but no where with 
so much solemnity as at Epidaurus ; which this 
god honoured with his more immediate pre- 
sence, giving answers in an oracular way ; 
wherefore it was called ^fly«AM^x^xff'(«, i. e. the 
great festival of Aesculapius. One part of the 
solemnity consisted in a musical entert^nment, 
in which the poets and musicians contended for 
victory, andtherefore was called 'hm Ayu*, the 
sacred contention. 

ASCOLIA, feasts celebrated in honour of Bac- 
chus, to whom a he-goat was sacrificed, that 
animal being supposed obnoxious to the god, as 
being a destroyer of vines. From the skin of 

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this viAim> it was customary to make a bottle^ I 
upoji which, it being supplied with oil, and dis- ' 
tended with wine, the votaries attempted to , 
leap, and he who could first ieep his standing, 
was not only declared vi6tor, but received the 
bottle as a reward. The doing of this they' 
called ftrKuAict^nii, iretf» t* tri rw acxw ttUnlw, 1. C- 
from leaping upon a bottle, whence this festi- 
val has its name. Among the Romans rewards 
were distributed to those who, by leaping upon 
these leathern bottles, overcame the rest, after 
which the whole concourse called upon Bac- 
chus in unpolished verses, and putting on 
masks, carried his statue about their vine- 
yards, daubing their faces- with the sap of 
trees and dregs of wine. Returning to his 
altar, they presented their oblations in basons, 
and burnt them. The ceremony at length 
concluded with hanging upon the highest trees 
little wooden or earthen images of Bacchus, 
which, from the smallness of their mouths, 
were called Oscilla. The places where these 
images were hung up were considered as so 
many watch-towers, whence Bacchus might 
superintend the vines, and protect them from 
ASCRA, a city at the foot of Helicon, built by 
OecaluB, grandson of Neptune, which gave 
the epithet Ascraeus to Hesiod, who was bom 
in it. It is fabled, that this poet, whilst feed- 
ing a flock of sheep on Helicon, was carried 
away by the Muses. 
ASCRAEUS. See Ascra. 
ASERA, OR ASEROTH, an idol of the Ca- 

ASHIMA, the name of an idol worshipped by 
the people of Hamath. Some of the Rabbins 
say, it had the shape of an ape ; others, that 
it was represented under the form of a lamb, 
a goat, or a satyr. Selden ingenuously con- 
fesses, he was wholly ignorant what this deity 
was. Some conceive him to have been the 
same with Mars, because As among the Greeks 
stood for Afnt, and Scbemab means attentive to. 
Hence he was concluded to have been the god 
whom the Romans called Hesus. The most 
probable conjecture nevertheless is, that Ashi- 
ma is the deity whom the Hebrews call Ha- 
fiham. Ebenezra, in his preface to the book of 
Esther, says, that he saw, in a Samaritan Poi- 

tateuch, the words Bora Asb'ma substituted \\\ 
the room of Bare Elobim ; that is, the idol 
Ashima put instead of the true god. Bochart 
censures this as false, and we have authentic 
copies of the Samaritan Pentateuch, which 
prove it to be so. Ashima may, perhaps, be 
derived from the Persian Asuman, which is the 
name of a genius presiding over every thing 
which happens on the 27th day of every solar 
month in the Persian year. S^ Asuman. 

ASHTAROTH, or ASTAROTH, the plural of 
Astarte, the goddess of the Sidonians. The 
word is Syriac, and signifies sbeep, especially 
when their udders are turgid with milk. From 
the fecundity of those animals, which, in Syria, 
continue to breed a long time, the Sidonians 
formed the notion of a deity, whom they called 
Ashtaroth, Astaroth, or Astarte. See Astarte. 

ASIA, daughter of Oceanus by his wife Pam- 
phyloge, gave her name to the division of the 
world so called. 

ASIA, It is remarked under Africa, that the an- 
cients abounded in allegorical beings ,- accord- 
ingly we find Asia, one of the quarters of the 
globe, personally described. She is represent- 
ed as standing on the rostrum of a ship, with a 
rudder in one hand, and a serpent in the other. 
The two former attributes may imply, that the 
greatest improvements of navigation, among 
the ancients, came from that part of the world ; 
for the Greeks and Romans owned themselves 
to be much inferior in that art to the people 
of Tyre and Sidon, and what the Africans had 
of it, was brought originally from Tyre. As 
to her other attribute, the serpent, it is diffi- 
cult to ascertain its meaning ; it, however, 
may signifyj that the art of physic came from 
the same region. Had it been meant to inti- 
mate, that serpents were common to that part 
of the world, the emblem would have been 
more proper to Africa. The figures of Asia 
are very uncommon ; three, however, are men- 
tioned ; that already described, another, on a 
gem, representing Heflor dragged behind the 
chariot of Achilles round the walls of Troy ; 
and the third, on a fine relievo, relating to the 
destruftion of that city, and transfer of Its 
empire to Europe. In both the latter this 
goddess appears in deep distress for the suffer- 
ings and datolation of her people. 

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ASIAE, Nymphs thits named, attendants on 

ASIARCHA, the superintendant of the sacred 
games in Asia. The Asiarcha di^red from 
the Galatarcha, Syriarcha, &c. This digni- 
tary is also called High Priest of Asia, and in 
theLatin version of the New Testament, Prince 
of Asia. It is disputed to what Asia, or divi- 
sion of the East, the Asiarchs were tdlotted ; 
whether to Asia Minor, or the Proconsular 
Asia. Some suppose the Asiarchs to have been 
persons of rank, chosen in the way of honour, 
to procure, at their own expence, the celebra- 
tion of the solemn games. 

ASIAS, was leader of the troops raised in de- 
fence of Troy at Percete, Sestus, and Abydos, 
cities situate upon the coast of Propontis, and 
in -the neighbourhood of Phrygia. Idomeneus 
king of Crete, having killed Othryoneus, Asias, 
in seeking to revenge his death, incurred his 

ASIUS, a surname of Jupiter, derived from the 
city Ason in the island of Crete, where he was 
particularly honoured. 

Of the same name also was a chief on the side of 
Troy, killed by Idomeneus, king of Crete. 

A leader under Aeneas, in his contest with the 
Latins, was likewise so called. 

ASMODEUS, the evil spirit which killed the se- 
ven husbands of Sarah, daughterof Raphael, on 
their wedding night ; and was afterwards ex- 
pelled by the help of smoke rising from the 
gall of a fish. The Rabbins say, that Asmo- 
deus was bom, in an incestuous manner, of 
Tubal-Cain and Noema, his sister ; and that 
it was his love of Sarah which made him de- 
stroy those who married her. They further 
relate, that Asmodeus drove Solomon out of 
his kingdom, and usurped his throne ; but 
that Solomon returning, dethroned, and load- 
ed him with fetters. They likewise pretend, 
that this prince forced Asmodeus to assist in 
building the temple of Jerusalem ; and that, 
in virtue of some secret communicated to him 
by this demon, he finished the temple without 
hammer, axe, or any iron tool, making use of 
the stone Scbamir, which cuts stone as the dia- 
mond cuts glass. Respefling the manner of 
driving this demon from Sarah, the learned 
Calmet supposes, that the efieA of the smoke 

rising from the fishes gall, which Tobias burnt, 
rested entirely upon the senses of Tobias and 
Sarah, and blunted in them the propensity to 
pleasure. The chaining up Asmodeus he un- 
derstands, in an allegorical sense, as signifying 
the divine injunction delivered him by Raphael, 
to desist from approaching Sarah, and to ap- 
pear no where, but in the extremest parts of 

ASMOUG, the name of a demon, which, accord- 
ing to the tradition of the Magi orZoriastrians, 
is one of the principal emissaries of Aheriman, 
who is their prince, and author of oil the evil 
In the world ; for Zoroaster supposed two prin- 
ciples, the one good, the other evil. Asmoug's 
function is to sow discord in families, law-suits 
among neighbours, and wars between prin- 

ASOPIADES, Eacus the grandson of the river 

ASOPIS, Egina, daughter of the river Asopus, 
of whom Jupiter was enamoured, and whom he 
subdued in the form of a flame. 

ASOPUS, son of Ocean us and Tethys, was chang- 
ed into a river by Jupiter, on whom, for hav. 
ing violated Egina his daughter, he attempted 
to make war. 

Neptune, signifying firm, stable, or immove- 
able, and imports the same as the StabilUor of 
the Romans. According to Strabo, this name 
was given him on occasion of an unknown island 
appearing in the sea, upon which the Rho- 
dians, then very powerful, having landed, built 
a temple in honour of Neptune Asphaleton, 
which was soon followed by several others. 
If we may credit the ancient Scholiast upon 
Aristophanes, there was one upon the cape of 
Tenarus in Laconia ; and, according to Pausa- 
nias, another near the port of Patras. The 
surname was perfeiSly applicable to this god, 
because, as he was thought to have the power 
of shaking the earth, he was likewise supposed 
to possess that of establishing it ; which makes 
Macrobius observe, that the gods had often op- 
posite titles, in respeft to the same thing ; for, 
as Neptune had the name of EnosiBbon, which 
denoted his power of shaking the earth, he had 
that also of Aspbaleion, importing power to 
establish it: accordingly, sacrifices were gene- 

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rally offered him in great Btomis and earth- 
quakes. See Etiosi&bon, 

ASPOREN A, a name given to the mother of the 
gods, from a temple consecrated to her on 
Mount Asporenus, near Pergamus. 

ASPORINA. See Adporina. 

ASS. The coronation of this quadruped was a 
part of the ceremony of the feast of Vesta, in 
which the* bakers put bread crowns on its 
head. Hence, in an ancient calendar, the ides 
of June are thus denoted, festum est Vcstae, Asi- 
nus coronatur. This honour, it seems, was con- 
ferred on the animal for having, by its braying, 
preserved Vesta from the violence of the Lamp- 
"sacan god. Hence the formula Vestae delicmm 
estAsinus. In the Consualia, horses, as well as 
asses, had the honour of coronation ; perhaps, 
on account of the Sabine women, whom the 
Romans brought home on those beasts. Some 
have asked the affinity between the god of 
council and an ass ? It is answered, both are 
grave and deliberative. Hence, among the 
Cabbalistic Jews, the ass is the symbol of 

ASSABINUS, the Sun, worshipped under this 
name by the Ethiopians. The Greeks and Ro- 
mans stiled him the Ethiopian Jujnter, from 
his being the supreme god of that people. — 
They offered him cinnamon, which took fire 
of itself, and was consumed. Theophrastus, 
who relates this, adds, that he regarded this 
account as fabulous. But, perhaps, this was 
efleiled by some artifice of the priests. In the 
Litbica ascribed to Orpheus, article Kfuf«uO'> 
an expedient of this kind is described, and it 
Is observable, from the account of Garcilasso 
de la Vega, that the same effect was produced 
by similar means among the Incas of Peru. 

ASSAEUS, a Grecian chief, killed by Heftor. 

ASSAF, an idol of the Conuschite Arabians ; for 
every tribe, and even every family, as that of 
Coraisch, had their particular idols, which they 

ASSARACUS, son of Tros, king of Troy, and 
brother of IIus and Ganymede. 

AST ARTE, the singular o( Astarotb, a Phoeni- 
cian goddess, called in scripture the queen of 
heaven, and the goddess of the Sidonians. So- 
lomon, who had married many foreign wives, 
introduced the worship of Astarte into Israel ; 

but it was Jezebel principally, wife of Ahab, 
and daughter of the king of Tyre, who first 
brought theworshipofthisdeityto Palestine. In 
the time of Jezebel, the goddess had 400 priests 
attending on her rites: she was served with 
much pomp, and the women were employed 
in weaving hangings or shrines for her. When 
she was adored as the queen of heaven, they 
offered cakes to her ; and Jeremiah observes, 
that " the children gathered the wood, the fa- 
thers kindled the fire, and the women kneaded 
the dough," for the purpose. The Africans, 
who were descended from the Phoenicians, 
nmntained Astarte, as we leam from St Au- 
stin, to be Juno ; but Lucian, who wrote par- 
ticularly concerning this goddess, says express- 
ly, she is the Moon ; and adds, he had learned 
from the Phoenician priests, Astarte was Eu- 
ropa, daughter of Agenor, king of the Phoeni- 
cians, and deified after her death, to console 
her father for her loss. Cicero calls her the 
fourth Venus of the Syrians ;^ and a modern au- 
thor, who has endeavoured to trace most of the 
Pagan divinities in Scripture, upon a suppo- 
sition that the Phoenicians had deified several 
of the Canaanites, and especially the descen- 
dants of Abraham, takes the Phoenician As- 
tarte or Astaroth, which signifies sheep, to have 
been the Rachael of the bible, which word is of 
the same signification in the Hebrew. Astarte 
is said to have consecrated the city Tyre, by 
depositing in it a fallen star : hence, perhaps, 
came the notion of a star or globe of light, 
which, at certain times, darted down from the 
top of Mount LibanuB, near her temple at 
Aphac, and, plunging itself into the river 
Adonis, was thought to be Venus. This 
temple at Aphac on Mount Libanus, was a 
complete sink of lewdness, a very school of the 
most beastly lusts, which were here permitted 
under the pretence, that Venus had her first 
intercourse witli Adonis in this place. Astarte 
is not always represented alike ; sometimes 
being in a long, at other times in a short 
habit ; sometimes holding a long stick with a 
cross upon its top ; some medals represent her 
with a crown of rays ; in others, she is crowned 
with battlements. On a medal struck at Cae- 
sarea in Palestine, she appears in a short dress 
crowned with battlements, holding a man's 

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. Iiead in her right hand> and a staff in her left. 
Sanchonlatho says, she was represented with 
a, cow's head, Uie horns emblematically de- 
scribing the moon. This goddess, it b evi- 
dent, was originally no more than one of the 
Egyptian symbols, set up and joined with the 
several signs of the Zodiac, to make known 
the different seasons : and it is plain, that from 
the diflerent manner in which the Egyptian 
Isis was represented, a number of diflerent 
goddesses were formed by other nations^ and 
worshipped under different names. See Isis. 

ASYERIA, daughter of Caeus, and sister of 
Latona, and renowned for the greatest mo- 
desty, was ravished by Jupiter in the shape 
oT an eagle, and borne away in his talons, af- 
ter having been changed to a quail. 

Another of the same name bore a son to Belle- 

ASTERION, the fabled father of Araea, Euboea, 
andPorsymna, all of whom claimed the honour 
of being nurses to Juno. 

One of this name attended Jason on the Argonau- 
tic expedition, according to the first book of 

ASTERIUS, was king of Crete. Epimanedes, 
the Cretan historian relates, that some mer- 
chants of this island having arrived on the 
coast of Phoenicia, and seen the young Europa, 
daughter of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, carried 
off the beauty for Asterius their king. As 
their, ship bore in its front a white bull, knd 
their king had assumed the name of Jupiter, 
it was hence fabled, that the god had transform- 
ed himself to a bull, to carry off this princess. 
Diodorus reports, that Asterius being too young 
when Europa arrived in Crete to marry her, she 
had first by Taurus, Minos, Sarpedon, and 
Rhadamanthus ; and that Asterius having mar- 
ried her afterwards, but having no children, 
adojyted her three sons. Others, however, con- 
tend, they were the offspring of Asterius him- 
self. See Europa. 

Another Asterius, was son of Hyperasius, and 
brother of Amphion, one of the Argonauts. 

ASTERODE, the wife of Endymion, by whom 
he had several children. Also, a Scythian 
Nymph, mother of Absyrtea by Aeeta, before 
he married Idya, daughter of Oceanus. 

ASTEROPAEUS^son of Pelegon, king of Paeo- 

AST 101 

nia, was of the Trojan party, and slain by A- 
chilles,when he revenged the death of Patroclus. 

ASTEROPE, one of the seven daughters of At- 
las by his wife Pleione. See Pleiades. 

ASTIANAX. SetAstyanax. 

ASTILUS. SeeAstyUts. 

ASTOMOI, a fabulous race, said to have had no 

ASTRABAEUS> a Grecian hero, celebrated in 
. the Pelopcmessus. 

ASTRAEA, OR ASTREA, goddess of justice, 
was daughter of Astraeus one of the Titans ; 
or, according to Ovid, of Jupiter and Themis. 
She descended from heaven in the golden age, 
and inspired mankind with princifdes of justice 
and equity, but the world growing corrupt, 
she re-ascended thither, where she became 
the constellation in the Zodiac called Virgo. 
This goddess is represented withaserene coun- 
tenance, her eyes bound or blinded, having a 
sword in one hand, and in the other a pair of 
balances equally poised, or rods with a bundle 
of axes, and sitting on a square stone. Among 
the Egyptians, she is described with her left 
hand stretched forth and open^ but without a 
head. According to the poets, she was cwi- 
versant on earth during the golden and silver 
ages, but in those of brass and iron, was forced 
by the wickedness of mankind to abandon the 
earth and retire to heaven. Virgil hints, that 
she first quitted courts and cities, and betook 
herself to rural retreats before she entirely 
withdrew. Petronius Arbiter, speaking of the 
civil war between Caesar and Pompey, describes 
Justice as discomposed, with her hair all loose 
and dishevelled. 

ASTRAEI FRATRES, the Winds, chUdrcn of 
Astraeus. ' 

ASTRAEUS, one of the Titans, father of the 
Winds and the Stars. When his brother de- 
clared war against Jupiter, he armed the 
Winds, his sons, on his side, but Jupiter 
precipitated them under the waters, whilst 
Astraeus, having been fastened to the sky, 
was converted into a star. Many, however, 
of the poets, make Aet^us the father of the 
Winds. Astraeus was said to have been king 
of Arcadia, husband of Aurora, and father of 
Astraea or Justice. 

A son of Silmua also was of this name. 

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ASTlt APAEUS, a poetical name of Jupiter. 

ASTRAPA, one of the Pleiades. 

ASTUR, one of the followers of Aeneas, cele- 
brated by Virgil for his beauty and valour. 

ASTYALUS, a Trojan chief, slain by Polypoe- 

ASTYANASSA, a female attendant on Helen, 
and as celebrated as her mistress for a similar 

ASTYANAX, son of Hoflor and Andromache, 
was the occasion of very uneasy apprehensions 
to the Greeks in the midst of their viftory, 
though he was then but an infant. Contrary 
winds preventing their return to Greece after 
the destruflion of Troy, Calchas, the diviner, 
declared it necessary for them to cast Astyanax 
headlong from the top of the walls, since.should 

■ he be permitted to grow to manhood, he Would 
certainly revenge the death of his father, and 
even prove more valiant than he. Upon this, 
Ulysses endeavoured todiscover Astyanax, and 
having found him, notwithstanding the care his 
mother took to conceal him, precipitated the 
unfortunate infant from the walls. Servius 
tells US it, was Menclaus who performed this 
execution; andPausanias ascribes the unhappy 
fate of Astyanax to Pyrrhus alone, without 
mentioning that the Greeks or Calclias judged 
his death to be necessary. However that be, 
the poets and romance writers have raised As- 
tyanax from the dead, or rather made him es- 
cape the hands of the Greeks ; for they tell us, 
that this Astyanax, or Scamander, was likewise 
called Francion, and was the stock from which 
the kings of France are descended. - 

ASTYDAMIA, daughter of Ormenus, whom 
Hercules violated after having killed her fa- 
ther. - 

The wife of Acastus also was of the same name ; 
as was the daughter of Pelops, wife of Sthene- 
lus, king of Mycenae. The latter, however, 
was by some called Nicippe, 

ASTYLUS, a Centaur, who endeavoured to dis- 
suade his brethren from their contest with the 

ASTYMEDUSA, second wife of Oedipus, whom 
he married after having been divorced from 
locasta his mother. 

ASl'YNOME, the daughter of Chryses. See 

ASTYNOUS, a brave Trojan, killed by Dio- 

ASTYOCHE, daughter of Aflor, and mother of 
Ascalaphus and lalman, two Greek leaders a- 
gainst Troy, by the god Mars. 

ASTIOCHIA, mother of Tleopolomus, by Her- 

ASTYPALAEA. See Ancaeits. 

ASTYPALUS, the Paeonian, slain by Achilles. 

ASTYRENA, or ASTYRENE, titles of Diana, 
from places where she was worshipped. 

ASTYRIS, a surname of Minerva, from the wor- 
ship paid her at Astyra, a city of Phoenicia. 

ASUMAN,the name ofaGenius who, according 
to the superstition of the Persian Magi, pre- 
sided over every thing which happened orf the 
27th day of every month. The Magi believed 
him to be the same with the Angel of Death.- 
See jisbimab. 

ASYLA, ASYLUM, places, or a place, of sanc- 
tuary, refuge, or prote(5tion. Servius derives 
the word from the privative* and o-ua*«, to draw 
out, because no person could be taken by force 
from an asylum. From the time mankind he- 
gun to dedicate temples and altars to the gods, 
to acknowledge them, in an authentic and 
solemn manner, as the sovereign disposers of 
their destiny, and to conceive hopes of being 
aided by them, they believed them to be there 
peculiarly present ; and hence, that they might 
not seem inexorable to others, while they 
were supplicating the gods for themselves, 
it is credible that they looked upon these 
places, whither the guilty had repaired, as sa- 
cred and inviolable. Some pretend that the 
first asylum in Greece was that established by 
the order of the oracle of Jupiter Dodonaeus, 
which commanded the Athenians to grant their 
lives to all those who sought for refuge at the 
altars of the deities on the Areopagus. Others 
pretend the first asylum to have been built at 
Athens, by the Heraclidae, descendants of Her- 
cules, and as a proteftion for those who fled from 
the oppression of their fathers. Some, with more 
probability,afiirm, that the firstsanfluary of this 
sort was erefted by Cadmus, at the building of 
Thebes. Diodorus Siculus, in the life of Ro- 
mulus, assures us, that Cybele foimded an asy- 
lum in Samothracia. The asyla of altars and 
temples is of great antiquity, and were held so 

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sacred, that if any malefactor availed himself of 
them, it was counted sacrilege to force him 
thence, and his blood was judged to be upon 
those who might effeft it ; so that those who 
killed the followers of Cylon, by whom the tem- 
ple of Minerva had been plundered; because 
they dispatched them whilst clinging round the 
altars, were ever after called impious and pro- 
fane ; and Pausanias informs us that Neoptole- 
mus, son of Achilles, was slain near the altar of 
Apollo, at Delphi, as ajust punishment for his 
having killed Prianj, king of Troy, who had fled 
to the altar of Jupiter Herceus, for refuge.-— 
Some of these asyla were public, and free for 
all men : others were appropriated to certain 
persons and crimes ; thus the temples of Hebe, 
at Phlius, and of Dianaat Ephesus, were refu.- 
gesfor debtors ; and Strabo tells usj that sevetf,! 
princes allowed to this last, some a greater, 
others a less extent of ground, beyond the tem- 
ple itself. The temple of Pallas, at Lacedenion, 
was a sanctuary even for criminals condemned 
to death : the temple or tomb of Theseus was a 
sanftuary for slaves and all of mean condition, 
who fled from the servitude of their masters and 
tyrants. Nor was this honour paid to the gods 
only, but also to the statues and monuments of 
princes and other dignified persons : thus 
the sepulchre of Achilles, on the Sigaeon shore, 
was in after ages made an asylum ; and Ajax 
had the like honour paid to his tomb on the 
Rhaetean. Romulus, when he built Rome, left 
a space, covered with wood, between the capi- 
tal and the Tarpeian rock, as an asylum to all 
persons who should fly thither, whether free- 
men or slaves ; for all temples and altars were 
not sanAuaries, but such only as received that 
privilege from the manner of their consecra- 
tion ; and of those, as already observed, some 
were free for all men, others appropriated to 
certain persons and crimes. Not only temples 
and altars, but sacred groves, statues of the 
gods, and of emperors, had the privilege of af- 
fording proteftion ; and the criminal remained 
at the feet of the altar or statue, his visuals be- 
ing regularly brought him, till he found an op- 
portunity to escape, or means of satisfying the 
party offended. In process of time these asyla 
were so little regarded, that they served only 
■ as a prpteftion for small offenders, the magis- 

trates making no scruple of forcing great crimi- 
nals from the very altars. In the reign of Tibe- 
rius Caesar, they were wholly abolished, pre- 
serving only to Juno Samia, and one of Aescu- 
lapius* temples, their ancient privileges. The 
Jews had also their asyla, the most remarkable 
of which were the cities of refuge, which provid- 
ed security for those who by chance, and with- 
out any purpose, happened to kill a man : they 
were six in number, three on each side Jordan. 
It was commanded the nation, when they should 
enlarge their borders, to add three more ; but. 
as this command was never fulfilled, the Rab- 
bins say, the Messiah, when he comes, will ac- 
complish it. Besides the citUs of reJUge, the 
temple, and especially the altar of bumt-oflfer- 
■ ings, enjoyed the privilege of an asylum. 

ASYLAS, a follower of Aeneas, and a Sooth- 
sayer, Virgil represents him as pouring along 
his thousands from Thesean Pisa, a colony from 
Alphean Pisa, over which he presided. 

ASYLAS. See Corytt'aeus. 

neus, king of Scyros. It was doubted If her 
beauty or swiftness were greater. On consult, 
ing the oracle whether she should, marry, she 
was answered, that marriage would prove fatal 
to her. Upon this she entered into the wood* 
of Mount Maenalus, in Arcadia, to avoid the 
conversation of men ; but her disdain inflam- 
ing their de^res, and her pride raising their 
adoration, she was followed thither by crowds 
of lovers, to whom, at last, she gave this con- 
dition: that she would marry any one who could 
out-run her, provided the vanquished should 
suffer any kind of death she might direft. Not- 
withstanding many sad examples, Hippomenes, 
son of Macareus, or Megareus, was not deter- 
red from undertaking the race, which he en- 
tertained hopes of winning, in consequence of 
three golden apples given him by Venus, (who 
also told him how to use them) gathered in the 
gardens of the Hesperides. Hippomenes set out 
briskly, but perceiving Atalanta make up to 
him, he threw down one of the apples, the 
beauty of which inticing Atalanta, she went 
out of her way, followed the apple, and took 
it up : he used the second and third in the same 
manner, and while she was busied in picking 
them up, reached the goal, and took the lady 





as the prize of his vi6lory. Hippomenes, drunk 
with Iove> forgot to return due offerings to his 
benefaftress, and Venus, resenting this negli- 
gence, inflamed them with such impatient de- 
sires, that they gratified their passions in the 
temple of Cybele, who, enraged at the profa- 
nation, turned them into lions. 

Atalanta, daughter of Jasius, king of Arcadia. 
See Meleager, Oeneus. 

ATARBECHIS, a town in the Delta, celebrated 
for a temple of Venus. 

ATE, the goddess of mischief: she was daughter 
of Jupiter, and cast down from heaven at the 
death of Hercules ; for Juno having deceived 
Jupiter, in causing Eurystheus to be bom before 
Hercules, the god expressed his resentment on 
Ate, as the author of that mischief, and threw 
her headlong from heaven to earth, swearing 
she should never return. The name of this 
goddess comes froni etrmu, to lairt. Her being 
the daughter of Jupiter implies, that no evil 
happens to us but by the permission of Provi- 
dence ; and her banishment to earth denotes 
the terrible effects of Divine Justice among men. 
It is easy to see that this fable is designed to re- 
present our proneness to evil ; or Evil itself, 
imder an allegorical figure ; for Homer, having 
described this demon as travelling the earth 
with incredible celerity, doing all the mischief 
in her power, adds, that her sisters, likewise 
daughters of Jupiter, whom he calls JUtes, or 
Prayers, come always after her, to repair, as 
far as lies in their power, the evil done by Ate ; 
but, being lame, cannot come up to her : inti- 
mating, that men are always more forward to 
commit crimes, than to repent and make repa- 

ATERGATIS, the ancient goddess of the 
Ascalonites in Syria: the upper part of her 
image resembled a woman ; the lower a fish. 
It is said she was mother of Semiramis, and that, 
grieved at the loss of her virginity, she drown- 
ed herself in a lake. Her body not being found* 
she was reputed to have been transformed into 
a fish. Macrobius mentions two deities of the 
Syrians, Adad and Atergates, whom he sup- 
poses to be the sun and the earth. The etymo- 
logy of Atergatis is variously given : Athejiae- 
us pretends, that her true name was GaHs, who, 
being very fond of delicacies, she ordered that 

no one should eat fish, «rf|i T»r^^, besides Gatis. 
Vossius derived it from the Hebrew addir-dag, 
great Jisb. This deity was called Dercefo by the 
Greeks. Her temple stood in the city Bam- 
byce, called afterwards HierapolU : it was ex- 
tremely rich, insomuch that Cropus, in his 
march against the Parthians, spent several days 
in weighing the treasure. See Derceto. 
ATH AMAS, king of Thebes, or of Orchomenos, 
son of Aeolus, and brother of Cretheus, by his 
wife Nephele had pelle and Phryxus; and by 
Ino, Learchus and Melicertes. It is said that 
Ino fell in love with Phryxus, but being re- 
jefted in .her advances, took the opportunity of 
a great famine to indulge her revenge, as is par- 
ticularly narrated under the articles Argonauts, 
Pbryxus. Whether owing to this circumstance, 
or to Juno's hatred against Thebes, Bacchus 
being bom there, and Ino, in particular, for 
bringing him up, (which is the more general 
opinion) it is agreed on all sides Uiat Athamas, 
having iuid the misfortune to lose his senses, in 
a paroxysm of phrenzy, killed Learchus his son, 
by Ino.upon which thequeen fearing asiniilar fate 
forhersonMelicertes,plungedwith him from the 
rock Molyris into the sea.whereNeptune receiv- 
ed them with open arms, and gave them a place 
among the marine deities. See //w, Palaemon. 
ATHAMAS, one of the heroes introduced into 

Troy, in the wooden horse. 
ATHAMANTIADES, a patronymic of the chil- 
dren of Athamas. 
ATHEMENES, son of Catreus, king of Crete, 
being informed by the oracle that he should 
kill his father, left him, and retired to Rhodes, 
where he built the temple of Atamyrius, upon 
a mountain of the same name ; but his father 
coming thither in search of him,heunIuiowing- 
ly fulfilled the oracular predi6tion. 
ATHENA, a name given Minerva by the Greeks, 
because she never sucked the breast of mother 
or nurse ; for she was brought forth of her fa- 
ther's head in full strength. Plato thinks she 
had this name from her skill in divine af&irs : 
others arp of opinion she was so named from her 
havijig never been enslaved, but omstantly en- 
joying the most perfect liberty. 
ATHENAEA, a festival of the ancient Greeks, 
held in honour of Minerva, who was called A- 
tbena. See Panstbenma. s 

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ATHENAIS, a Sibyl of Erythraea, in the time 
of Alexander. 

ATHLETAE : Persons of strength and agility, 
disciplined to perform in the public games. — 
This appellation is of Greek original, and a de- 
rivative of aS\9f, a cor^i3, whence, also, comes 
atxtt, the prize, or reward, adjudged to tbe vi^r. 
The , term Athletae comprehended boxers, 
wrestlers, runners, leapers, and throwers of the 
disk. The praftisers of these several exercises 
exhibited their skill in the Olympic, Pythian, 
kthmian, and other soIemA games, as candi- 
dates for the established prizes. The athletic 
habit denotes a muscular and vigorous consti- 
tution, and the regimen of the Athletae was 
fitted to promote it, as they intirely fed on so- 
lid and viscous viands. In the earlier times, 
their principal food consisted of dried figs and 
cheese, which was called arida st^inatio, ^npa 
r^^, &c. Oribasius, or, as others affirm, Py- 
Uiagoras, first brought this sort of provision 
into disuse ; and, in lieu of it, substituted flesh. 
An unremitted attention to whatever could in- 
crease their strength and agility, gave the Ath- 
letae such a superiority in these respe^s, as 
appears to us almost incredible ; witness the 
four mentioned by Pausanias, Theagenes the 
Thasian, Pblydamas the Thessalian, Euthymus 
the Locrian, and Milo the Crotonian : the last 
of whom is said to have carried a bull on his 
back for a considerable distance, and then to 
have killed him with a blow of his fist From 
the five exercises of the Athletae, they were 
also denominated vnraOx«, by the Greeks, and 
Quitiquerthnes by the Latins ; at least, such as 
engaged in them all. He who bore away the 
prize in each, was called by the Greeks vavatx^, 
»id by the Romans Quinquertio. 

ATHLOTHET A, an officer appointed to super- 
intend the solemn games, and adjudge tlie 
prizes. The Athlotheta was the same with the 
Agonarcba,Agonotbeta, and Brabeuta, which see. 

ATHRAX, the father of Hippodamia, said to 
have been the inventor of magic. 

ATINAS,aRutilian chief inthe contest with Aeneas 


ATLANTIDAE, priests so called, who inhabit- 
ed the western parts of Africa. Uranus, their 
prince, by calculating the course of the sun, and 
the motions of the stars, formed predi(5lions. 
Vol. I. 

the accomplishment of which astonishing the 
Atlantidae, they enrolled him, at his death, a- 
mong the gods. See Uranus. 

ATLANTIDES, the seven daughters of Atlas, 
by his wife Pleione, after whom they were also 
stiled Pleiades, from a Greek word which sig- 
nifies sailing, because they were supposed fa- 
vourable to navigation. Their names were, 
severally, Asterope, Celaeno, Eleftra, Halci- 
one, Maia, Merope, and Taygete. These all 
had children, either by heroic princes, or the 
gods themselves, which were ancestors of seve- 
ral nations, and builders of many cities. The 
Atlantides, being in great reputation for wis- 
dom and justice, were, on these accounts, a- 
dored as goddesses. Busiris, king of Egypt, 
carried them off by violence, but Hercules, tra- 
velling through Africa, conquered him, and de- 
livering the princesses, restored them to their 
father ; who, to requite his kindness, taught 
him astronomy : whence arose the fable of that 
hero's supporting the heavens for a day, to ease 
Atlas of his burthen. The Atlantides, how- 
ever, with their mother, endured a new perse- 
cution from Orion, who pursued them five 
years, till Jupiter, prevailed on by their pray- 
ers, took them into the heavens, where they 
form the constellation called tbe Pleiades, and 
sometimes Vergiliae. Some authors pretend 
that the Pleiades were daughters of Lycurgus, 
born at Kaxos ; and that they were translated to 
Heaven for their good offices in the education of 
Bacchus ; whilst others affirm that the^ children - 
of Atlas, attributed to Lycurgus, were not his 
daughters by Pleione, called Pleiades, but his 
daughters by Aethra, distinguished by the ap- 
pellation of the Hyades. See Hyades, Pleiades. 

ATLAS, was son of lapetus and Clymene, and 
brother of Prometheus, according to most au- 
thors ; or, as others relate, son of lapetus by 
Asia, daughter of Oceanus. In the division of 
his father's dominions, Mauritanica fell to his 
share ; and he gave his name to the mountain 
©f that country, which still bears it. As he was 
greatly skilled in astronomy, he became the 
first inventor of the sphere, which occasioned 
the fable of his being turned into a mountain, 
and supporting the heavens on his shoulders. — 
Atlas had many children. Of his sons, the most 
famous was Hesperus (whom some call his bro- 





ther) and Hyas. By his wife Pleione he had 
seven daughters, viz. Asterope, Celano, Elec- 
tra, Halcyone, Maia, Metope, and Taygete, 
who went by the general names of Atlantides, 
or Pleiades ; and by his wife Aethra he had 
also ^even other daughters, viz. Ambrosia, Eu- 
dora, Coronis, Flexaris, Pytho, and Tyche, 
who bore the common appellation of the Hy- 
ades. According to Hyginus, Atlas having 
assisted the giants in their war against Jupiter, 
was, by the viiflorious god, doomed, as a pu- 
nishment, to sustain the weight of the heavens. 
Ovid, however, represents him as a powerful 
and wealthy monarch, proprietor of the gar- 
dens of the Hesperides, which bore golden fruit ; 
but that being warned by the oracle of Themis 
that he should suffer some great injury from a 
son of Jupiter, he 9tri(5tly forbade all foreigners 
access to his presence. Perseus, however, hav- 
ing the courage to appear before him, he was 
ordered to retire, with strong menaces in case 
of disobedience ; but the hero presenting his 
shield, with the dreadful head of Medusa, turned 
him into the mountain which still bears his 
name. The Abbe la Pluche has given a very 
clear and ingenious explication of this fable.— 
Of all nations the Egyptians had, with the great- 
eatassiduity, cultivated astronomy. ' To pomt 
out the difficulties attending the study of this 
science, they represented it by an image bear- 
ing a globe or sphere on its back, which they 
called Atlas, a word signifying ^reirf toil or la- 
bour ; but the word also signifying iu^port, the 
Phoenicians, led by the representation, took 
it in this sense, and in their voyages to Mauri- 
tania, seeing the high mountains of that coun- 
try covered with snow, and losing their tops in 
the clouds, gave them the name of Atlas, and 
thus produced the fable, by which the symbol 
of astronomy used among the Egyptians be- 
came a Mauritanian king, transformed into a 
mountain, whose head supports the heavens. 
The rest of the fable is equally obvious to ex- 
planation. The annual inundations of the Nile 
obliged the Egyptians to beveryexaftinobserv- 
ing the motions of the heavenly bodies. The 
Hyades, or Huades, took their nanie from the 
figure V, which they form in the head of Tau- 
rus. The Pleiades were a remarkable constel- 
lation, and of great use to the Egyptians in 

regulating the seasons : hence they became the 
daughters of Atlas ; and Orion, who rising just 
as they set, was called their lover. By the 
golden apples that grew in the gardens of the 
Hesperides, the Phoenicians expressed the rich 
and beneficial commerce they had in tlie Medi- 
terranean, which being carried on during three 
months only of the year, gave rise to the fable 
of the Hesperian Sisters. The most usual way 
of representing Atlas, among the ancient ar- 
tists, was as supporting a globe; for the old 
poets commonly refer to this attitude in speak- 
ing of him. Valerius Flaccus hcs a very re- 
markable description of a figure of Atlas, as 
standing in the midst of the waters, and sup- 
porting an armillary globe of the heavens, with 
all the planets making their proper motions 
round it. In the Farnese Atlas, he is repre- 
sented as supporting the celestial globe with 
his head, neck, and shoulders. 

ATREUS, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, and 
father of Agamemnon and Menelaus, is sup- 
posed to have been king of Mycenae and Ar- 
■gos, about 1228 years before the Christian era. 
He^xpelled his brother Thyestes from his court 
for having a criminal correspondence with Ae- 
rope his wife, but understanding he had two 
children by her, recalled him from exile, kill- 
ed the children, and served them up at the ta- 
ble where he and Thyestes dined. It is said 
that the Sun, unable to endure a sight so hor- 
rible, turned his course backward, and with- 
drew his light. 

ATRIDES, the sons of Atreus. 

ATROPOS, one of the Parcae, or Fates, so named 
from « and Tfwrw, because she is utialterable, un- 
changeable. Atropos concludes our existence, 
by cutting short, with sciasars, the thread of 
life, which is drawn by Clotho, and wound by 
Lachesis. See Fates, Parcae. 

ATTIS, OR ATTYS, a beautiful Phrygian shep- 
herd, and priest of the goddess Cybele : after 
his death he was deified, and worshipped as 
the Sun. Julian calls him the great god Attis ; 
and Lucian mentions a golden statue of Attys, 
placed among those of Bendis, Anubis, and 
Mithrus, who were all adored as the Sun. He 
is frequently joined with Cybele, in ancient mo- 
numents, and sometimes pi(5Iured alone, Hold- 

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his left. AccordingtoOvid, Attyswasappointed 
by Cybele to preside in her rites, she having 
enjoined himinviolablech^tity; but the youth, 
forgetting his vow, the goddess, in resentment, 
deprived him of his senses. At last, however, 
pitying his misery, she changed him to a pine, 
which, as well as the box, was held sacred to 
her. Servius, on Virgil, relates that Attis, a 
beautiful youth, and priest of the great Mo- 
ther, being beloved by the king of his city, and 
understanding that violence was meditated a- 
gainst him, fled into the woods, where having 
been found, and brought to the king, he seized 
the opportunity to emasculate him. The king, 
however, inflifted a similar revenge, and At- 
tis, who lay expiring beneath a jane-tree, be- 
ing found by the priests of the great- Mother, 
they carried him into her temple, endeavoured 
in va'n to preserve him alive, and, when dead, 
buried him : in memory of which, the great 
Mother instituted an annual mourning, and 
enjoined her votaries to undergo the same 
mutilation. The Phrygians say, that Cybele 
fell in love with Attys, and being with child 
by him, Moeones, her father, king of Phrygia, 
caused him to be slain, and his body thrown 
to wild beasts ; upon which Cybele ran mad : 
soon after a plague and famine laying waste the 
country, the oracle commanded that Attys 
should be buried, and Cybele worshipped as a 
goddess. Pausanias tells us, that Hemiesianax, 
an elegiac poet, reported Attys to have been 
the son of one Calaus, a Phrygian, and born 
impotent ; but that, when he was grown up, 
he went into Lydia, and taught the Lydians to 
celebrate the Orgia of the great Mother Dindy- 
me, or Cybele, and that he was in so great es- 
teem with her, as to excite the jealousy of Ju- 
piter, who sent a wild boar among the Lydians, 
which slew many of them, and among the rest 
Attys ; for which reason the Pessenuntian Ga- 
latians abstained from the flesh of that animal. 
They, however, relate the story difierently, 
pretending that from the impurity of Jupiter, 
in a dream, a genius sprung up of the human 
form, but of both sexes, which was called Ag' 
dislis : the gods, being afraid of such a mon- 
ster, castrated him, and having thrown upon ! 
the ground the parts taken from him, they be- 
came an almond tree, loaded with fruit. The ' 

daughterofthe river San garius gathered some of 
these almonds, and putting them in her bosom 
they immediately disappeared. The Nymph, 
however, proved with child, and was delivered 
of a son called Attis, who, being exposed, was 
suckled by a goat. Growing up exceedingly 
beautiful, Agdistea became enamoured of him ; 
but, disappointed in the gratiiication of her 
passion, on the youth's being sent to the court 
of Pessanus to marry the king's daughter, she 
contrived to get thither at the instant <rf the 
nuptials, and suddenly inspired Attis with so 
much phrenzy, that he castrated himself on 
the spot. But, afterward, repenting the eSefts 
of her anger, she obtained of Jupiter, as some 
atonement, that the members of Attis should 
never decay. Agdistis, according to Hesychius, 
is the same with Cybele, mother of the gods. 

ATYMNIUS, brother of Maris, two Lycian 
chiefs on the side of Troy ; the -first fell by An- 
tilochuB, and the other by ThraBimedes, sons 
of Nestor. 

ATYS, a youth mentioned by Virgil, as the 
friend of lulus, or Ascanius, son of Aene^, — 
The Attii were supposed to have been his 

AUFIDIUS, the river, is described by the poets 
in a personal manner. According to Horace, 
Sic tauTiJormis volvitur Aii/idius, &c. The figure 
of Aufidius should have the head of a bull. 

AUGA, AUGE, or AUGEA, daughter of Aloe- 
us, being deflowered by Hercules, became preg- 
nant, and brought forth Telephus ; but no 
sooner was she delivered, than Aloeus put 
both her and her son into a chest, and or- 
dered them to be thrown into the Caycus. — 
VenuB, however, guiding the chest, it was 
wafted to the mouth of the river, and taken up 
by Teuthras, who, falling in love with Augea, 
married her, and left his kingdom to her son. 

AUGEAS, was king of Elis, the cleansing of 
whose stables constituted the sixth labour of 
Hercules. Apollonius, in his third Argonautic, 
makes Augeas son of Apollo, and ranks him 
in the number of the heroes who sailed with 
Jason to Colchis in search of the golden fleece 
See Hercules. 
AUGUR, an officer among the Romans appoint- 
ed to discover the will of the gods, or future 
P S 

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events, by the interpretation of dreams, ora- i 
cles, and prodigies, and to pronounce whe-~ 
ther any enterprize would be prosperous or ad- 
verse, whether public or private. Hence, 
whenever their omens presented an unpro- 
pitious appearance, magistrates were displaced, 
public assemblies deferred, expeditions coun- 
termanded, and the like. The title of vii^r 
is derived by some from aviumgestu ; by others, 
from avium garritu ; the motion and gestures, or 
the chirping and chattering of birds. Romulus 
himself was a considerable proficient in the 
art; and, therefore, after dividing the city 
into three tribes, theTattenses, the Rhamnenses, 
and the Ijiceres ; he constituted three Augurs, 
one for each tribe. A fourth was added by 
Servius TuUius. These, however, being all cho- 
sen from the Patricians or Nobility, in the year 
of the city 454, the Tribunfs of the People, 
with much difficulty, obtained, that five of the 
Plebeians should be added to the college. Af- 
terwards, in the year of the city 671, their 
number was augmented to fifteen, by Sylla the 
dictator. Of these, the eldest presided over 
the rest, and wm honoured with the title of 
MagisterCollegii, They bore an augural staflT 
or wand as the ensign of their office, and their 
dignity was so much respefted, that they were 
never, even on the commission of the greatest 
enormity, deprived, as in* other sacerdotal in- 
stitutions, of their privileges. That some of 
the emperors assumed the office of Augur, as 
well as pontiff, is evident from several coins 
of Julius, Augustus, Vespasian, Verus, &c. 
which have the augural ensigns upon them. 

AUGURY. See Divination by Birds. 

AUGUSTALES, an epithet given to the Fla- 
mens, or priests who sacrificed to Augustus 
Caesar, after the deification of that emperor. 
They were appointed by Tiberius to perform 
the services of the new divinity. 

AUGUST ALIA, a feast instituted in honour of 
Augustus. This festival was established in the 
year of Rome 83J, after the conclusion of his 
wars, and settlement of Sicily, Greece, Asia, 
Syria, and Partia. On this occasion also, an 
altar was erefted to. him, with the inscription 
fortunae reduei. 

AuGOSTALiA, was also the name given to the 
games celebrated in honour of the same em- 

peror, on the 4th of the ides of Oftober, that 
having been the day of his return to Rome after 
all his expeditions. 

AULETES, a king of the Etrurians, who, hav- 
hig joined Aeneas, was slain by Messapus, a 
chieftain of Turnus. 

AULETES, a chief mentioned by Virgil, as as- 
sisting Aeneas. 

AULIS, a daughter of Ogyges. 

AULONIUS, a surname of Aesculapius. 

AUNES, king of Daunia. See Aesculapius. 

AURAE, the AIRS, a sort of aerial beings, re- 
sembling the Sylphs of our own poetry. Their 
chief discrimination is, the veil they either 
hold in their hands, or else wave over their 
heads. They oftener occur on the painted 
cielings of the ancients, than on any other re- 
mains of antiquity, Pliny mentions two statues 
of the Aurae as objetfls of admiration, in his 
time at Rome. But though no statues of them 
remain to us, they are frequently met with in 
the paintings of the anoients. Amongst those 
of the late Dr. Mead, several of them might 
be seen. These divinities were light and airy, 
with long robes, and streaming veils of bright 
and pleasing colours, fit companions of the jT 
Zephyrs, whom they sometimes accompany, 
scattering flowers as they fleet through the 
element assigned them. Ever sportive and 
happy in themselves, they delight in the hap- 
piness of mortals. 

ThtAura invoked by Cephalus, which excited the 
jealousy of Procris, in the story so beautifully 
told by Ovid, and prettily alluded to (though 
not understood) by Pope:-— 

" Come, gentle ur, th' Aeolian shepherd said. 
While Procris panted in the secret shade," iit.-~ 

was one of these. Milton hath introduced 
them in their proper occupations : 

Airs, vernal Jiri, 
Breathing the smell of field and grove, attune 
The trembling leaves, while universal Pan, 
Knit with the Grartt, and the Haiiri, in dance 
Led on th' etemal^pring. 


Ctn&tJiri due at their hour. 
To Jan the earth now w^'d, and usher in 
The ev'ning cool. 

The latter passage, in union with Collins's At- 

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tendantson Evening :-"ThePEN8iv ePleasures 
sweet; prepare thy shadowy car :" — would have 
furnished a happy subject for the pencil of 
Guido. It is olwervable that Winkelmann 
hath confounded the Airs with the Hours. 
AUREA, OR REGIA, an epithet of Fortune, of 
whom a statue so called was kept in -the empe- 
ror's chamber at Rome, and, on his death, re- 
moved to that of his successor. 
AURORA, goddess of the morning, was the 
youngest daughter of Hyperion and Theia, or, 
according to some, of Titan and Terra. Or- 
pheus calls her the Harbinger of Titan, for she 
is the personification of that light which pro- 
ceeds the appearance of the Sun. The poets 
describe this goddess as rising out of the ocean 
in a safii-on robe, seated in a flanie-coloured 
car, drawn by two, or four horses, expanding 
with her rosy fingers the gates of light, and 
scattering the pearly dew. Virgil repre- 
sents her horses as of flame colour, and va- 
ries their number from two to four, accord- 
ing as she rises slower or faster. Theocritus 
assigns her white horses, more in respe^ to 
the nature of light, than the vapours which 
arise with it, whilst Lycophron seats her on 
Pegasus. Aurora is said to Iiave loved a beau- 
tiful youth called Cephalus, by whom she be- 
came the mother of Phaeton ; for Cephalus is 
supposed to be the Sun, and Phaeton or Heat, 
• to have been produced by the rapidity of his 
motion ; but, according to the poets, Cephalus 
was son of Aeolus, and husband of Procris, 
daughter of Ereftheus, king of Athens. They 
relate, that Aurora often seeing him when 
bunting, fell in love with him, and carried 
him into heaven ; but that, even there, she 
could not prevail on him to violate his faith. 
She is reported also to have had an amour with 
Orion, a person of great beauty, whom she 
bore from the chace to Delos. By Astraeus 
her husband, one of the Titans, she had the 
Stars and the four Winds, Argestes, Boreas, 
Notus, and Zephyrus : but her greatest favou- 
rite was Tithonus, to whom she bore Aema- 
thion and Memnon. Aurora is said to have 
been daughter of Titan and the Earth, because 
the light of the morning seems to rise out of 
the Earth, and to proceed from the Sun, which , 
immediately follows it She is stlled mother I 

of the four Winds, because, after a calm in the 
night, the winds rise in ihe morning, as atten- 
dant upon the Sun, by whose heat and light 
they are begotten. .There is no other goddess 
of whom we have so many beautiful descrip- 
tions in the poets. The Romans have shewed 
a variety, but no Qonfusion, in their characters 
of her ; the diflerences being only of the same 
kind with those we meet with in the two pic- 
tures of Guido and Guercino. The one exhi- 
bits a morning gay and pleasing ; the other, a 
dark and lowering. If we may judge by the 
poets, the ancient painters used to suit her 
complexion to the occasion ; it sometimes 
glowed with celestial rosy red ; at others, was 
of a wanner cast ; and, sometimes, more or 
less swarthy, according to the sort of morning 
they meant to represent. Her skin, in the 
most beautiful pictures, should be coloured 
like that of the Venus Anaduonuiu, by Apelles, 
and might have something not unlike the hu- 
mid cast for which that piAure was so remark- 

- her locks compress'd. 

Send the quick drops which trickle down her breut: 
O'er her bright skin the mcldng bubbles spread. 
And clothe her beauties in a softer shade." 

Her robe should be of a pale but clear yellow, 
and she should hold in her hand a rod or a 
torch ; her chariot should be of a fine rose co- 
lour, with pearls of dew scattered here and 
there upon it, and the horses either cream- 
coloured or roan. Ovid, in his story of 
her passion for Cephalus, makes the station for 
her setting out to be on Mount Hymettus ; but 
that must vary with the scene represented. It 
appears from the same poet, that she sets out 
always before Sol, though not long before him. 
There seem to have been some ancient repre- 
sentations of this goddess, as driving Nox uid 
Somnus from her presence ; and of the Con- 
stellations as chaced out of heaven at her ap- 
proach ; the latter, however, seems aa ridicu- 
lous a subject for a picture, as the former is a 
fine one. In a painting esteemed capital, near 
the Hague, this goddess is represented on a 
golden chariot, drawn by white horses, with 
wings; on her head is the morning star, 
and she is attended by Phoebus and the Dawn. 
For a more particular account of the amours 

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of Aurora, and the fate of her children, see the 
articles Ccpbalus, Orion, Titbomus, Aetnatbion, 
Memnon, Pbaeton. 
AURUNCUS, the same as Averuncus. See Dii 

Averunci. ■ 
AUSES, an ancient and very savage people of 
Libya. According to Herodotus, they were 
unacquainted with marriage, and had all their 
women in common. The children were brought 
up by the mothers till they were able to walk, 
after which they were introduced to an assem- 
bly of the men, who met every three months, 
and the man to whom any child first spoke, ac- 
knowledged himself its father. They celebra- 
ted annually a feast in honour of Minerva, in 
which the girls divided into two companies, 
fought with sticks and stones, and those who 
died of their wounds were concluded not to have 
been virgins. 
AUSON, a son of Ulysses and Calypso, and pro- 
genitor of the Ausones, a people of Libya. 
AUSPICES. See Aruspices, Augury. 
AUSTER, theGeniusof the South- wind, called 
indifferently by the names of Notus and Auster, 
was son of Aurora and Astraeus. Auster is de- 
scribed by Ovid as large, and so old as to have 
grey hair; of a gloomy countenance, and with 
•clouds about his head. Most of the lines in his 
chara^er are designed to point him out as the 
dispenser of heavy showers and great rains ; he 
has dusky wings, and sometimes a full dark 
robe. Virgil has alluded to the gloominess of 
his countenance in a passage which has given 
great disgust to the critics : Quid cogilet bumidus 
Auster f and described him as saddening the 
very heavens. Several of the commentators, 
accustomed to consider the winds in their na- 
tural state, and not allegorically, are offended 
at the word cogUet, the tbinUng of a wind to them 
being the highest absurdity. They therefore 
propose to altar the passage, and, for C9gitet, 
read cogat et, or concitet ; contrary, they confess, 
to every copy. But were they to consider that 
Virgil was the writer; thatthewindsjin his time, 
were frequently represented as persons ; that he 
had been used to see them so represented ; that 
they were commonly worshipped as deities ; and 
that Virgil had probably worshipped them him- hisvoyage LetweenRomeandAthen8;a8 
Horace had, in his favour; they might be per- 

suaded not to think it so strange an expression. 
Indeed, instead of its being strange and absurd, 
it appears to be proper, and extremely poetical. 
The general charafler of the face of Auster is 
gloominess and mischief, the particularsubjeAin 
question. Boreas is usually represented like a fe- 
rocious, impetuous bully, and Auster with a sul- 
len, designing countenance, Valerius Flaccus 
describes him as attended with showers ; Ovid 
with water, dripping from every part of him ; 
Statins, as pouring down the waters of the hea- 
vens'on the earth ; and Juvenal as sitting in the 
cave of the winds, and drying his wings after a 

AUTRE, one of the seven daughters of the giant 
Alcyoneus, who was slain by Hercules. 

AUTOLEON, a leader of the Crotoniates, fight- 
ing against the Locrians, who always left a 
space in their lines for Ajax, as though he were 
alive, directing his force towards the spot, was 
wounded on the breast by the spefJlre of the 
hero, and could not be cured till after he had 
appeased his manes. 

AUTHIAS, the prophet. See Proerosia. 

AUTHRONIUS, a leader in Virgil, overthrown 
by Salius 

AUTOLYCUS, a son of Mercury, by Chione, 
daughter of Daedalion, notorious for his craft 
and dexterity, as a thief. Nothing was safe 
wherever he came, and such was his adroitness 
in disguising his plunder, that the cattle he stole 
could nolonger be known; except in the instance 
of Sisyphus, who having marked hisjoxen un- 
der the feet, was, by that means, able to ascer- 
tain them. Autolycus, pleased with the con- 
trivance, admitted Sisyphus to his confidence, 
and allowed .him so familiar an intercourse with 
Anticlea, his daughter, that she soon was found 
to be pregnant. On the discovery of this, he 
married her to Laertes, and Ulysses proved to 
be the child. —Autolycus, according to Apollo- 
niuB, had accompanied Hercules in some of his 
adventures, together with his brothers, Phlogi us 
and Deileon, all sons of Deimachus; but after 
the three had been settled at Sinope, the spirit 
of roving incited them anew, and they joined 
Jason with the other Argonauts. 

I' Hyginus bath mentioned another Autolycus^ son 
of PhryxuB and Chalciope. 

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AUTOMATE, one of the Cycladcs, daughter of 

AUTOMATIA,a name under which Fortune was 
worshipped, as the goddess of good-luck. 

AUTOMEDON, son of Dioreus, who sailed a- 
gainst Troy in an armament of ten ships. He 
was charioteer to Achilles, and afterwards to 

In the Iliad, another Greek is mentioned of this 
name, who was killed by Aretus. 

AU rOMEDUS A, a daughter of Alcathous, killed 
by Tydeus. 

AUTONOE, daughter of Cadmus, king of The- 
bes, by Hermione, was wife of Aristaeus, and 
mother of Aflaeon, whom his own dogs tore 
asiuider. See Aristaeus, ABaeon. 

Also the sister of Ino and Agave, the mother of 
Pentheus was of this name : as was one of the 
Danaides, one of the Nereides, and one of Pe- 
nelope's attendants. 

AUTONOEIUS HEROS, the Autonoeian hero, or 
Aftaeon, son of Autonoe. 

AUTONOUS, a Grecian chief, killed by Heflor, 
and a Trojan killed by Patroclus. 

AU'l UMN ; This season was represented as a 
young man, with a basket of fruit in one hand, 
and caressing a dog with the other. 

AVENTINUS MONS. See Mount Aventme. 

AVENTINUS, 3 principal leader in the Latian 
war against Aeneas. Virgil makes him the son 
of Hercules, and the priestess Rhea. 

AVERNUS, a lake of Campania, in Italy, near 
Baiae, famous among the ancients for its poi- 
sonous qualities ; they supposed it unnavigable, 
and to send forth such poisonous vapours, that 
no bird could fly over it. Of this celebrated 
lake, Strabo gives the following account. Near 
Baiae lies the Lucrine bay, and, within it, the 
lake Avernus : it was here that Homer had de- 
scribed Ulysses as conversing with the ghost of 
Tiresias ; for here, they said, was the cwacle 
sacred to the Shades, which Ulysses came and 
consulted concerning his return) The Aver- 
nus is a deep and darksome lake, with a narrow 
entry from the outer bay, surrounded with 
steep banks, that hang threatening over it, and 
only accessible by the narrow passage through 
which you sail in. These banks were anciently 
overgrown with a wild wood, impenetrable to 
the human foot. Its gloomy shade impressed 

an awful superstition upon the minds of the be> 
holders, whence it was reputed the habitation 
of the Cimmerians, who dwelt in perpetual 
night. Whoever sailed thither, first offered 
sacrifice, and endeavoured to propitiate the in 
fernal powers, with the assistance of the priests, 
who attended at the place to direct the mystic 
performance. Within, a fountain of pure water 
broke forthjust over the sea, but no person ever 
believed it a fountain, under the idea of its being 
a vein of the Styx. Near this place was the ora- 
cle ; and the hot waters frequent in those parts 
occasioned the belief, that they were branches 
of the burning Phlegethon. The communica- 
tion with the Lucrine lake is still to be distin- 
guished, although now filled up with earth ; 
the distance between the two is but a few paces. 
The poisonous effluvia from this lake was said 
to be so strong, that, as observed, they proved 
fatal to birds endeavouring to fly over it ; but 
after rooting up the wood, and building around 
it, no noxious effei^s were felt. Virgil ascribes 
the poisonous exhalation not to the lake itself, 
but to the cavern near it, which' was called A. 
vernus, or the Coze of the Sybil, through which 
the poets feigned a descent to hell : hence, the 
proper name of the lake is Lacus Avemi, the 
lake near the cavern, as it is called by some an- 
cient authors. It is now called Avertio, is aboujt 
two miles long, one broad, and so far now from 
having qualities noxious to birds, that many 
swim upon it. A little to the west is the cave 
of the Sibyl, the noxious qualities of which 
seem also to be lost. There are also the re- 
mains of walls standing, which some suppose 
to have been a temple of Apollo, and others of 
Pluto. Among the ancients, all places which e- 
mitted poisonous exhalations were caW&d. Avemi. 

AU XESI A. See Utbobolia. 

AUXO AND HEGEMONE, the two Graces of the 
Athenians (for they acknowledged but two) 
were honoured under this title. 

AVERRUNCI. See Dii Averrunci. 

AVESTA. Seei^im 

AVISTUPOR, a name of Priapus, who had tem- 
ples ere<5ted to him as the tutelar deity of vine- 
yards and gardens ; he defended them from 
thieves and birds destruftive to the fruit. For 
this reason, his image is usually placed in gar- 
dens, holding in his hand a sickle. 

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three Cabiri. 

AXINOMANTIA. a kind of magic, in which a 
stone was used called Gagate. 

AXION, son of Phegeus, and brother of Arsinoe. 

is, beardless. Jupiterwas worshipped as an in- 
fant in Campania, and particularly at Anxur, 
a city of the Volsci. 

AXYLUS, son of Teuthras, an hospitable prince ; 
according to Homer, killed by Diomedes. 

AZAN, son of Arcaa, king of Arcadia by Erato, 
one of the Dryads. He shared his father's king- 
dom with his two brothers, Aphidas and Ela- 
tus. His portion was called Azania. 

A mountain of Arcadia, sacred to Cybele, was 
also called Axon. 

AZESIA, a surname of Proserpine. 

AZIZUS, a surname of Mars. 

AZONI, a term anciently applied to such of the 
gods as were not the private divinities of any 
particular country or people, but were acknow- 
ledged as gods in every country, and worship- 
ped by every nation. These Azoni were an 
order above the visible and sensible gods, which 
were called Zonaei, who inhabited some parti- 
cular part of the world, and never remained 
out of the district or zone assigned them. 

AZORUS, one of the Argonauts, 

AZRAIL, the Angel of Death. The Mahome- 
tans have several ridiculous traditions conceni- 

ing this angel. He is supposed to have been 
particularly concerned in the creation of Adam. 
The angels Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, they 
say, were sent by God, one after another, to 
fetch, for that purpose, seven handfuls of earth 
from different depths and of different colours ; 
but the Earth, being apprehensive of the con- 
sequences, and desiring them to represent her 
fear to God, that the creature he designed to 
form would rebel against him, and draw down 
his curse upon her, they returned without per- 
forming God's commands ; on which he sent 
Azrail, who executed his commission without 
remorse ; for which reason God appointed him 
to separate the souls from the bodies, and he 
was therefore called the Angel of Death. They 
relate likewise, that this angel passing once by 
Solomon, in a visible shape, and looking at a 
person who was sitting with him, the man asked 
who he was? and upon Solomon's acquainting 
him that it was the Angel of Death, the man 
said. He seems to want me, wherefore order the 
wind to carry me hence into.India: which be- 
ing accordingly done, the angel said to Solo- 
mon, I looked so earnestiy at the man out of 
wonder, because I was commanded to take his 
soul in India, but found him with thee in Pa- 
lestine. This story is told in relation to the 
Koran, where it is said : No soul knowetb in what 
land it shall die. 

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Baal, BEL, or BELUS, an Idol of the Chal- 

cleans and Phoenicians, or Canaanites : the for- 
mer worshipped Mars under this nanip, as ap- 
pears from Josephus, who, speaking of Thu- 
rus, successor of Ninus, says : To this Mars 
the Assyrians ere6led the first statue, and wor- 
shipped him as a god, calling him Baal. It is 
probable the Phoenicians worshipped the Sun 
under the name of Baal, for Jtwiah, desirous of 
-compensating for the wickedness of Manasaeh, 
in worshipping BaalaAd the host of heaven, put 
to death ibe priests -who burnt incense unto Baal, to 
the Sun, and to the Moon, and to the Planets, and 
to all the Host of Heaven. He likewise took away 
the horses that the fangs ofjudab bad given to the 
Sun, and burnt the chariots of the Sun with fire. — 
The temples dedicated to this deity are called 
in scripture Cbamanim, which signifies places 
inclosed with walls, and including perpetual 
fire. Maundreli, in his journey from Aleppo 
to Jerusalem, observed some traces of these en- 
closures in Syria ; most of them were void of 
statues ; in a few there were some, but of no 
uniform figure. The word Baal, in the Punic 
language, signifies lord or master, and, doubt* 
less, the supreme deity ; the lord and master 
jof the universe. It is often joined with the 
name , of some false god, as Baal-berith, Baal- 
peor, Baal-zephon, and the like. This deity 
passed from the Phoenicians to the Carthagi- 
nians, who were a colony of the Phoenicians, 
as appears from the Carthaginian nances Han- 
nibal, Asdrubal, &c. according to the custom 
of the East, where kings and great men added 
to their own names those of their gods. This 
false deity is frequently mentioned in scripture, 
in the plural number Baalim, which may sig- 
nify either that the name Baal was given to 
di^rent gods, or that there were many sta- 
tues bearing diflferent appellations consecrated 
to this idol. Amobius tells us, that Baal was 
of an uncertain sex, and that his votaries, when 
they called upon hipi, invoked him thus. Hear 
us, whether tbou art a god or goddess I Some learn- 1 
Vfil.I. 3 


ed men think, that the Baal of the Phoenicians 
is the Saturn of the Greeks ; which seems pro- 
bable, from the conformity between the human 
sacrifices offered to Saturn, and those which we 
learn from the scriptures, were offered to Baal. 
Others are of opinion, that Baal was the Peoe- 
nician or Tyrian Hercules, a god of great an- 
tiquity in Phoenicia. The Mahometans relate, 
that Abraham, before he left Ur of the Chal- 
dees, took an opportunity, when the Chaldeans 
were abroad in the fields .celebj;ating a great 
festival, to break in pieces all their idols except 
Baal, at whose neck he hung the axe with 
which he had accomplished his purpose, that 
tJasy .might suppose Baal himself was the au- 
thor of the mischief- Thus the Koran : " We 
gave- unto Abrahaim his direction heretofore, . 
and we knew him to be worthy of the revela- 
tions wherewith he was favoured. Remember 
when he said unto his father and his people, 
what are these images to which ye are so eatlrely 
devoted? They answered, We found our fathers 
worshipping them. He said. Verily^ both ye 
and your fathers have been in a manifest error- 
They said. Dost thou seriously tell us the truth, 
or art thou one who jestest with us? He re- 
plied. Verily, your lord is the Lord ,of the hea- 
vens and the earth ; it is he who hath created 
them, and I am -one -of those who bear witness 
thereof. By God, I will purely devise a plot 
against your idols, after ye shall have reti/ed 
from them, and shall have turned your backs. 
And in the people's absence he went into the 
temple where the idols stood, and he bnjke 
them all in pieces, except the biggest of them, 
that they might lay the blame upon that. And 
when they were returned, and saw the havock 
which had been made, they said : Who hath 
done this to our gods ? he is certainly an im- 
pious person. And certain of them answered. 
We heard a young man speak reproachfully 
of them, he is named Abraham. They said. 
Bring him, therefore, before the eyes of the 
peopl.e, th^t they may bear witness against 


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him. And when he was brought before the 
assembly, th^ said, hast thou done this unto 
our gods, O Abraham? He answered. Nay, that 
t^f^«f of them hath done it; but ask them if 
they can speak. And they rfeturned unto them- 
selves, and said, the one to the other. Verily, 
ye are the impious persons. Afterwards they 
relapsed into their former obstinacy, and said. 
Verily, thou knowest that these speak not. A- 
braham answered. Do ye therefore worship, 
beside God, that, which cannot profit you at 
all, neither can it hurt you? Fie on you, and 
upon that which ye worship beside God ! Do 

• ye not understand? They said. Bum him and 
" avenge your gods." , Mahomet was indebted to 

the Jews for this story, who tell it in a manner 

* somewhat different ; for they say that Abra- 
ham performed this exploit in his father's shop, 
during his alienee ; and that Terah returning, 
and demanding the occasion of this outrage, 
Abraham told him, that the idols had quar- 
relled about an offering of fine flour brought 
them by an old woman, and that the biggest of 
them, Baal, had got the better of the rest, and 
broken them to pieces. They add, that Terah, 
in the excess of his passion, carried his son be- 
fore Nimrod, to punish his insolence. See Bel, 

BAAL-BERITH, the god of the Shechemites. 
Bochart conjeftures, that Beritb is the same as 
Beroe, daughter of Venus and Adonis, who 
was given in marriage to Bacchus; and that 
she gave her name to the city of Berith in Phoe- 
nicia, and became afterwards the goddess of 
it. Baal-Berith signifies lord of the covenant, and 
may be taken for the god who presides over 
alliances and oaths, in like manner as the 
Greeks had their Zius ofxi®', and the Romans 
their Dem Fidius, or Jupiter Pistius. The idola- 
trous Israelites made Baal-Berith their god, 
and erefled altars to him, on which were of- 
fered human sacrifices. 

BAAL-GAD, t^e god ^happiness, an idol amongst 
the Phoenicians. 

GOR, an idol of the Moabites and Midianites. 
We are told that Israel joined himself to Baal- 
Peor, and that Solomon erefted an altar to this 
idol upon the Mount of OHves. Who this 
Baal-Peor was, hath not been detcimined. The 

ancient Jews supposed him to be no other than 
Priapus ; and that his worship consisted in the 
most obscene pra^ices. Maimonides says, 

-they exposed their privities before this idol; 
and Solomon larchl goes so far as to affirm, 
that Baal-Peor was so called : eo quod distends, 
bant coram eo foramen podicis, et stercus afferebani; 
because, they distended their posteriors before 
him, and oflered to him the deposite. Others 
have taught, that as Baal is a general name, 
signifying lord. Peer may be the name of some 
great prince deified after his death. Mede and 
several imagine, that Peor being the name of 
a mountain in the country of Moab, on which 
the temple of Baal was built, Baal-Peor may 
be only another name of that deity, taken from 
the situation of his temple, just as Jupiter is 
stiled Olympius, because he was worshipped 
in a temple built on Mount Olympus. Selden, 
who is of this opinion, conjeSures, from the 
words of the Psalmist, that Baal-Peor is the 
same with Pluto. Tbey joined themselves toBaal- 
Peor, and ate the offerings of the dead; though by 
the sacrifices, or offerings of the dead, in this pas- 
sage, may be meant no more than sacrifices or 
oflferings made to idols or false gods, who are 
very properly called the dead, in contradis- 
tinction to. the true god, who is stiled in scrip- 
ture the living god. It is certain that his priests 
ofiered human sacrifices, and what is still more 
unnatural, they ate of the vi^ms they offered. 

BAAL-SEMEN, an appellation of the idol Baal 
amongst the Chaldeans, and the chief of the 
ancient Phoenician deities. Sanchoniatho re- 
lates, that Genus and Genea, the offspring of 
Protogonus and Aeon, dwelt in Phoenicia ; but 
that when great droughts came, they stretched 
their hands towards the Sun ; for him, he saith^ 
they thought the only lord of heaven, calling 
him Beel-samin, which, in the Phoenician lan- 
guage, has that signification. See Baal. 

BAAL-TIS. Ofthisdeity little is known. San- 
choniatho speaking of the gods Cabiri, tells us, 
that Chronos gave the city Beryla to Neptune 
and the Cabiri, and Byblos to the goddess 
Baal-Tis. SeeBeltba. 

BUT, OR BEL-ZEBUB, the idol or god of the 
Ekronites. In scripture he is called the Prince 
of Demons. His name is rendered The lord ^ 

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jiieSt or The God-Jly, which some think was a 
mock appellation bestowed on him bythejews; 
others more plausibly suppose him to have 
been so stiled, for the same reason as Hercules 
waa worshipped under the appellation of 
Arofwut the Fly-driver. This deity had a famous 
temple and oracle at Ekron. Ahaziah, king 

, of Israel, having fallen from the terras of his 
house into a lower room, and being dange- 
rously hurt, sent to inquire of this deity, if he 
should be cured of his wounds. The worship 
of this false god must have prevailed in our 
Saviour's time, since the Jews accused him of 
driving out demons in the name of Bel-Zebub 
their prince. Scaliger derives the name from 
Baalim- Zebabim, which signifies, tbe lord ^sa- 
crifices. Under what form this deity was re- 
presented is uncertain. Some place him on a 
throne, in the attire of a king ; and others, in 
the figure of a fly. See Acbor. 

BAAL-TZEPHON, or ZEPHON, is supposed 
by the Jewish Rabbins, and from them by Gro- 
tius, to have been an idol set up as a mark or 
boundary between Egypt and Otnaan ; Zepbon 
signifying in Hebrew to contemplate, or obserre. 
The Hebrews, after three days march, came to 
Baal-Zephon, which, if it meant a town, as 
some imagine, it seems to have been unknown 
to ancient geographers. Eusebius taking it for 
the name of a place, and not of an idol, fixes 
it near Clysma, on the most northern point of 
the Red Sea, where the children of Israel are 
supposed to have crossed. The Jerusalem 
Targum relates, that all the statues of the 
Egyptian gods having been destroyed by the 
exterminating Angel, Baal-Zephon was the 
only one that resisted, whence the Egyptians 
conceived a great idea of his power, and re- 
doubled their devotion to him. Moses observ- 
ing them to crowd around the idol, petitioned 
Pharaoh, that he might accompany the Israel- 
ites on their journey. Pharaoh assented ; but, 
whilst they were occupied on the shore of the 
Red Sea, in gathering up such precious stones 
as the river Phison had carried ipto the Gihon, 
and the Gihon to that sea, Pharaoh surprised 
them, but deferring to attack the Israelites till 
the next day, for the sake of sacrificing first to 
Baal-Zephon, they passed the Red Sea, andes> 
caped him- 


BABACTES, a surname of Bacchus. 

BABIA, a deity of the ancient Syrians, mention- 
ed in the life of Isidorus, where we are told, 
that the Syrians, and especially they of Damas- 
cus, called new-bom infants, and even young 
men and woman, Babia, from a deity whom 
they worshipped under that name : hence it 
should seem, that Babia was the goddess of in- 
fancy and youth. Some write, that Babia was 
worshipped under the image of an infant ; that 
it was common among the Syrians to call their 
children by her name, especially, such as they 
intended to dedicate to the priesthood ; that 
young children were offered up in sacrifice to 
this idol ; and that the mothers heard, without 
relenting, the cries of their tortured off- 

BABYS, the brother of Marsyas, whom Apollo 
would have treated as he had Marsyas himself, 
but for the interposition of Pallas. 

BACCHAE, the priestesses of Bacchus, who ce- 
lebrated the Orgia, or mysteries of that god. 
They were also denominated Maenides, Bassa- 
ridcs, Thyades, Mimallonides, Cladones, &.C. 
The Bacchae were originally a troop of bold, 
enthusiastic women, who attended Bacchus in 
his expedition to the Indies, and nuterlally 
contributed to his conquests. They ran through 
the mountains, shouting Evobe Baccbt, 1. e^ Bac- 
chus be happy! In the intoxication of frenzy 
they tore asunder animals, and devoured them 
raw. On approaching the Indian army, they 
applied to their drums and cymbals, which, 
accompanied by their howling, shrieking, and 
brandishing of thyrsuses, terrified the ele- 
phants of their opponents, and put them to 
flight. After their return from this Indian 
expedition, they instituted an annual feast to 
the honour of Bacchus, in which they renewed 
their frantic exploits. As the women of Ma- 
cedonia were more remarkable than aiiy other 
for celebrating the festivals of Bacchus, so of 
these Olympias, the mother of Alexander, was 
pre-eminent, insomuch, that she brought into 
theThiosi, or public assemblies, tame serpents, 
which twined al)out the thyrsuses and chap- 
lets of the women, both to the surprize and 
horror of the men. Plutarch tells us, that after 
the Phocaens had taken Delphi, the priestesses 
of Bacchus were seized with a Bacchic fury, 


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and ramUing about by night, they came to 
Amphissa without knowing it, where, being 
fatigued, they lay down, and slept in the mar- 
ket place. The women of the city fearing, 
lest the Phocaen soldiers should offer violence 
to the Bacchae, surrounded them in crowds, 
and kept the roost profound silence for fear 
of disturbing them. The priestesses awaking, 
recovered from their phrenzy,were honourably 
treated by the Amphissians, and waited upon 
to their own homes. The same author adds, 
that Anstotimus, having acquired the govern- 
ment of Elis, the Elians, to obtain some fa- 
vour, sent the priestesses of Bacchus to solicit 
him, adorned .with the chaplets sacred to 
their god ; but the tyrant ordered them to be 
beaten, driven, and fined at two talents each. 
This incensed the Elians to such a degree, that 
they conspired against him, and threw off his 
government. The Bacchae are generally re- 
presented in furious and distorted postures, 
clothed in the skins of wild beasts, their hair 
dishevelled amidst ivy and vine crowns, in 
the manner of Bacchus, and carrying a thyr- 
sus or vine-branch twined round with ivy. — 
They are sometimes, however, painted in a 
less violent state, discriminated indeed by the 
tsame attributes, but no less by a smile oL al- 
most rustick gaiety, in which the extremities 
of the mouth are drawn upward, the profile 
of the countenance flattened, and the noae, 
though not ugly, tending to the likeness of a 
goat's. The grace of this charafter resembles 
the airs of Corregio's heads. See Bacchanalia. 
BACCHANALIA, religious feasts in honour of 
Bacchus, ' celebrated with much solemnity a- 
mong the ancients; particularly the Athenians, 
wlio, till the commencement of the Olympiads, 
even computed their years from them. The 
Bacclianalia are sometimes called Orgia, from 
the Greek o^yn, fury, transport, from the mad- 
ness and enthusiasm accompanying the cele- 
bration. They were holden in autjimn, and 
took their rise from Egypt ; whence, accord- 
ing to Diodorus, they were brought into Greece 
by Melampus. The form and dispositon of the 
Bolemnity depended, at Athens, on the Ar- 
chon, and was at first exceedingly simple ; but, 
by degrees, became encumbered with abun- 
dance of ceremoniesj and attended with a world 

of dissoluteness and excess : insomuch that the 
Romans, who had adopted them, were ashamed 
of the exhibition, and suppressed them through- 
out Italy, by a decree of the senate. The wo- 
men partook in the solemnity, which ia said to 
have been instituted on their account. [^See the 
article Bacchae.'} These priestesses, at the time 
of the feast, ran wild in every direflion, shoot- 
ing and screaming ; each a thyrsus in one hand 
and a torch in the other. On these occasions 
both men and women intermingled, all naked, 
except the clustersandvine-leaves (Ml their heads 
and their loins : they danced and frolicked with 
strange gesticulations, and sung hymns to Bac- 
chus, till, becoming giddy, they fell in the wild- 
est delirium. The Bacchanalia, as at Athens, 
were, at iirst, simple : a vessel of wine, adorn- 
ed with a vine-branch, was brought forth, a 
goat followed, next was carried a bushel of figs, 
and, lastly, the Phalli: the frantic ceremonies- 
mentioned being afterwards annexed ; to which 
we may add, that the distradled rout attending 
these ceremonies was, upon one of these solem- 
nities, followed by persons carrying certain 
sacred vessels, the first filled with water ; to 
them succeeded a seleft number of honourable 
virgins, called Cattepborae, because they carried 
little baskets of gold, holding all sorts of fruit 
In these consisted the most, mysterious part of 
the solemnity, and therefore, to amuse the com- 
mon people, serpents were put into them, which 
sometimes crawling forth, astonished the be- 
holders. Next was the Periphallia, being a 
company of men carrying the Phalli, or poles, 
at the extremities of which were fixed figures 
representing the organ of generation. Those 
who bore them were crowned with violets and 
ivy, and had their faces covered with other 
kinds of herbs. They were called Phallopbo. 
rot, and the song they repeated Pballica. Af- 
ter these followed the Itbuphalloi, in women's 
apparel, striped with white, reaching to their 
ancles, garlands on their heads, wreathes of 
flowers in their hands, and in their gestures 
imitating inebriety. There were also certain 
persons called Dicnophoroi, whose business it 
was to carry the A.itw», or mystical van of Bac- 
chus, an implement essential to this and other 
solemnities and sacrifices of the god. Such 
were the Athenian Bacchanalia ; for the manner 

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of celebrating them among the Romans seems 
not to have been altogether so frantic. In rea- 
lity, the Bacchanalia was a Grecian feast, and 
though long tolerated, never publicly establish.' 
ed at Rome ; but holden by night in the grove 
of Simila. After its prohibition, recorded by 
Livy, some persons seem still to have continued 
the praftice. There were divers sorts of Dio- 
nysia, or Bacchanalia, among the Greeks ; for 
the name is frequrtitly given to all the solemn 
feasts of Bacchus ; the first, observed in the 
Spring, in the month Elapbebolion, called Aiwvo-mi 
mrvM, or Tdc n tvt*, because solemnized within the 
city ; sometimes fu^M^a, or the grfeat Baccbana- 
lia, and sometimes absolutely, and by way of 
eminence, AHnM-i», or Baccbanalia, as being the 
most celebrated of all the feasts of this deity at 
Athens. The second, celebrated in autumn, 
in the month Posideouy and called more parti- 
cularly AnwcMt, Leruua, sometimes t» hmt Ay^, 
OT the rural fiastt because celebrated in the fields; 
sometimes also Aiama-iapixffc, or tbe lesser Baccba- 
The AnthesUria are by some thought to have been 
sacred to Bacchus, under the denomination of 
AuMirwe A^«ta, or old Baccbanalia ; though o- 
thers account them two different feasts, and 
the latter no other than the great Bacchanalia, 
called fifx*"*> OT Afxfuiltf*, by way ofcontradis- 
tinAion to the lesser, or rural sort, which are 
denominated Ntwrifia, or the newer. To these 
may be added the ^umrm BfmpafM, held at Brau- 
Ton, in Attica ; the Nuxrnfm, not to be reveal. 
ed ; the Afiutiuw, held by the Arcadians ; and 
the Tfiilnfuut, by the Thebans, to commemorate 
the three year's expedition of Bacchus to India. 
Plutarch will have the Grecian Dionysia, which 
corresponded with the Roman Bacchanalia, to 
be the same with the Egyptian Paniylia, cele- 
brated in honour of Osiris, the same with the 
Grecian Bacchus. Plato, speaking of the Bac- 
chanalia, says, he had seen the whole city 
of Athens, upon this occastoij, plunged in drun- 
kenness : and Livy informs us, that the licen- 
tiousness of the Bacchanalian feasts having se- 
' cretly gained footing in Rome, the most shock- 
ing disorders were praftised under the covert 
of night, and that those who were initiated in 
these abominable mysteries, were obliged by 
an oath, attended by the most horrid impreca- 

tions, to conceal them. The senate being in- 
formed of it, suppressed the celebration, first 
in Rome, and afterwards through Italy. Mont- 
faucon gives us a description of a fine agate vase, 
belonging to the treasury of St. Dennis, in the 
form of a cup or bowl, on the side? of which* 
are represented the Bacchanalian mysteries : 
the principal symbols are the head of a Satyr, 
a drum, or sistrum, hung on the bough of a 
tree, a vine, festooned with grapes, with a goat 

~ endeavouring to get them, and the head of a 
Baccha, or priestess, bound about with vine- 
leaves and clusters of ivy. 

BACCHEIA. See Dionysia. 


BACCHIS, a bull consecrated to the Sun, and re- 
vered at Hermonthis, in Egypt ; his hair grew 
against the grain, and contrary to that of any 
other animal. 

BACCHUS. Cicero mentions five of this name ; 
the first son of Jupiter and Pr(»erptne ; the 
second son of Nilus, who killed Nysa ; the third 
son of Caprius, king of Asia ; the fourth son 
of Jupiter and Luna, in honour of whom the 
ceremonies called Orpbic are supposed to have 
been instituted ; and the fifth son of Nisus and 
Thione. It is remarkable that among (hese 
five we do not meet with the son of Jupiter, the 
distinguished Bacchus of antiquity. This last, 
the subject, of the present article, was son of, 
Jupiter, by Semele, daughter of Cadmus, king 
of Thebes, in which city young Bacchus is said 
to have been born. Juno, having discovered 
the amour of her husband and Semele, was 
highly incensed. To be revenged, she disguised 
herself in the shape of old Beroe, Semele's Epi- 
daurian nurse, and pe):suaded Semele to solicit 
that Jupiter would visit her as he did Juno.— 
The god heard, and granted the request ; but 
her mortal frame, unable to sustain the energy 
of the deity, who approached her in the full ef- 
fulgence of his glory, Semele perished in his 
embraces. Being, however, pregnant at the 
time, the young Bacchus was taken from her 
womb, and sewed up by Sabazius in Jupiter's 
thigh, where he remained two months, to com- 
plete the period of gestation ; whence he ob- 
tained the epithet Bimater. During this inter- 
val, it is said that Jupiter halted ; especially 
when pricked by the horns of the child. Som« 

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authors relate, that the child was rescued from 
his mother's ashes by the Nymphs, who washed 
him in a running spring, and urtdertook the 
charge of bringing him up. Others, that Mer- 
cury carried him to them at Nysa, a city of A- 
rabia. The Horae, or Hours, are said, by some, 
to have performed this office ; whilst a different 
account makes the Hyades his nurses. Others 
affirm that Jupiter, taking the child from his 
thigh, at Naxos, committed him to the care of 
Philia, Coronis, andClyda; whilst others again 
consign him to Inc. Autonoe, and Agave, the 
sisters of his mother. There is also a conmion 
opinion that Mercury, by Jupiter's orders, car- 
ried him into Euboea, to Macris, daughter of 
Aristaeus, who first anointed his lips with ho- 
ney, and then provided for his tuition ; but 
Juno, enraged that he should find protection in 
a place sacred to her, banished Macris from Eu- 
boea. The exile fled to the country of the Phae- 
aces, and there fostered him in a cave. Ano- 
ther story, disagreeing with the account above 
given of Semele's death, relates that Cadmus, 
on hearing of his daughter's amours, inclosed 
both herself and child in a chest, which, being 
committed to the water, was wafted to Oreatae, 
^ town of the Laconians ; that Semele found 
dead, was there honoured with a splendid fu- 
neral ; and the child, nursed by Ino in a cave, 
continued in their country a considerable time. 
This diversity of opinion concerning Bacchus, 
may probably have arisen from the number of 
that name ; and hence a confusion in the history 
of each. It may, notwithstanding, be observ- 
ed, that Diodorus makes but one person of the 
first and third, who was the Bacchus Sabazius, 
a Phoenician, and one of the great gods Cabiri. 
Bacchus was reputed by some to be, at once, 
male and female, old and young ; though o. 
thers, because he was generally represented as 
beardless, except at Elis, attribute to him the 
bloom of perpetual youth. In his youth, hav- 
ing been seized by a party of Tyrrhenian pi- 
rates, whilst asleep on the shore of Naxos, they 
attempted to convey him away ; but he, sud- 
denly assuming a monstrous shape, they sought 
to escape ; but, perceiving vines about their 
masts, and ivy on their oars, they rushed into 
the sea, and were turned into dolphins ; all ex- 
cept the pilotr who opposed their attempt 

Bacchus, when grown up, was persecuted by 
Juno, and becoming weary, in his flight, fell 
asleep. An amphisbaena, or serpent with two 
■ heads, attacked him, which, on waking, he 
killed with the twig of a vine. Juno afterwards 
struck him with madness, during which he 
wandered over a great part of the world ; and, 
passing through Syria and Egypt, Proteus, king 
of Egypt, wag the first who received him. He 
next went to Cybella, a city in Phrygia, where 
being expiated by Rhea, he was initiated into 
the mysteries of Cybele. Lycurgus, king of 
the Edoni, affronted him in this journey, for 
which Bacchus deprived him of his reason ; so 
that, when he thought to prune his vines, he 
cut off the legs of his son Drya», and the ex- 
treme parts of his own body. Bacchus, during 
the war with the Giants, distinguished himself 
greatly in the form of a lion, while Jupiter, to 
encourage him, cried euhoe, or bravely done t a 
word afterwards used in the rites of this god. 
Others say, that in this rebellion the Titans cut 
Bacchus to pieces, but that Pallas took his heart 
while yet panting, and carried it to her father 
Jupiter, who, collecting the other members, 
reanimated his body, after a sleep of three 
nights with Proserpine. Mythologists explain 
this by observing that vine-cuttings will grow, 
but require three years before they bear. The 
most memorable exploit of Bacchus was his ex- 
pedition to India, which" employed him three 
years. He set out from Egypt, where he left 
Mercury Trismegistus in quidity of co-regent, 
and appointed Hercules his viceroy : Busiria he 
constituted president of Phoenicia, and Antoe- 
us of Libya ; after which he marched with a 
prodigious army, carrying with him Triptole- 
mus and Maro, to teach mankind the arts of 
tillage, and planting the vine. His first pro- 
gress was westward, and during his course he 
was joined by Pan andLusus, the first of whom 
gave his name to Spain, orHispania, and the 
other his to Lusitania, or Portugal. Altering 
his views, he returned through Ethiopia, where 
the Satyrs and Muses were added to his train ; 
and thence crossing the Red Sea, he penetrated 
through Asia, to the remotest parts of the East, 
in the mountains of which country, near the 
source of the Ganges, he ereited two pillars, to 
shew that he had visited the confines of the ha- 

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bitable world. On his return he built Nysa, 
and other cities ; and passing the Hellespont, 
came into Thrace, where he placed Maro, who 
founded the Maronaea : to Macedo he gave the 
country called from him Macedonia, and left 
Triptolemus in Attica, to instruft its inhabi- 
tants. Returning with glory, he made a tri- 
umphal entry into Thebes, offered part of his 
spoils to Jupiter, and sacrificed to him the rich- 
est spices of the East. He then applied himself 
solely to affairs of government, reformed abuses, 
enafted good laws, and consulted the happiness 
of his people ; for which he not only obtained 
the title of Tbesmopborus, or the Lawgiver, but 
was deified after his death. The women who 
accompanied Bacchus, as his priestesses, were 
called Maenades, from their madness ; Thya- 
des, from their impetuosity ; Bacchae, from 
their intemperate depravity ; and Mimallones, 
or Mimallonides, from their mimicing their 
leaders. There were likewise in his train Dae- 
mons, Satyrs, and Fauns ; with Lenae, Nymphs, 
and Naiades. It is fabled .of these Bacchae, that 
when they struckthe earth with their thyrsuaes, 
there sprung up rivulets of milk and honey ; 
and of Bacchus, that when he had cut in pieces 

a sheep, it instantly reunited and pastured 

The favourite wife of Bacchus was Ariadne, 
whom he found in the isle of Naxos, abandoned 
by Theseus. He loved her so passionately, as to 
make her crown a constellation in the heavens. 
By her he had Staphilus, Thyoneus, Hymena- 
eiis, &c. To Bacchus there belonged a variety 
of names, the meaning of which will be found 
under each. He was called Bicomis, Bimater, 
Brisaeus, Bromius, Bruma, Bugenes, Daemon 
Bonus, Dionysius,Eleus,Elel us, Euchius, Evan, 
Evehus, Eyous, lacchus, Lenaeus, Liber, Liber 
Pater, Lyaeus, Lyceus, Nebrodes, Nisoeus, 
Nydlilius, Reetus, Tauriceps, Tauriformis, 
Thyoneus, Triumphus, and Zagreus, The 
festivals of Bacchus, for which the reader will 
likewise consult the alphabet, were the Ambro- 
sia, Ajiaturia, Ascolia, Bacchanalia, Dionygia, 
or Orgia, Brumalia, Canephoria, Epilenaea, 
Oseafrfioria, Phailica, and Trieterica. The 
viftinis agreeable to this god were the goat and 
the swine ; because these animals are destruc- 
tive to the vine. Among the Egyptians they 
sacrificed a swine to him before their doors ; 

and the dragon, and the pye on account of its 
chattering : ' the trees and plants used in his 
garlands were the fir, the oak, ivy, bindweed, 
the fig, and vine ; as also the daifodil, or nar- 
cissus. Bacchus had many temples ere^ed to 
him by the Greeks and the Romans. There 
was one at Samos, concerning the building of 
which Pliny tells a remarkable story. Elpis, a 
Samian, having sailed to Africa, and coming 
on shore, saw a lion. To avoid him, he as- 
cended a tree, and invoked Bacchus to his aid : 
the lion, prostrating himself at the root, inces- 
santly distended his jaws ; for, in devouring 
his prey, a bone had stuck between his teeth. 
In this condition he looked up to Elpis, .and 
seemed to implore his assistance : Elpis hesi- 
tated long, but, at last, ventured to descend, 
and extracted the bone. In return for this 
kindness, as long as his benefaftor remained on 
that coast, the lion supplied him with food.- — 
Elpis, on his arrival in Greece, built a temple 
to Bacchus the Gaper, in allusion to the gaping 
of the lion. — Bacchus was the god of good- 
cheer,, wine, and hilarity ; and of him, as such, 
the poets have not been niggard in their praises : 
on all occasion of mirth and jollity, they con- 
stantly invoked his presence, and as constantly 
thanked him for the blessings he bestowed.— 
To him they ascribed the forgetfulness of cares, 
and the delights of social converse. To re- 
peat the ascriptions of the poets, would, on 
this topic, be endless. By the poets this deity 
is described as a youth, of a plump figure, 
and naked, with a ruddy face, and an effemi- 
nate air ; he Is crowned with ivy and vine- 
leaves, and bears in his hand a thyrsus, or ja- 
velin with an iron head, encircled with ivy and 
vine leaves : his chariot is sometimes drawn by 
lions, at others by tigers, leopards, or pan- 
thers ; and surrounded by a band of Satyrs, 
Bacchae, and Nymphs, in frantic postures ; 
whilst old Silenus, his preceptor, follows on 
his ass, which crouches with the weight of his 
burden. On the Duke of Beaufort's Sarcopha- 
gus, at Badminton, he appears as a young man 
mounted on a tiger, and habited in a long robe: 
in one hand he holds a thyrsus, and with the o- 
ther pours wine into a horn, whilst one fbot 
rests on a basket. His attendants are the Sea- 
sons, properJy habited, intermingled with Fauns^ 

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Genii, Syivansj &c. Mr. Spence hath observed, 
" That the most usual attributes of Bacchus, in 
the figures that remain to ub, are his thyrsus, 
his vine, and ivy crowns, his syrma, or long 
triumphal robe, hisnebris, or Faun's skin, and 
his cothurni, or buskins : these are frequently 
described too by the Roman poets, who more- 
over sometime mention his having a mitre on 
his head, and sometimes wreaths of flowers, 
either of wlrich I do not remember to have ob- 
served in any statue or relievo. The cantha- 
rus, calathus, or scyphus, in the hands of Bac- 
chus, and the tiger that we sec so often in some 
fond posture or other at the feet of his statues, 
seem equally to relate to his chara6ter of being 
thegod of wine and jollity. It is said somewhere, 
I think in Diodorus Siculus, that Bacchus first 
introduced the vine into Europe, and pro- 
bably he brought it with him after his con- 
quest of the Indies, in which country that 
plant grew naturally, and particularly about 
Nysa, the place most peculiarly sacred to Bac- 
chus, (it being here that Alexander the Great, 
after he was received into the city of Nysa, 
had his army to see the famous mountain there 
consecrated to Bacchus), hence the ancients 
gave him his known character of, the god of 
drinking ; but, though he had that charafter, 
it is uncommon, in the old statues of Bacchus, 
to see him drunk; and it is yet less common to 
find any descriptions in the ancient poets that 
represent him in that condition : I can recol- 
left but one of that kind that I ever met with, 
and even in that it is rather said, that he pre- 

. tended to be drunk, than that he really was so. 
Our modern ideas of Bacchus seem to be taken 
from the old characters of Bacchus and Silenus 
confounded together. Silenus, indeed, is al- 
most always drunk wherever one meets with 
him. We have readily retained that idea of 
this attendant of Bacchus, in our northern 
drinking part of the world, and so have mixed 
up the youth of Bacchus with the plumpness 
and sottishness of Silenus ; and, to finish all, 
instead of an ass, we set him usually astride a 
tun. This, indeed, is our very lowest and most 

' vulgar idea of Bacchus ; yet, most ofour bet- 
ter modern painters and statuaries have gone 
-so far into it, as to have almost lost the original 
idea of Bacchus, and have brought him from 

the finest shape and face that can be imagined, 
(for in beauty qnd elegance of form he was the 
only deity who mailed Apollo) to a fat, jolly 
boy, who is usually above half drunk. Horace 
calls Bacchus, in gcneTa.\,t\ie modest, decent god; 
on some occasions, the joyous god ; and once, 
in speaking of him as the cause of drunken- 
ness, the immodest god. With us he has lost all 
his modesty, and appears always either drunk, 
or, at least, very ready to be so. I suppose it 
was under this joyous or gayer character of 
Bacchus that he was considered, of old, as the 
inspirer of poets, several of whom used some- 
times to take a good share of that juice, which 
this god introduced into our part of the world. 
However that be, they certiunly speak of Bac- 
chus and Apollo as their joint inspirers : their 
Parnassus rose with two distinft summits, one 
of which was called Nysa, and was sacred to 
Bacchus, as the other, called Cyrrha, was to 
Apollo ; and the Roman poets of old seem to 
have wore their ivy crowns in respect to Bac- 
chus, much more frequently than their laurel 
ones in respect to Apollo. From what I have 
been saying, one might explain some relievos 
I have seen of Bacchus, attended by the whole 
choir of the Muses, much better than I have 
ever heard them explained. The Muses are 
the proper attendants of Bacchus under this 
character, and, as Horace intimates in one of 
his odes, are as justly attached to him as Cupid 
is to Venus." — Such are the remarks of Mr. 
Spence. Upon a refleftive study of the antique, 
it will be found, that the ideal youth of Bacchus 
partakes of the figure of a Eunuch, and exhi bits 
the blended resemblance of both sexes. It is 
under this form that the god appears, till the 
perfeft developement of his growth. In the 
most beautiful figures of Bacchus, his limbs 
are at once delicate and round ; and his hips, 
like those of a female, fleshy and protuberent ; 
Bacchus having been brought up like a girl, 
Pliny hath mentioned the statue of a Satyr, 
with a figure of Bacchus habited like Venus ; 
whence Seneca describes him as a female in 
disguise. The contours of his limbs are delicate 
and flowing, and his knees resembling a young 
boy's, or a eunuch's, with scarce any indica- 
tion of bone, or of muscle. The proper image 
orthis divinity is, that of a youth in the state 

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af adolescence, approaching to a consciousness 
of pleaswable emotions, and seeking te com- 
bine his scattered perceptions. Hia features, 
though full of inefiable sweetness, but partially 
exhibit the gaiety within. A serenity of joy 
is inseparable from the ancient representt'.tions 
of Bacchus, whether he appear as a herb or 
wirrior: hence he is ney^er seen in company 
with Mars, whom Euripides describes, as a foe 
to the Muses. Apollo, in some of his statues 
bears a striking resemblance to Bacchus, inso- 
much that, as Macrobius relates, the one has 
been taken for the other, which will seem the 
less strange, as no god, besides them, had long 
flowing hair. Bacchus, however, was not al- 
ways revered as a youth. Sometimes, he was 
exhibited at full age, and with a beard, as in- 
dicative of it ; this charafter becoming the vic- 
tor of India. Of the heads and busts of Bac- 
chus in his latter capacity, the most known 
are crowned with ivy, especially those on the 
silver medals of Naxos, which have on their 
reverse a Silenus with a cup. The whole length 
figures of Bacchus the conqueror, when stand- 
ing, are clothed to the feet. Such is their ap- 
pearance on two marble vases, wrought in 
relief, one in the Famese palace, and the o- 
ther, which is the finest, in the cabinet of 
Herculaneum. Of the same god there is a 
figure at Naples, in the Porcenari colleftion, 
sitting in triumph, bearded, crowned with 
laurel, and clothed in a robe elegantly em- 
broidered. His drapery may either be purple 
or white. As Liber Pater, his bust has a gar- 
land of ivy. At first, he was worshipped in the 
form of a column. 
Having related the history of Bacchus at large, 
let us advert to the import of the fable. — 
Tills personage is seldom named in modern 
times, but as a sensual encourager of jollity 
and excess ; he however was regarded in a 
more respe6table light by the ancients, and 
worshipped in different countries under diffe- 
rent appellations. In Egypt he was called, 
Osiris; in India, Dionysius ; Liber through- 
out the Roman dominions ; Adoneus, in Ara- 
bia ; and Pentheus by the Lucanians. It is 
natural to suppose, that the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, as was their pra£lice, ascribed to the 
Bacchus they worshipped, the afiions and at- 
Vol. I. 4 

tributes conjoined with the name. Though 
five are mentioned to whom it belonged, an- 
tiquity hath chiefly distinguished but two ; him 
of Egypt, son of Amnion, the same with Osi- 
ris; and him, of whom we professedly treat. 
The Egyptian Bacchiis was brought upatNysa; 
and he, it is said, was the conqu^or of India ; 
for Bacchus, the son of Semele, was the young- 
est of the Grecian deities. Diodorus Siculus 
tells us, that Orpheus first deified the son of 
Semele, by the name of Bacchus, and institut- 
ed his ceremonies in Greece, in honour of the 
family of his grand-father Cadmus. According 
to Sir Isaac Newton, the great Bacchus flou- 
rished but one generation before the Argonau- 
tic expedition. Hermippus represents him as 
potent at sea, and that by land he conquered 
eastward as far as India, returned in triumph, 
brought his army over the Hellespont, subdued 
Thrace,and humanized its inhabitants by music, 
dancing, and poetry. According to Diodorus 
Siculus, it was the son of Semele who invented 
farces and theatres, and who first established 
a school for music, exempting from military 

avocations all such as excelled in the art. 

Whence, says the same historian, musicians 
tmtted in companies, have frequently en- 
joyed considerable privileges. Dr. Burney 
observes, that the Dithyrambics, which gave 
birth to dramatic representations, are as an- 
cient as the worship of Bacchus in Greece; and 
there is little doubt but the ceremonies of his 
mysteries gave rise to the pomp and illusions 
of the theatre. Many of the most splendid 
exhibitions upon the stage, for the entertain- 
ment of the people at Athens and Rome, be- 
ing performed upon the festivals of Bacchus, 
gave occasion to call all those employed in 
them, whether in singing, dancing, or recit- 
ing, servants of that god. Pausanias speaks of 
a place at Athens consecrated to Bacchus the 
singer, thus named, he says, from the same 
reason that Apollo is called the chief and con- 
duStor of the Muses : whence it should seem, 
that Bacchus was regarded by the Athenians, 
not only as the god of wine, but of song ; and 
it must be owned, that his votaries have faith- 
fully followed the example. Indeed, we are 
certain, that in none of the celebrities of this 
divinity was music forgotten by the ancients, 

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as 18 evident from the remains of their art ; 
where we find, that not only musicians of 
both sexes performed on the lyre and the 
flute, accompanied with songs, but that Fauns 
and Satyrs also joined on their timbrels, cym- 
bals, and horns. These Suidas calls his Min- 
strels ; and Strabo Bacchae, Bacchi, Lenae, 
Mamillones, Naiades, Nymphae, Salyri, Sileni, 
Thyae, and Tityri. Though the confusion of 
characters which the variety of Bacchuses has 
occasioned, will baffle the efforts of critical re- 
search, yet, from this difficulty it is obvious to 
remarit, that if Bacchus, son of Semele, were 
actually the patron of drunkards, dancers, 
singers, and theatrical exhibitions, he was not 
the most likely agent for the conquest of India ; 
norfor disseminating agriculture, and the more 
useful arts. Tooke observes, that two mean- 
ings are implied in this fable, and that Bac- 
chus is an emblem either of Nimrod or Moses. 
1. From the similitude of the word Bacchus 
to Barchus, which signifies the son of Chus, 
that is, Nimrod. 2. It is thought the name 
of Nimrod may allude to the Hebrew word 
Namur, or the Chaldee Namer, a tiger ; accord- 
ingly, the chariot of Bacchus was drawn some- 
times by tigers, and himself clothed in the 
skin of that beast. 3. Bacchus is sometimes 
called Nebrodes, which is the very name of 
Nimrod. Moses stiles Nimrod a great hunter, 
and we find .that Bacchus is stiled Zagreus, 
which, in Greek, signifies the same thing. Nor 
is it absurd to say, that Nimrod presided over 
the vine, since he was the first king of Babylon, 
where the best wines abounded, as is often 
allowed by the ancients. Others think, that 
Bacchus is Moses, because many things in the 
fable of the one seem derived from the story 
of the other. Fori. Some feign that he was 
born in Egypt, shut up in an ark, and thrown 
upon the waters, as Moses was. 2. The sur- 
name Binmter, which belongs to Bacchus, may 
be ascribed to Moses, who, besides one mother 
by nature, had another by adoption, in the 
person of Pharaoh's daughter. 3. They were 
both beautiful, brought up in Arabia, good 
soldiers, and had women in their armies.-— 
4. Orpheus direClly states Bacchus a Lawgiver, 
calls him Moses, and further attributes to him 
the two tables of the law. S. Bacchus was cal- 

led Bicomis, and, accordingly, the faceof Moses 
appeared double-homed, when he descended 
from the mount ; the rays of glory which datt- 
ed from his brow resembling the protrusion of 
horns. 6. As snakes were sacrificed to Bacchus, 
and a dog assigned him as a companion, so Mo- 
ses ereCled in the wilderness a serpent, and was 
attended by Caleb, which, in Hebrew, signi- 
fies a dog. 7. As the Bacchae brought water 
from a rock by striking it with their thyrsuses, 
and the country, wherever they came, flowed 
.with milk,, honey, and wine; so the land of 
Canaan, into which Moses conduced the 
Israelites, not only flowed with milk and ho- 
ney, but abounded also with wine. 8. Bacchus 
dried up the rivers Orontes and Hydaspes, by 
striking them with his thyrsus, and passed 
through them, as Moses ^so passed through 
the Red Sea. 9, It is further said, that a twig 
of ivy thrown upon the ground by one of the 
Bacchae, crept like a dragon, and twined about 
an oak : and 10. That the Indians once were 
covered with darkness, whilst the Bacchae en- 
joyed a perfeft day. Hence, this much will 
followi that the ancient inventors of fables 
borrowed many things from the Scriptures to 
eke out their conceits. Thus Homer says, 
that Bacchus wrestled with Pallene, to whom 
he yielded ; a fable corresponding to the An- 
gel's wrestling with Jacob. In like manner 
Pausanias reports, that the Greeks at Troy, hav- 
ing found an ark which was sacred to Bacchus, 
Euripilus opened it to view its contents, and 
was immediately stricken with madness ; a 
fable evidently grounded on the story of the 
Bethshemites, in the second book of Kings. — 
Again, the poets feign, that Bacchus was of- 
fended at the Athenians, because they despised 
his solemnities, and did not receive them with 
due respeCt, when brought by Pegasus from 
Boeotia into AttJca ; whereupon he afflicted 
their privities with a grievous disease, for 
which there was no cure, till, by advice of 
the oracle, they solenmized the rites due to 
the god, and ereCled Phalli, or images of the 
parts afflicted, to his honour ; whence the 
feasts and sacrifices called Phaltica were cele- 
brated yearly among the Athenians. One egg 
is not more like to another than this part of the 
fable to the history of the Philistines, who, be- 

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ing punished with emerods for their irre- 
verence to the ark, on consulting their di- 
viners, were told, that they could not be cured, 
unless they made golden images of emerods 
and consecrated them to the God of Israel.- — 
To arrive at the true origin of this deity, we 
must again go back to Egypt, the mother 
country of the gods, where Bacchus was no 
other than the Osiris of that people ; whence also 
another Bacchus will be seen to have come. It 
has already been remarked, that their Horus 
changed his name and attributes, according to 
the seasons and operations, he was intended to 
direct. To commemorate the ancient state of 
mankind, he appeared under the symbol of a 
child, attended by a seraph, and assumed the 
name of Ben Semele, or, the child of the repre- 
sentation. This was an image of the weakness 
and imperfection of husbandry after the De- 
luge. TheGreek8,notknowing what the figure 
was designed to express, called it the son of 
Semele ; and, to add to his honour, made Ju- 
piter his father ; or, according to the eastern 
stile, produced him out of his thigh : they 
further embellished the story with the marvel- 
lous death of his mother, and so completed the 
fable. Let usadd, thatin all the ancientforms 
of invocation to the Supreme Being, they used 
the expressions afterwards appropriated to 
Bacchus ; such as, lo Terombe ! let us cry to the 
lord ; lo ! or, lo Baccoth ! God see our tears ; 
Jehova, Hevan, Hevoe, and Eloah ! the author 
(four existence, the mighty God ; Hu Esh ! thou 
art the fire; and Etta Esh ! thou art the life.—. 
These exclamations were repeated in after 
ages by the people, who had no longer any 
sense of their true signification, but applied 
them to the objefls of their idolatry. In their 
huntings they used the outcries of lo Saboi : 
Lord thou art an host to me : and lo Nissi ; Lord 
be my guide! which, with a little alteration, be- 
came titles of the deity whose history we re- 
cord. The Romans, or Latins, of all these 
preferred the name of Baccoth, of which they 
composed Bacchus ; the more delicate ear of the 
Greeks chose the word lo Nissi, out of which 
they formed Dionysius. Hence it is plain that 
no real Bacchus ever existed, but that he was 
only a ma^ or figure of some concealed truth. 
In short, whoever attentively reads Horace's 

inimitable ode to this god, will see that Bac- 
chus meant no more than the improvement of 
the world by tillage, and the culture of the vine. 

BACIS, a celebrated diviner, whose name was 
transferred to others of his fraternity. 

BACOTI, the name of a witch whom the people 
of Tonquin consult. When a child dies, the 
mother, to learn the state of its departed spi- 
rit, applies to Bacoti, who beats a drum, to 
summon it before her, and acquaint her of its 
condition. A favourable report fs generally 
made to the mother, who, no doubt, rewards 
the intelligencer accordingly. 

BAD, the name of an Angel or Genius who, ac- 
cording to the tradition of the Magi, presides 
over the Winds: he also superintends every e- 
vent which happens on the 22d of each month 
in the Persian year. 

anointed stones, worshipped among the Greeks, 
Phrygians, and other nations of the East ; and 
supposed, by modern Naturalists, to be the 
same with our ceraunia, or thunder-stone. Sap- 
choniatho says that Uranus, or Coelus, devised 
Baetylia, contriving stones tliat moved, as hav- 
ing life : but Bochart thinks that the original 
word, which signifies having life, was mistaken 
by the transcriber, for another nearly resem- 
bling it, signifying anointed. The Baetylos, a- 
mong the Greeks, is represented as the same 
with the Abadir among the Romans. The Bae- 
tylia, of the ancient mythologists, are consi- 
dered by some as a kind of riiimated statues, 
invented by CoeluSj in his war against Saturn : 
others derive their origin and worship from the 
stone which Saturn is said to have swallowed 
by mistake for his son Jupiter : others from the 
pillar of stone which the patriarch Jacob ereft- 
ed at Bethel, and the Jews afterwards wor- 
shipped; whence the usual etymology of the 
word. The priests of Cybele bore a Baetylos 
on their breast, representing the Mother of^ the 
.gods ; but it is a mistake to suppose this the 
only representation of the goddess they carried 
about them. These Baetylia were greatly 
venerated by the ancient Heathens : many 
of their idols were no other. In reality, no 
sort of idol was more common in the East, 
than that of oblong stones erefted, and hence 
termed-'by the Greeks luwtf, pUlars. Insome 

R» . , 






parts of Egypt they were planted on both sides 
of their public roads. In the temple of Helio- 
gabalu3, in Syria, was a stone of this kind, pre- 
tended to have fallen from heaven ; and the 
same was affirmed of a famous black stone in 
Phrygia. These Baetylia, though honoured as 
representing the mother of the gods, were 
commonly shapeless masses. The Romans sent 
for the Phrygian stone, and the priests belong- 
ing to it, with much ceremony, Scipio Nausica 
being at the head of the embassy. See AbO' 

BAGOE, a nymph who instrufted the Tuscans 
to divine by thunder. It is pretended she was 
the Sibyl Erythraea, or Erophyle. 

BAHAMAN, the name of a genius, who, accord- 
ing to the Persian Magi, has the government 
of oxen, sheep, and all animals which may be 
domesticated or made gentle. 

BAINMADU, an idol of Indostan, worshipped 
in a pagod built on the bank of the Ganges. It 
is held in so great veneration, that as soon as 
the pagod is opened, the Indian priests, or 

. "brachmans, fall flat on their faces, and some, 
with large fans, keep away the flies from the 
objeft of their devotion. 

BAIVA, an idol of the Laplanders, adored as the 
lord of light and heat. Some think it the Sun ; 
others, that it is fire. Some relate that the 
great deity Thor was called by these people 
Tiermes, or Aijeke, when invoked to preserve 
their lives, and secure them from the insults of 
the demons ; but, on other occasions, B^va. 

BAL, the same with Baal. 

BALANCE. See Themis. 

BALCAZAR. See Pigmalion. 

BALIUS AND XANTHUS, horses of Achilles. 
Homer represents them as immortal, and the 
offipring of Zephyrus and Podarge. 

BALLETUS, a feast observed at Eleusis, in At- 
tica, to the honour of Demophoon, the son of 

BALTE, the nymph, said to have beoi the mother 
of Epimenides. 

BANDAGE. See Fortune, Cupid, Themis. 

BAPTAE, an effeminate, voluptuous, and de- 
bauched order of priests at Athens, belonging 
to the goddess Cotys, or Cotytto, the goddess 
of lewdness, whose mysteries were celebrated 
in the night, with every kind of obscenity.- — 

They take this name from their stated dipphigs 
and washings, by way of purification ; and those 
who were initiated into their rites, w ere dipped 
in warm water. It seems they were to be made 
very clean and pure, that they might wallow 
and defile themselves the more ; for their noc- 
turnal rites consisted chiefly of lascivious dances, 
and other abominations. Some deduce the de. 
nomination Baptae from the praflice of dying 
and painting their bodies, especially their eye- 
brows, and officiating at the service of their 
deity, with the parade and demureness of wo- 
men. Hence KoTwrO* Siawwrnt, a votary of Cotys, 
was proverbially applied to men who spent their 
time in dressing and perfuming. Eupolis hav- 
ing written a comedy, entitled B<xv\eu, to expose 
them, they, in revenge, threw him into the sea. 
The same fate is said to have befallen Cratinus 
also, another poet at Athens, who had ridiculed 
them, in a comedy under the same title. See 

BARATRON, solemn games in Thesprotia, 
wherein the strongest obtained the viflory. It 
is not said upon what account they were insti- 

BARB AT A, an epithet of Venus among the Ro- 

, mans ; because, when their women were trou- 
bled with a disease which occasioned their hair 
to fall olF, they prayed to that goddess, who re- 
stored them their tresses. On this account 
they represented her with a comb and a beard, 
as the insignia of both sexes ; and that she might 
be thought to superintend the generation of 
both. To render this idea the more obvious, 
the upper parts of her image exhibited a nian, 
and the lower a woman. 

BARBATA, a name of the goddess Fortune. — 
Servius TuUus had a chapel dedicated to her 
under this title. 

BARCE, the nurse of Sichaeus. 

BARDI, OR BARDS. The word Bard, being a 
primitive, can neither be considered as a com- 
pound, nor traced back to a root more remote. 
It signified a poet by genius and profession, 
who, in the language of Ossian, " sung the 
battles of heroes, or the heaving bosoms of love." 
The propensity to assimilate with our species, 
to enter into their hopes and their fears, to in- 
vestigate their adlions and effeiSts, and partake 
of their joys and their sorrows, is a principle 

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common to us all : when the story, therefore, 
of individuals or communities is exhibited in 
verse, and accompanied with vocal modulation, 
the recital cannot but delight. An ear, a voice, 
musical skill, and, still more, poetical genius, 
are requisite to excel in an art so complex. But 
as the union of such talents is rare, the few who 
possess them will attraft admiration. Hence, 
in ancient days. Bards were holden in the high- 
est admiration. Every festival and solemnity 
was graced by their presence, and their songs, 
reciting the achivementa of heroes and of kings, 
awaked the love of glory in every bosom, and 
animated each hearer to deeds of emulation. — 
Homer, who was a bard himself, hath mentioned 
Demodocus as one, and stiled him divine : dn/^o- 
J'mc®', 3(.of AOIAOE. 



—till evening rhey prolong 

, more sacred made by heav'iily song : 
For in the midst, with public honours grac'd. 
Thy lyre divine^ D*m»J«eiu was plac'd. 

Pop I. 

Pbenicus, another Bard, is introduced also by 
him, deprecating the wrath of Ulysses. Cicero 
reports, that at Roman festivals, anciently, the 
virtues and -exploits of their great men were 
Bung ; and the same custom prevailed in Mex- 
ico and Peru, as we learn from Garcilasso and 
other autfiors. We have for authority Father 
Gobien, that even the inhabitants of the Ma- 
rian islands have Bards, who are greatly ad- 
mired, because in their songs are celebrated the 
feats of their ancestors. But in no part of the 
world did the profession of Bard appear with so 
much lustre as in Gaul, Britain, and Jreland.-- 
Wherever the Celtae, or Gauls, are mentioned 
by ancient writers, we seldom fail to hear of 
their Druids and their Bards ; the institution 
of which orders was the capital distinction of 
their manners and polity. The Druids were 
their philosopher and priests, the Bards their 
poets, and recorders of their prowess. Both 
orders seem to haveaubsistedamong them from 
time immemorial.aschiefmembers of the state. 
The Celtae possessed, from remote ages, a re- 
gular system of discipline and manners, which 
appears to have had a deep and lasting influ- 
.ence. Ammianus Marcellinus gives this ex- 
press testimony, that amongst them flourished 
tiie study of the most laudible arts, which were 

introduced by the Bards, whose office it was to 
sing in heroic verse the gallant ai5lions of illus- 
trious men ; and by the Druids, who lived to- 
gether in societies, after the Pythagorean man- 
ner, and, philosophising upon the highestsub- 
jefts, asserted the immortality of the soul. — 
Though Julius Caesar, in his account of Gaul, 
does not expressly mention the Bards, yet it is 
plain, that under the title of Druids, he com- 
prehends the whole order, of which the Bards, 
who probably were disciples of the Druids, made 
a part. It deserves to be remarked, that, ac- 
cording to this account, the Druidical institu- 
tion had its origin in Britain, and thence passed 
over into Gaul : so that they who aspired to be 
adepts in that learning, were wont to resort to 
Britain. He adds, that such as were to be ini- 
tiated among the Druids, were obliged to com- 
mit to their memory so many verses, that some 
were occupied for twenty years in this course 
of education ; and that they did not think it 
lawful to record these poems in writing, but 
consigned them by tradition from race to race. 
So strong was the attachment of the Celtic na- 
tions to their poetry and their Bards, that a- 
midst all the changes of their government and 
their manners, even long after the order of the 
Druids was extin<5l, and the national religion 
altered, the Bards continued to flourish ; not 
as strolling songsters, but as an order highly 
respected in the state, and supported at the pub- 
lic charge. We find them, according to Stra- 
bo and Diodorus, before the age of Augustus, 
and they have continued, under the same name, 
to a late period, both in Scotlandand in Ireland. 
It is well known that, in both countries, every 
. Regulus, or chieftain, had his own Bard, who 
was considered as an officer of rank in his court 
Of the honour in which the Bards were held, 
many instances occur in the poems of Ossian. — 
On all important occasions they were the am- 
bassadors twtween hostile chiefs, and their per- 
sons were reverenced as sacred. " Cairbor 
feared to^tretch his sword to the Bards, though 
his soul was dark. Loose the Bards, said his 
brother Cathmor, they are the sons of other 
times; their voice shall be heard in other 
ages, when the kings of Temora have failed." 
According to Dr. Henry, the Bards, as well as 
the Druids, were exempted from taxes and mi- 

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litary services, evea in times of the greatest 
danger ; and when they attended their patrons 
in the field, to record and celebrate their great 
actions, they had a guard assigned for their pro- 
teflion. At all festivals and public assemblies 
they were seated near the person of the king, 
or chieftain ; and, sometimes, above the nobles 
and oflScers of the court Nor was the profes- 
sion of the Bard less lucrative than honourable ; 
for, besides the valuable presents which they 
occasionally 'received from their patrons, when 
they gave them uncommon pleasure by their 
performances, they had estates in land allotted 
for their support. So great was the veneration 
which the princes of those times entertained 
for their poets, an d so highly were they charm- 
ed and delighted with their strains, that even 
capital crimes were pardoned for a song. In 
such esteem were their verses, as to immorta- 
lize the memory of those whom they [H'aised; 
and so sacred their persons, that if a Bard inter- 
posed when two armies were ready to charge, 
or even the onset was begun, both parties laid 
down their arms, to hear what he had to pro- 
pose. It is obvious to imagine that a profession 
so honourable andadvantagious, which enjoyed 
so many flattering immunities and distin^ions, 
would not be readily deserted. The reverse in 
fa<5t was the case, and so much did their num- 
bers increase, as, in Ireland particularly, to 
surpass our belief. In Ossian we read of a hun- 
dred belonging to one prince alone, singing 
and playing in concert for his entertainment. 
Every chief Bard, who was called AUab Redan, 
or DoBor in Poetry, was allowed to have thirty of 
his inferiorstoattendhim; and every Bardofthe 
secondranka retinue of fifteen. Thoughthean- 
cientBritonsofthe south had originally thesame 
poetic genius and taste, yet none of their com- 
positions are now to be found : nor is this at 
all to be wondered at, for after they had yielded 
to the Romans, and their martial spirit was 
lost, it could affijrd them but little satisfaction 
to hear the exploits of their ancestors. The 
Romans, besides, if they did not praftise the 
same barbarous policy which was long after 
inforced, by Edward I. — of putting the 
Bards to death, when he had completed the 
conquest of Wales, — would at least discourage 
their order, and discountenance the recital of 

their poems. These sons of song being thus 
persecuted by their conquerors, and neglected 
by their countrymen, either abandoned their 
country or their profession, and their songs, 
no longer heard, were soon forgotten. It is 
probable that the Britons, as well as many o- 
ther nations of antiquity, had no idea of poems 
made only to be repeated, and not accompa- 
nied by music This, we are told by two wri- 
ters of credit was the case in Gaul, and conse- 
quently, at that period, in Britain. The Bards, 
says Diodorus Siculus, sung their poems to the 
sound of an instrument, not unlike to a lyre. — 
And, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, 
the Bards celebrated the brave actions of illus- 
trious men, in heroic poems, which they sung 
to the sweet sounds of the lyre. This account 
is confirmed by the general strain, and by par- 
ticular instances in ttie poems of Ossian. " Be- 
neath his own tree, at intervals, each Bard sat 
down with his harp. They raised the song 
and touched the string, each to the chief he 
loved." The invention of writing introduced 
a considerable change in the profession of a 
Bard. It is now agreed that no poetry is fit for 
musical accompaniment, but what is in itself 
simple ; or, if it divide the attention, it makes 
but a faint impression. But when a language, 
in its progress to maturity, is enriched with 
variety of phrases, fit to express the most ele- 
vated thoughts, men of genius aspired to the 
higlier strains of poetry, leaving music and song 
to the Bards. Homer, in a vague sense, may 
be termed a Bard, as, in that character, he 
strolled from feast to feast : but he was not a 
Bard in this appropriate sense; for, though he 
recited his poems to crowded audiences, yet 
they are too complex for music, and he probably 
neither sung, nor accompanied them with the 
lyre. The Troubadours ofProvence were Bards 
in the strict sense of the term, and made a capi- 
tal figure in those days of ignorance, when few 
could read, and fewer could write. In later 
times the songs of the Bards were taken down 
in writing, which gave every one access to them 
without a Bard ; whence the profession hath 
gradually declined. Among the Highlanders 
of Scotland reading and writing, in their own 
tongue, is not common, even now : a circum- 
stance which continued the existence of their 





Bards, after the order had long ceased in the 
neighbouring nations. See Druids. 

BARK. SeeCbaron. 

BARKER, the poetical name of Anubis, the dog- 
headed deity of the Egyptians. He was also 
called Homanubis. his sagacity being so great, 
that some think him the same with Mercury. 
See jimibis. 

BARLENUS, a deity of the people of Noricum, 
but no particulars are extant relative to him. 

BASCYLUS, son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia, 
and Anthemoisia, and brother of Pelops, Pro- 
teus, and Niobe. 

BASILEIA. SeeTbeia. 

BASILEIA, a festival at Lebadea in Boeotia, 
noUced by the Scholiast on Pindar. 

BASILEUS, a chief under Cyzicus, king of the 
Dolians, slain by Tetamon, one of the Argo- 
nauts, in their voyage to Colchis. 

BASILIS, a surname of Venus. 

BASS AE, a place in Arcadia, where a temple was 
ere^ed to Apollo. 

BiASSAREUS, a title of Bacchus, derived by 
some, but absurdly, from the long robe worn 
by his priests, whereas that, and 

BASSARIS, OH BASSERIDES, a priestess, or 
attendants of Bacchus, are evidently deriva- 
tives of Batsar, to gather grapes. 

BAT ALA, the name of an idol among the peo- 
ple of the Philippine islands, which signifies 
God the Creator; for they believe this idol made 
all things in the beginning, out of nothing. 
They have another idol, which signiiies Time, 
because they believe he began with the world, 
and will, at last, put an end to it. 

BATHYCLAEUS, son of Chalconof Achaia,wa8 

' killed by Glaucus. 

BATIA, a Naiad who married Oebalus ; also, a 
daughter of Teucer, and wife of Dardanus. 

BATON, the charioteer of Amphiaraus, to whom 
divine honours were paid. 

BATTI ADES, the people of Cyrene were so call- 
ed from Battus. 

BATTUS, son of Neleus, and servant to Adme- 
tus, king of Phares, having detected Mercury 
in stealing his master's cattle, which had been 
committed to the care of Apollo, was bribed 
by the thief with the most beautiful cow, on a 
promise not to betray him. The god, how- 
ever, suspecting hia fidelity, resolved to try 

it, and having assumed a difi^ront form and 
voice? promised him a bull and a cow if he 
would tell him where he might find the lost 
cattle- Battus, unable to resist the temptation, 
discovered the secret, upon which Mercury 
changed him into Touchstone, which since has 
been made the criterion of gold.- — There was 

BATTUS, son of Polymnestes, a descendant 
from Euphemus, son of Neptune, one of the 
Argonauts who accompanied Jason to Colchis,* 
and was thus called from his stammering, for his 
true name was Aristotales. At the command of 
the oracle at Delphi, he quitted the island of 
Therae, now Santorini, Uie place of his na- 
tivity, with a colony, and proceeding to Lybia, 
there founded the city Cyrene, on the spot 
where Aristaeus, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, 
was bom. After his death, Battus was here re- 
vered as a god. 

BAUBO, OR BECUBO, a woman who entertained 
Ceres when seeking her daughter. 

BAUCIS AND PHILEMON, a poor old couple 
who inhabited a cottage in Phrygia. Jupiter 
and Mercury travelling over that country, 
were kindly received by them, after being re- 
fused entertainment by every one else. To 
punish the people for their inhumanity, these 
gods desolated their country by a deluge : but, 
to reward the kindness of their hosts, conduc- 
ed them to the top of a mountain, whence they 
beheld the deluge, and their own little hut 
standing above the waters, and converted to 
a temple. Jupiter promising to grant them 
whatever they should request, they desired 
permission to serve in this temple, and that 
they might both die together. Their wishes 
were granted ; for, after having tayayeA a 
happy old age, they were changed, in the same 
instant, into trees at the gate of the temple. 
Philemon to an oak, and Baucis to a tcil- 

BEBRICIl AND BEBRYCES, a people of Thrace, 
who migrated to Bithynia, where, under a fffe- 
text of exhibiting games and public diversions, 
they collefted a great number of the inhabi- 
tants in a forest as spedatcnrs, and put them to 
death. Amycus their king, was killed by Pol- 
lux and the Argonauts, whom he attempted, 'by 
a stratagem, to destroy. 3 

uyuzed by Google 




BEBRYCE, a daughter of Danaus, who is said to 
have spared her husband, and given name to 
the BebrycU, 

BECUBO SeeBaubo. 

BEELPHEGOR. See Banl-Peor. 

BEELZEBUB. See Baal-Zebuh. 

BEERGIOS, one of the sons of Neptune, who 
was killed by Hercules. 

B£L> OR BELUS, the supreme god of the ancient 
Chaldeans or Babylonians. He was the founder 
of the Babylonian empire, and is supposed to 
be the Nimrod of Scripture, and the same as 
the Phoenician Baal. The Greeks, who fetch 
the derivation of every thing from their own 
language, say, that Jupiter had a son by Juno 
whom he called Belus, because he was a most 
acute boy, deriving his name from BtXot, an ar- 
row, which is ogufljDCTor sbarp-pointed. Selden con- 
jedlures it should be read ogvxiknTof, s-wift of motion, 
which is more descriptive of an arrow. St, 
Jerom says, that the idol Baal, Bel, or Belus, 
was consecrated by Ninus, son of Belus, in ho- 
nour of his father, and worshipped by the As- 
syrians ; and, in another place, that Ninus 
arrived to so great a pitch of glory, that he 
placed his father among the gods, who, in the 
Hebrew language is called Bel, and by the 
Sidonians and Phoenicians Baal. Berosus, 
giving an account of the origin of things, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of the Babylonians, 
relates, that the god Belus, cutting the chaos 
and darkness in the midst, divided the earth 
and the heavens from each other, and reduced 
- the world into order ; but seeing it deserted and 
unpeopled, he commanded one of the gods to 
cut off his own head, and mix the earth with 
the blood that issued from it, whence proceed- 
ed men and the several species of beasts ; and 
that Belus himself perfected the sun, moon, 
. stars, and the five planets. This god had a 
temple erefted to him in the city of Babylon, 
on the very uppermost verge of the famous 
tower of Babel, wherein were many statues of 
him, and one, among the rest, of massy gold, 
. forty feet high. The whole furniture of this 
magnificent temple was of the same metal, and 
valued at eight hundred talents of gold. This 
temple, with its riches, was in being till the 
, time of .Xerxes, who, returning from his un- 
fortunate expedition into Greece, demolished 

it, and carried off the immense wealth which 
it contained. Some ascribe this aflion to his 
zeal for the Magian religion, and his aversion 
to that of the Sabians, (of which se<5l were the 
Babylonians) who worshipped god by images ; • 
but more probably his motive was political, 
and he destroyed the temple with a view to re- 
imburse the expences he had incurred in his 
Grecian expedition. It was the statue of this 
god which Nebuchadnezzar, being returned to 
Babylon at the end of the Jewish war, set up, 
and dedicated in the plain of Dura; the story 
of which is related at large in the third chapter 
of Daniel. See Baal. 

BELATUCADRUS, a deity of the ancient Bri- 
tons, particularly the Brigantes, or inhabitants 
of Cumberland. There is extant an altar of 
this god, inscribed, BelatucadRo Jul. Civilis 
OPT. V S L M. i. e. Belatucadro Julius Civilis 
optic votum solvit libens merito ; and also preserv- 
ed in Cumberland a stone with this inscription, 
Deo Marti Belatucadro. Rd: VR. R P. Cau 
Orussii, M. whence it appears, that Belatuca- 
drus was the son of Mars ; and, it is probable, 
the name might betaken from Bel or Baal, the 
great idol of the Syrians, who, according to 
Cedranus, is the same as Mars, or, according 
to others, the Sun. 

BELENUS, the tutelar deity of the ancient inha- 
bitantsof Aquileia, in Italy, of the Gauls and 
the lUyrians. He was, according to Julius Ca- 
pitolinus, thesameas Apollo, or the Sun. This • 
author relates, that when Maximinus, after an 

. ineffeftual siege, sent ambassadors into Aqui- 
leia, with the hope of persuading the inhabitants 
to surrender, and had almost efle6ted his pur- 
pose, Menophilos and his colleague opposed it, 
telling them, that the god Belenus had promised 
them the vidtoiy. The historian adds, that the 
soldiers of Maximinus afterwards reported, that 
Apollo had fought against them. There are 
two old inscriptions at Aquileia, to Belenus, un- 
der the name of Apollo ; the one Apollini Be- 
LENo Aug. in honoram C. Pelti: the other, 
ApotLiNi Beleno C. Aqileius, Felix. The ety- 
mologies of Bc/«nuJ are various; Pithoeus derives 
it from BiAoc, an arrow, in allusion to the rays of 
the sun ; others from Ba«, which, in the Lacede- 
monian dialeft, signifies the sun a.nd light. Vos- 
sius deduces it from a Hebrew word, whence 

ized by 





Beel, Belts ; and from Belis, Belenua. Schedius 
fancies he hath found inBelenus the number 365, 
as the Basilidians found it in Abraxas ; for this 
purpose he writes the word with an n, instead of 
an (, and then, to render the numbers corre- 
spondent, thus : 

B H A E N O S 1 
2. 8. 30. J. SO, 70. 200.J 

The number 365 is that of the days in the year, 
and this seems to agree with the identity of 
this god and the Sun, who performs his annual 
course in that space. M. Montfaucon, how- 
ever, will not allow that Belenus was taken 
for the Sun, either at Aquileia or in Gaul : 
bis reason is this, in many inscriptions he is 
called Apollo Belenus, and although, physi- 
cally speaking, Apollo is the same as the Sun, 
yet the ancients, he says, in their civil worship, 
considered them as two different divinities. — 
He adds that Cicero, enumerating the several 
Sols or Suns, spoken of by Theologus, drops 
not a hint that either of them was taken for 

BELIDES, OR DANAIDES; They were the 
fifty daughters of Danaus, son of Belus, sur- 

■ named the ancient, who -married Isis, after the 
death of Apis, about the same time that 
Cecrops reigned at Athens. — This prince, 
coming from Egypt into Greece, expelled 
Sthenelus, king of the Argives, reigned 
at Argos, and, by several women, had fifty 
daughters, who were called Belides, from their 
grandfather. Some quarrel having arisen be- 
tween him and Egyptus his brother, it deter- 
mined Danaus on his voyage into Greece ; but 
Egyptus having fifty sons, proposed a recon- 
ciliation, by marrying them to his brother's 
daughters. The proposal was agreed to, and 
the nuptials were to be celebrated with singu- 
lar splendor, when Danaus, either in resent- 
ment of former injuries, or being told by the 
oracle that one of his sons-in-law should destroy 
htm, gave to each of his daughters a dagger, 
with an injunction to stab her husband. They 
all executed the order but Hypermnestra, the 
eldest, whq spared the life of Lyncaeus, and 
sent him to Lyrcea, a town near Argos, where 
he, by a lighted torch, gave notice of his safety. 
Vol. L 4 

and received the same signal from his wife. 
These Belides, for their cruelty, were con- 
signed to the infernal regions, there to draw 
water in sieves from a well, till they had filled, 
by that means, a vessel full of holes. 

BELISAMA, OR BELIZANA, a name under 
which Minerva was worshipped by the GauU. 
The same title was also conferred by them on 
Juno, Venus, and the Moon. 

BELLEROPHON, his original name was Hippo- 
nous, because he first taught the art of ma- 
naging horses with a bridle. He was son of 
Glaucus, king of Ephyra, by Eurymede, 
daughter- of Sisyphus, and born at Corinth. 
Happening accidentally, in hunting," to kill 
' his brother, he fled to Praetus, king of Argos, 
who gave him an hospitable reception ; but 
Sthenoboaea, or, according to others, Antia, 
his queen, falling in love with the beautiful 
stranger, and finding that nothing could in- 
duce him to injure his benefa(5lor, she accused 
him to her husband of an attempt on her ho- 
nour. Praetus, not willing to violate the laws 
of hospitality, sent Bellerophon to lobates, 
king of Lycia, father of Sthenoboaea, with 
letters, desiring he would put the bearer to 
death: whence the proverb Belleropbon's letters, 
equivalent to the letters of Uriah. lobates, at 
the receipt of these letters, was celebrating a 
festival of nine days, which prevented Belle- 
rophon's destruction. In the mean time he 
sent him against the Solymi and the Amazons, 
hoping he might fall in the conflict ; but 
Bellerophon, by his prudence and courage, 
returned victorious. lobates next employed 
him to destroy the Chimaera, a monster, whose 
fore-part resembled a lion's, and its middle a 
goat's, whilst its tail was like a serpent's ; but 

, Minerva, or, according to. others, Neptune, in 
consideration of his innocence, furnished him 
with the horse Pegasus, by whose assistance 
he killed the Chimaera. lobates, on his return, 
convinced of his truth and integrity, and 
charmed with his heroic virtues, received him 
with esteem, gave him in marriage Philonoe, 
his daughter, associated him on his throne, and 
declared him his successor ; which, when Sthe- 
noboaea heard, she killed herself through grief. 
Bellerophon growing vain with his prosperity, 
resolved, by the asastance of Pegasus, to ascend 

ized by 





the skies, but Jupiter checked his preaumption; 
and striking him blind, he fell back to the 
earth, where he wandered, till his death, in 
misery and contempt. Pegasus, however, pro- 
ceeded to heaven, and was given by Jupiter to 
Aurora, to bear her through her daily circuit. 
Let us endeavour to trace out the sense of this 
fable. The subjects of Cyrus, who before this 
time had been known by the name ofCuthaeans 
and Etamites, henceforward began to be dis- 
tinguished by that of the Persians, or Horsemen ; 
for it was he who first enured them to eques- 
trian exercises, and even made it a disgrace 
to be seen publicly on foot. Pegasus, from ^g"<i, 
a bridle, and sus a borse, was no more than a 
reined steed. His rider Bellerophon, from 
bal, a lord or leader, and baroven, archers or 
lancemen, is the captain of the archers or lance- 
men. The Cbimaera, from ary, a lion, uzal, or 
urzil, a kid, and tooben, a dragon, having the 
form of a lion before, a dragon behind, and a 
goat between, is the simple representative of 
three leaders of the Solymi, a colony of the 
Phoenicians in Pisidea, whose names, in the 
language of that people, happened to signify 
these three creatures. The very place, in the 
country of the Argives, where Bellerophon 
mounted his horse and set forward, the Greeks 
called Kentbippe, from xorw, to stimulate or spur, 
and i'tt^, a borse. Some others attribute the 

, fall of Bellerophon from Pegasus, to the latter 
being stung by a fly, which Jupiter sent for 
the purpose. The death of this hero is said to 
have happened one generation before the Tro- 
jan war. He was reputed to have had two 
sons, Isander, who fell in battle against the 
Solymi, and Hippolochus, who succeeded to the 
throne of Lycia ; besides a daughter, Hippo- 
damia, the mother of Sarpedon, by Jupiter. 
There is, however, in this, as m most of these 
fabulous histories, several palpable incongru- 
ities.— Bellerophon is frequently exhibited with 
Pegasus on the Grecian coins. 

BELLERUS, the brother of Bellerophon. 

BELLINUS, the same as Betenus. 

BELLIPOTENS, a surname both of Mars and 
of Pallas, signifying powerful in arms, or the 
arbiter in -war. 

BELLONA, the goddess of war, is generally 
reckoned the sister of Mars, though some re- 

present her as both his sister and wife. She 
is said to have been the inventress of the nee- 
dle ; and thence is supposed to have taken 
her name, CiXomi signifying a needle. Bellona 
was sometimes confounded with Pallas, but 
the more correft Mythologists distinguish 
them ; and, accordingly, Hesiod calls Bellona 
the daughter of Phorcys and Cete, which was 
never said of Pallas. Varro adds, that she was 
sister of Mars, and anciently named DueUiona. 
The two names, originally Latin, equally sig- 
nify the Goddess of War. This deity had a 
temple at Rome near the Circus Flaminius, 
built by Appius Claudius, where, in her sa- 
crifices, called Bellonaria, her priests, Bello- 
narii, used to slash themselves with knives. 
Just opposite stood the ColumnaBellica, or H^ar- 
like Column, a pillar, whence a spear was thrown 
when the Romans declared war. Bellona was 
worshipped in a particular manner atComona, 
a city of Cappadocia ; her temple there was 
amply endowed, and her rites performed by 
a multitude of priests, under the authority of 
a pontiff, who yielded precedence to no one 
but the king. This pontiff was commonly 
elected from the royal family, and his office 
was for life. Straho mentioning the worship 
paid by the Cappadocians to Bellona, says, 
that at the time of his travelling into that 
country, there were more than six thousand 
persons, of both sexes, consecrated to the 
service of her temple at Comona. It was 
thought that Orestes and his sister Iphigenja, 
introduced this worship from Tauric Scythia ; 
and that it consisted of similar rites to those 
of Diana Taurica. Camden remarks, that in 
the time of the emperor Severus, there was 
a temple of Bellona in the city of York, 
a remark, he had probably adopted from Spar- 
tian, who, speaking of that city, relates, that 
Severus, coming thither, and intending to 
offer sacrifice, was conduced to the temple 
of Bellona by the mistake of an ignorant au- 
gur. This goddess was of a cruel disposition, 
delighting in bloodshed, and not only the 
attendant of Mars, but his rival in affronting 
danger. Qaudian introduces Bellona comb- 
ing snakes ; and another poet describes her 
with loose hair, imbrued in blood, brandish- 
ing a flaming fire-brand, and running through 

y Google 




the ranks of an army, uttering such shrieks as 
accompany the agonies of death. Bellona is 
commonly represented in an attitude expressive 
erf" distraftion and fuiy, her hair composed of 
snakes clotted with gore, and her garments 
drenched in it; she generally is seen driving 
the chariot of Mars^ and urging on his horses 
with a bloody whip; sometimes, however, she 
is drawn with a torch, and at others with a 
trumpet. See a particular account of the wor- 
ship and priests of this goddess under the arti- 
cle Bellonarii. 

BELLONARIA, sacrifices of Bellona so called.— 
See Bellonarii. 

BELLONARII, priests of Bellona, goddess of 
war and battles. The Bellonarii cut and man- 
gled their bodies in a cruel manner, to pacify 
this deity. In this they are singular, that they 

. oiFered their own blood, not that of other crea- 
tures, in sacrifice. In the fury and enthusiasm 
which seized them on these occasions, they ran 
about, raging, uttering prophecies, and fore- 
telling carnage, devastations of cities, and re- 
volutions of states : whence Martial calls them 
turba eMbeata BelUmae. In after times they seem 
to have abated of their zeal and their transport, 
contenting themselves with signs and appear- 
ances of cutting. Lampridius, however, re- 
lates, that the emperor Commodus, from a spi- 
rit of cruelty, converted the farce again into 
tragedy, by obliging them to mangle their 
bodies as before. There is no account of the 
worship of this deity among the Cappadocians, 
though they honoured her in a particular man- 

BELPHEGOR. S,e& Baal-Ptor. 

BELTIS. See Baaltis, 

BELTHA, a goddess of the ancient Zabii, as we 
leam from Ben Isaac, an Arabian writer, who 
says they begin the year from the month Nisan, 
and keep holiday on the first, second, and third 
days, offering up prayers to their goddess Bel- 
tha. They likewise enter their temples sacri- 
ficing and burning animals alive. TheSabeans, 
who were worshippers of this goddess, scrupu- 
lously devoted their plunder to her temple.—- 
Beltha seems to have been the same deity whom 
Philo Biblius calls BualUs, t. «. the Queen of 
Heaven, or the Moon. See Baaltis. 

BEMILUCIUS, a Gaulish god, found in Burgun- 

dy, in a village called Ampilli, belonging to the 
Abbey of FlavJgni. The statue of him repre- 
sents a young man with short hair, covered with 
a pallium, fastened to his shoulder, which ne- 
vertheless does not hide his nudity : in his right 
hand he holds a bunch of grapes, and in his 
left some other fruits, which time has defaced. 
The inscription is Deobe Milvcio Vi. There 
is some difliculty in this inscription ; it may 
either be read Deo Bemilvcio VI. in which read- 
ing it will be difiicult to explain the VI ; or we 
may read deo bemilvc iovi, which will give us a 
Jupiter of the country of Burgundy. The bunch 
of grapes agrees well with that country, which 
abounds in vineyards. ' , 

BEN AN HASCHA, the associates or companions 
of God. The imaginary divinities which the 
Arabian idolaters worshipped before the ap. 
pearance of Mahomet. In the chapter of the 
Kofan entitled Ekblas, ■ or of salvation, Maho- 
met having been asked by the Jews, Christians, 
Magi, and Idolaters, what was the god he preach- 
ed and worshipped ? answered, '* He is the one 
God, self-existent, who begets not, neither is 
begotten, and who has not his equal." Hussain 
Vaez, on this verse, says, that this was pro- 
nounced not only against the Christians, but 
also against the Jews, who say that Ozair, or 
Esdrasj is the Son of God, and against the A- 
rabian Idolateiis, who maintained that Benan 
Haschjwvere his companions. 

BEN^DEIA, a Thracian festival in honour of 
I^ana, who was, by the Thracians, called Ben- 
dis. From Thrace it was carried to Athens, 
where it was celebrated in the Piraeus, upon 
the 19th or 20th of the month Thargelion. See 
the next ardcle. 

BENDIS, a goddess of the ancient Thracians.— 
Hesychius makes her to be the Earth, as also 
the Moon, or Diana^ She has the epithet 
tt}^i>yj(^, i. e. carrying two spears ; upon which 
word he olwerves, that she is so called by the 
poet Cratinus, in Tbreissis, because she was 
doubly honoured, both as a celestial and ter- 
restrial deity. The worship of this goddess 
was translated from Thrace to Athens. They 
stiled her festival Bendideia. She was likewise 
called Diana Mut^cbia. 

BENEFICIUM. Among the Assyrians and Per- 
sians Betuficium was reckoned in the number 






of the deities, being supposed tbe dispenser of 
good things, as Poena was reckoned tbe distribu- 
ter of evil. 

PENSAITEN, the Japanese goddess of Riches. 
When a mortal she was called Bunsjo, concern- 
ing whom the following story is told. Not hav- 
ing any children, she prayed to the Camis, or 
gods of the country, with such efficacy, that 
soon after she found herself pregnant, and was 
delivered of five hundred egg8. Being extreme- 
ly surprised, and fearing lest, if the eggs were 
hatched, they should produce something mon- 
strous, she packed them all up in a box, and 
threw them into the river Riusagawa, with 
this precaution however, that she wrote the 
word Fosjoroo upon the box. Some time after 
an old fisherman found this box floating on the 
waters, and seeing it full of eggs, carried it to 
his wife, but, to their astonishment, on hatch- 
ing them in ah oven, a child came out of each. 
By means of mugwort-Ieaves minced, and 
boiled rice, the old folks supported for some 
time the numerous progeny ; but at length be- 
ing forced to shift for themselves, they had re- 
course to robbing and travelled for the pur- 
pose. It happened in their excursions, that 
they came to the very house which their mo- 
ther inhabited, and a servant asking their 
names, their reply was, they had none, but 
that they were a brood from five hundred eggs, 
and in the most urgent want of subsistence. — 
This answer being reported to the mother, she 
sent to enquire whether aught were written on 
the box in which their eggs had been found, 
and they replying the word Fosjoroo, were re- 
cognised as her offspring. She was afterwards 
ranked among the goddesses of the country.— 
The Japanese believed her to be waited upon 
in f he happy regions by her five hundred sons, 
and worship her as the goddess of Riches. 

BEN-SEMELE, the child of tbe representation, a 
name of Bacchus. See towards the close of the 
article Bacchus. 

BERECYNTHIA, the mother of the gods in the 
Pagan theology, so called from Berecynthus, 
a mountain in Phrygia. Anchises, in Virgil, 
compares Rome, in her future glories, to this 
deity. Gregory of Timis mentions, in histime, 
an idol of Berecynthia, or Cybele, worshipped 
in Gaul, which they carried into their fields 

and vineyards in a cart, for the preservation of 
the fruits of the earth, and that they marched 
in procession before the deity, singing and 
dancing. One day this holy man, affected by 
the impiety of these idolaters, put up a prayer 
to Heaven, and made the sign of the cross, 
whereupon the idol immediately fell to the 
ground, the cart and oxen remaining immove- 
able, although the people whipped the oxen 
to make them go forwards. Upon this, four 
hundred of the multitude cried out, " If she be 
a deity let her raise herself, and make the oxen 
goon:" but thisnot happening, they all turned 
Christians. A procession of Cybele resembling 
that here related, is finely described by Lucre- 
tius. See Cybele. 

BERECYNTHIUS HEROS, Midas, sovereign of 
Phrygia, so called from Mount Berecynthus. 

BERENICE AND BERONICE, was rendered im. 
ihortal by Venus ; she was daughter of Phila- 
delphuB and Arsinoe, and sister and wife of 
Ptolemy Evergetes, king of Egypt. The king 
intending an expedition into Asia, Berenice 
devoted her hair to Venus, for his safe return ; 
and, cutting it olF, consecrated it to the god- 
dess in her temple. Ptolemy, however, going 
thither, and missing the tresses, censured the 
priests for their negligence ; but Conon, an as- 
tronomer, desirous of paying his court to Be- 
renice, aflHrmed that the liair had been carried 
to Heaven, and changed into the seven stars, 
near the tail of the lion. Accordingly, that 
constellation hath been ever since called tb* 
hair of Berenice. 

BERGION, OR BRIGIO, the giant. See j4lbiott. 

BERGIMUS, a deity, worshipped anciently at 
Brescia, in Italy. Montfaucon mentions a sta- 
tue of this god, in the figure of a young man 
in a Roman dress: the inscription is Bergimo 

M NoNivs M F Fabia Senecianvs v -—s. 

i. e. Marcvs Nonivs Senecianvs, tbe son <f Marcus, 
of the tribe Fahia, bath performed bis vow to Ber- 
gimus. Montfaucon questions whether the sta- 
tue be not rather that of Nonius himself, than 
that of the god Bergimus, there being scarce 
any instance of a deity in the Roman habit. — 
There is also preserved the figure of a priestess 
of this god : it represents a woman extending 
one arm, and lifting up the other : on the base 
are these words. Noniae Macrinae Sacerd. 

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Bergimi B— -M Camvni ; i. e. Tie Camuni, (sup- 
posed to be the people of a valley adjoining to 
Brescia) ereSted ibis statue in honour of Noma Ma- 
crina, priestess of the god Bergimus. 

BEROE, an old woinan of Epidaurus, in Thrace, 
whose shape Juno assumed to impose upon Se- 
mele: See that article. 

Another Beroe was wife of Doryclus, king of 
Thrace, and mother of an illustrious offspring. 
Iris, at the command of Juno, in her person, 
was dispatched on an errand of mischief to the 
dames of Troy. 

A third Beroe, was one of the Oceanides, daugh- 
ter of Ocean us, and sister of Clio. 

B£SA, an idol of Abydos. Ammianus Marcelli- 
nus informs us that the Emperor Constant! us,in 
the year S59, sent the Secretary Paiilus, famous 
for his cruelties, to prosecute several persons 
accused of having consulted the oracle of this 
idol. Modestus, at that time lieutenant of the 
East, and afterwards Prefect under Valens, was 
commissioned to judge this afiair, as a person 
more proper than the Prefeft Hermogenes, 
whose mildness of disposition was known. Mo- 
destus fixed his tribunal at Scythopolis, and, 
according to the historian, who has given a 
dreadful pifture of his inquisition, numbers of 
atl ranks lost their lives : some by the hands of 
the executioner, others by the severity of im- 
prisonment and tortures. See Oracle ofBesaat 

At Besa, in upper Egypt, a divinity of the same 
name was also worshipped. 

BESCHEN, the second of those beings which 
God created before the world, according to the 
doftrine of the Indian Bramins. The name sig- 
nifies existing in all things ; and he is supposed 
to preserve the world in its presentstate. This 
being, they imagine, passes through several 
incarnations : in the first assuming the body of 
a lion, in the second that of a man, and in the 
tenth and last, he will appear as a warrior, and 
destroy all religions contrary to that of the Bra- 
mins. The Christians, and particularly the 
missionari^, who have informed themselves of 
the religion of the Bramins, pretend that Bes- 
chen is the second person of the Trinity, and 
that the Bramins acknowledge him as such, and 
ascribe qualities to him which are in some sort 
applicable to Christ. 

BET ARMONES,the surname of the Corybantes. 

BETYLUS, son of Uranus and the Earth. 

BIA, OR VIOLENCE, daughter of Pallas, by Styx. 

BIANOR, surnamed Ocnus, was the son of Ti- 
beris, by Manto, daughter of Tiresias. He 
reigned over Etruria, and founded the city 
Which he denominated Mantua, from his mo- 
ther. In the time of Virgil his monument re- 
mained near the road between Mantua and the 

There was also a Centaur of this name, killed by 
Theseus, and a Trojan chief, by Agamemnon. 

BIAS. See seven wise men of Greece. 

BIAS, brother of Melampus. See Melampus. 

BIAS, a Grecian prince, whom Homer stiles the 

BIBESIA, the goddess of drunkards. 

BlBLlSi See Byblis. 

BICEPS, BIFRONS, names of Janus, in Virgil 
and Ovid, where he is described with two faces, 
because, so great was his prudence, that he saw 
both the past and future ; or else becausfe by 
Janus the world was thought to be meant, view- 
ing with his two faces the principal divisions 
of East and West. Janus is sometimes painted 
with four faces, guadr^rons, in respeft to the 
four seasons. 

BICORNIGER, a name of Bacchus, from his 
horhs : the symbols, as supposed, of the beams 
of the Sun. 

BIDENDAL, or BIDENTAL, was any place 
stricken with a thunder-bolt, and on that ac- 
count held too sacred to be trodden. Bidental 
differed from puteal in this, that in the latter 
the thunder-bolt was supposed to be hidden, or 
buried in the ground. The fall of lightning, 
or a thunderbolt, on any place, was judged, 
by the Romans, an indication that Jupiter 
claimed it for himself ; hence they surrounded 
it with a wall, rail, stakes, or even a rope, 
and expiated it by the sacrifice of a bidens, or 
two year old sheep. Festus represents the Bi- 
dental as a temple, where sheep of that age 
were offered in sacrifice ; but by temple he here 
means an inclosure set apart as sacred to the 
BIDENTALES, priests among the Romans, in- 
stituted to perform certain ceremonies and ex- 
piations when thunder or lightning fell on a 
place. The Bidentales constituted a college^ or 

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decury. The first and principal part of their 
office was the sacrificing a two year old sheep, 
which was called bidens, from its two distin- 
guishing teeth, or, perhaps, from bidennis, two 
years old. 

BIENNIUS, Jupiter was so called from Biennius, 
one of the Curetes, 

BIENOR, a king, who, with hischarioteerOileus, 
was killed in battle by Achilles. 

of two forms, or two natures : appellatives of 
Bacchus, because he was accounted both old 
and young ; or because wine, of which he is 
the emblem, excites hilarity in some, and mo- 
roseness in others. 

BIFRONS : a head of Cecrops in conjuniaion with 
the head of a woman, is exhibited on the coins 
of Athens, Cecrops being accounted by the A- 
thenians the authcn* of marriage. See Biceps. 

BIGA, an ancient chariot drawn by two horses 
abreast. Chariot-races, with two horses, were 
introduced into the Olympic games in the 93d 
Olympiad, buttheexistenceof the Bigawasmuch 
earlier ; for the heroes in the Iliad fought from 
chariots of that kind. The invention of the 
Biga is attributed, by Pliny, to the Phrygians, 
by Isidbrus to Cyrestenes, of Sicyon, who first 

. yoked two horses together. Bigae were first 
used in the Circensian games, then trtgae, and 
afterwards quadrigae. Bigae, to carry their 
statues, though, at first, allowed only to the 
gods, were, afterwards, assigned to conquerors 
in the Grecian games: under the Roman em- 
perors statues with bigae were decreed and 
granted to great and well -deserving men^ as a 
kind of triumph ; being erefled in most public 
places of -the city. The drivers of bigae were 
called Bigarii, and a marble bust of one Flo- 
rua, a Bigarius, is still shewn at Rome. 

The true form of the Biga may be seen on the 
coins of the ancients. This vehicle was sacred 
to the Moon, either because she contends with 
the Sun in a twin-course ; or, according to Isi- 
dorus, because she is visible both by night and 
by day ; whence one of the animals that draw 
her is represented black, and the other white. 
On a coin of Trajan she is drawn by a boar and a 
lion: by oxen on one of Tarsus ; also on one of 
Caracalla, in which the Moon holds the reins in 
herrightband: byC^n^ourf on several; and on 

acoinofNicaea,one of the Centaurs is blowing- 
a fiute. Aesculapius, Bacchus, Bacchus and Ari- 
adne, Hercules, Jupiter, and ViSory, are, on va- 
rious coins, all drawn by Centaurs. By stags, 
Diana ;— by dolphins, Cupid :— -by dragons, Cu- 
pidandTri ptolem us :"byrfri^onj without iw«!gT; 
vixthvuings; v/ithwi»gs,a.ndcrowned,andbearded ; 
Ceres : — by serpents ; Apollo, Ceres, Diana, 
Triptolemus;— by^jCDcAf, Juno:— byj^rrowi 
and do7>es, Venus : — hy panthers, Bacchus, alone, 
and with Ariadne :- — by tygers, Bacchus : — by 
lions, Ceres, but more frequently Cybele : — by 
griffins, Apollo, and the Sun :— -by sea-horses, 
Neptune ;— by mules, to express an Olympic 
victory, with Viflory hovering over the con- 
querer, and holding a crown :— by elephants, to 
express the triumphs of Metellus and Augustus ; 
in the biga of the former the figure of Metellus 
standing with Viftory over, about to crown 
him ; and in that of the latter, a man in a tu- 
nic standing, with an olive-branch in one hand 
and a sceptre in the other : elephants, hones, or 
mules, on several coins, to commemorate deifi- 

BIMATER, orBIMETOR, a name of Bacchus, 
having had two mothers ; Semelr, who con- 
ceived him, and the thigh of Jupiter, which 
bore him, after he was saved from the fire. 

BIODORA AND ZEIDORA, appellatives of Ce- 
res, as the dispenser of sustenance. 

BIPENNIFER, a surname of Lycurgus, king of 
Thrace, taken from the hatchet with which he 
cut off" his legs. See Lycurgus. 

BISALPIS, one of the wives of Neptune ; the 
same with 

BISALTIS, daughter of Bisaltus, who is said to 
have borne to Neptune, in the form of a ram, 
Theophane; but Hyginus relates the history 
thus : Theophane, daughter of Bisaltis, a nymph 
of exquisite' beauty, having been solicited from 
her father by many admirers, was carried off 
by Neptune to the island Crumissa. Hither 
they pursued her, but Neptune, to deceive them, 
changed the nymph to a beautiful ewe, himself 
to a ram,'~ and the islanders to so many sheep. 
When the pursuers landed, "and found only 
cattle on the island, they began to kill them 
fc* food. Neptune perceiving their havock, 
converted them all into wolves ; but, before he 
quitted his form, became, father to the ram Ciy- 





somallus, which carried PhryxustoColchos.— 
The fleece of this ram was consecrated by Aeetes 
in the grove of Mars, whence Jason carried it 

BISTON, son of Mars and Callirhoe, built in 
Thrace a city, and named it from himself. 

BISTONIDES, Thracian women, synonimous, 
in Horace, to Bacchants. 

BISTONIUS.TYR ANNUS: Diomedes, king of 

BISULTOR, a two-fold revenger; this surname 
was given to Mars. 

BITIAS, brother of Pandarus, sons of Alcanor 
of Mount Ida, both befriended Aeneas, and 
were killed by Tumus. 

BITO. See Croesus. 

BOEDROMIA, solemn feasts holden at Athens, 
in memory of the succour brought by Ion, son 
of Xuthus, to the Athenians, when invaded by 
Eumolpus, son of Neptune, in the reign of E- 
rechtheus. According to Plutarch, however, 
the Boedromia were celebrated in memory of 
the viftory obtained by Theseus over the Ama- 
zons, in the month Boedroniion ; answering to 
the latter part of August and beginning of Sep- 

BOEDROMIUS, a surname of Apollo, at Athens. 

BOEOTIA NUMINA : These deities of Boeotia 
were the Muses. - 

BOEOTUS, son of Neptune, and brother of Aeo- 
lus, by Ame, daughter of Aeolus, king of Ae- 
clia. Arne having been sent, by her father to 
Metapontum, a city of Italy, she was there de- 
livered of two sons, the elder of whom she called 
after her father, Aeolus, and he possessed him- 
self of the islands in the Tyrrhenian, now the 
Tuscan sea, and built the city of Lipara.- — 
Boeotus, the younger, repaired to his grand- 
father, and succeeding him in his kingdom, 
called it, from his own name, Boeotia, and its 
capital Arne, from his mother's. All that is 
known of these Boeotians is, that they held this 
settlement upwards of two hundred years, till, 
being expelled by the Thessalians, they took 
possession of the country called Cadmeis, and 
changed its name to Boeotia. Diodorus and 
Homer tell us that these Boeotians signalized 
themselves at the Trojan war. The latter adds, 
that five of Boeotus's grandsons, viz, Peneleus, 
Leitus, Prothoenor, Argesilaxis, and Clonius, 

were the chiefs who led thither the'BoeoUan 

BOLATHEN, a surname of Saturn. 

BOLINA : This nymph, beloved by Apollo, to 
avoid his pursuit, threw herself into the sea ; 
nor did her invincible modesty lose its reward, 
for the god himself, in compassion, made her 

BOMONICI, an appellation given at Sparta to 
the children who, in the sacrifices to I^ana 
Orthia, contended, which of them could en- 
dure the most lashes, they being scourged be- 
fore the altar of the goddess, even, as Plutarch 
relates, to death itself. 

BONA, a title of the goddess Fortune, under 
which she was worshipped in the capitol of 

BONA DEA, the good Goddess, a Roman deity ; 
also, one of the names of Cybele. The Phry- 
gians call herthe mother of king Midas; others, 
make her the Nymph Dryas, wife of Fannus, 
king of the Aborigines, famous for her chas- 
tity, who, after her death, was deified. Such 
was her extraordinary modesty, that she never- 
went out of the women's apartment, her name 
was never heard in public, nor did she ever 
see, or was seen by a man ; for which reason 
no man was allowed to enter her temple. Her 
sacrifices were performed only by matrons, 
and in so secret a manner, that it was death 
for a man to be present. But this reserved 
behaviour is not agreeable to what Amobi'us 
relates, that Fauna, to whom the name of Bona 
Dea was given, received from her husband a 
severe corretSion with twigs of myrtle, because, 
without his knowledge, she had intoxicated her- 
self, by drinking ofl^ a large vessel full of wine. 
On this account, a cask of wine was introduced 
in the sacred rites of this goddess, and myrtle 
rods forbidden to be brought to her temple, ■ 
an edifice erefted on the side of Mount Palatine. 
Cicero reproaches Clodius with having entered 
it disguised as s singing woman, and, by his 
, presence, polluted the mysteries of the god- 
dess. What kind of mysteries these were may 
be learned from Juvenal, Sat. vi. 313. 
BONUS DEUS, the beneficent God, a name of 
Priapus, ascribed to him by Phumutus. O- 
thers consider it a title of Jupiter. 
BONUS EVENTUS, Good-bap, one of the ZWi 

ized by 






Consentes. This was one of the emblematical 
deities to whom the Romans addressed their 
petitions for success in their various under- 
takings. His statue was placed in the capitol, 
together with that of his wife, or sister. Bona 
Forfuna, or Good Fortune. It had a patera in 
the right hand, and ears of corn in the left. 

BOOPIS, ox-eyed, an epithet given to Juno, on 
account, as some pretend, of her large eyes ; 
more probably from their expression ; but, 
perhaps, from an Egyptian allusion to Isis. 

BOOTES, a northern constellation near the great 
Bear. It is also called Bubulcus and Arflo- 
phylax. Some contend, that the person repre- 
sented was Icarius, the father of Erigone, who 
was killed by shepherds'for disordering them 
with drink. Others suppose him to have been 
Areas, whom Jupiter placed in the heavens. 

BOREAS, the deity of the North-wind, was son 
of Astraeus and Aurora, and is said to have had 
his mansion in Thrace, which is situated north 
of the country where the poets lived who first 
recorded his story. Pindar calls him the king 
of the Winds. He violated Chloris, daughter 
of Arfturus, and carried her to Mount Ni- 
phates, (called the bed of Boreas) but since 
known by the name of Caucasus. By her he 
had Hyrpace ; but his favourite mistress was 
Orithyia, daughter of Etechtheus, king of A- 
thens, who bore hi n two sons, Zechus and 
Calais, adventurers with Jason in the Colchic 
expedition, and deliverers of Phineus from the 
Harpies : also, four daughters, Upis, Laxo, 
Hecaerge, and Cleopatra, otherwise called 
Harpalice. He is said also, in the semblance 
of a horse, to have had by the mares of Dar- 
danus, twelve foals of wonderful swiftness. 
Homer, indeed relates, that Boreas loved the 
maresof Erechtbonius, which apiounted to 3000 
in number, and that taking the form ofa horse, 
he became the sire, by some of them, of twelve 
colts, so fleet as to skim over corn-fields with- 
out crushing the stalks, and the surface of the 
sea without dipping their feet. When Xerxes 
crossed the Hellespont with the design of ra- 
vaging Greece, the Athenians were command- 
ed to call in Boreas to their aid, who shat- 
tered the Persian fleet to such a degree, that 
the best part of it was lost or disabled. For 
this service they built him a temple on the 

banks of the river Ilissus, swore by his divi- 
nity, and celebrated his festivals with singular 
solemnity. Aeiian observes, that the inha- 
bitants of Thurium, having been delivered 
from great danger, by a tempest which ruined 
the fleet of their enemy, the tyrant Dionysius 
ofltred sacrifices to the wind Boreas which 
had made this ravage, conferred on him the 
freedom of their city, assigned him a house 
with a fixed revenue, and celebrated annual 
worship to his honours. The Megalapolitans 
dedicated a temple to Boreas, and annually 
sacrificed to him ; in acknowledgment of his 
assistance when Agis, king of Sparta, besieged 
their city. The machine of its assailants had 
battered the wall with such force, that the 
breach must have been the next day effeftual ; 
but, according to Pausanias, a North Wind 
arose and overturned the machine. Pezron 
observes, that anciently Boreas signified the 
North-east Wind, blowing at the time of the 
summer solstice. Sperlingius hath written a 
treatise in praise of Boreas, in which he enu- 
merates the honours paid him by antiquity. 
According to him, Boreas purifies the air, ren- 
ders it calm and salubrious, preserves build- 
ings from decay, drives away the plague and 
other noxious diseases, and expels locusts and 
vermin hurtful to the ground. In the o6tagon 
temple of the Winds at Athens, built by An- 
dronicus, Boreas is represented under the fi- 
gure of an infant, with wings rapidly flying. 
His feet are covered with sandals, and his face 
with a mantle, to shelter it from the cold. Mr. 
Spence hath remarked on the last particular, 
that he seems himself to suffer from the seve- 
rity of the climate over which he presides ; 
agreeably to which one of the poets calls him 
The shivering Tyrant. The most common way, 
however, of representing him was, as impe- 
tuous and troublesome to others, this being his 
most usual charafter in the Roman poets. — 
Ovid, in particular, says, that he is almost al- 
ways rough, and in a passion. In his account 
of the rape committed by this deity on Orithyia, 
the poet exerts his powers to paint out the ter- 
rbrs that belong to this deity. He represents 
him as hardening snow, and dispersing hail- 
storms, as a principal cause of lightning and 
thunder, and the sole cause of earth-quakes j 

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BS encompassed with dark clouds in his pas- 
sage through the heavens, and with dust when 
traversing the earth. 

BOREASMOI, an Athenian festival in honour 
of Boreas, who had an altar in Attica, and was 
thought to bear some relation to the Athenians, 
having carried off or married Orithyia, daugh- 
ter of Erechtheus their king. On this account, 
when in a sea-fight, many of the enemy's ships 
were destroyed by a North Wind, the Atheni- 
ans imputed it to the kindness of Boreas for 
the native country of Orithyia. We are fur- 
ther informed by Pausanias, that solemn sacri- 
fices were offered to Boreas at MegalapoHs in 
Arcadia, where he had a temple. 

BORUS. SeePbaestus, 

BOTTIAION EORTE. The Bottiaeans were an 
Athenian colony, and, therefore, to perpetuate 
the memory of their origin, they instituted this 
solemnity, in which the virgins used to say, 
lufutut ASnv«f, Let usgo to Athens. 

BOUGH: green-boughs anciently made part of 
the decoration of altars and temples, especially 
on festival occasions. Oaken boughs were of- 
fered to Jupiter, those of laurel to Apollo, of 
olive to Minerva, myrtle to Venus, ivy to 
Bacchus, pine to Pan, and cypress to Pluto. 
Some make boughs the primitive food of man- 
kind before acorns were in use. 

BOULJANUS, an ancient idol, said to have been 
particulariy worshipped at Nantz, relative to 
which ah inscription was found in 1592, im- 
porting, that the people of Armorica came thi- 
iher, thrice m a year, to pay their adorations. 
It is further said, that the temple of this idol 
was destroyed in consequence of the edifts of 
the emperor Gonstantine. If conjefture may 
be allowed, Bouljanus may be compounded of 
Baal, corruptly expressed, and Janus; Baal 
signifying Lord, being a general name, and 
Janus, a well-known god of the Romans^ 

BRABEUTAI, among the earlier Grecians, were 
those judges who were appointed to preside 
in the Olympic games, and other solemn and 
religious speftacles. The ofiice was so honour- 
able that it was generally executed by the chief 
nobility of Greece. Thus, we are informed, 
that the Corinthians desired Agesilaus to pre- 
ride at the Isthmian games, and put them un- 
der a proper regulation. The Brabeutai ap- ' 


peared in purple, with a crown on their heads, 
and a wand in their hands, and seated them- 
selves in a place called itM^fia», which had the 
privilege of a sanftuary . It was their province 
to decide the vi6tory,and crown the conqueror. 
Their number was not always the same; some- 
times they were seven, sometimes nine, and at 
other times twelve. This office was esteemed 
so peculiar to the Greeks, that Demosthenes 
declaims, with great vehemence, against Philip 
of Macedon, for presiding at the Pythian 
games, or putting in a deputy if he himself 
were present. Their awards were always so 
impartial, that Pindar calls the garlands or 
crowns they bestowed ei/tiXixTaf, made by Themis, 
the goddess of Justice. 
BRAMA, orBRUMA, a deity of the East-Indies; 
he is the first person, of a kind of trinity in their 
theology ; the great progenitor of mankind, 
and creator of as many worldsas there are con- 
siderable parts in his body. The Bramins re- 
late, according to Kircher, that the first world, 
which is situated above the heavens, was pro- 
duced from Brama's brain ; the secoild, from 
hb eyes ; the-third, from his mouth ; the fourth, 
from his left ear ; the fifth, frotn his palate ; the 
sixth, from his heart ; the seventh, from his 
l>elly ; the eighth, from his privities ; the ninth, 
from his left thigh ; the tenth, from his knees ; 
the eleventh, from his heel ; the twelfth, from 
the toes of his right foot; the thirteenth, from 
the sole of his left foot ; and the fourteenth, 

from the ^r with which he is surrounded.- 

I'hey affirm, that there is some affinity or rela- 
tion between these fourteen worlds and the 
parts of Brama's body ; and add, that the in- 
habitants of each world partake of the cha- 
racter and ihclinadons peculiar to the respec- 
tive parts they refer to. Thus, those ere6led 
in the first world are wise and learned; those 
of the second, penetrating ; those of the third, 
eloquent ; of the fourth, cunning and artful ; 
of the fifth, gluttonous ; of the sixth, generous 
and magnificent ; of the seventh, niggardly ; 
of the eighth, addifted to pleasures, particu- 
larly venereal ; of the ninth, laborious ; of the 
tenth, rustic ; of the eleventh, base, and em- 
ployed in the lowest offices ; of the twelfth, in- 
famous ; of the thirteenth, unjust and merci- 
less ; and of the fourteenth, ingenious and 

ized by 





adroit. Delia Valle, in his voyages, has given 
a description of the idol Brama, which, he saya, 
he himself saw, in these words: " There is a 
temple dedicated to Brama in Hagra; its sta- 
tue stands in the middle of the tetoiple amongst 
a great number of idols of white marble. This 
statue has not the least drapery about it, and 
is represented with a long sharp beard, and a 
prominent belly. At the feet of the statue are 
two small images representing his children, 
and on the sides two more, representing his 
wives." The Indian dodors say, there was in 
the beginning a woman called ParaxaSi, which 
signifies every excellent and sublime power ; this 
woman had three sons, Brama, Vixnu, and Ru- 
tfem. Of these, Brania^ who had five heads, had 
the power alone of creating all things visible 
and invisible ; and Vixnu that of preserving 
the things his brother had created. Rutrem, 
as well as Brama, had also five heads, but his 
particular funftiona are not specified. These 
three brothers married their mother. The 
god Brama, according to the Bramins, never 
fails, at the instant of each man's birth, of what 
nation or tribe soever he be, to write on his 
head, in charafters indelible, every thing he 
is to do, and whatever, during life, shall befa! 
him. They relate lilcewise, that Brama, de- 
sirous of marrying his daughter, but foreseeing 
that she would neither consent, nor that the 
rest of the gods, who were thirty thousand 
million in number, would approve of theunlon, 
he assumed the shape of a stag, and pursued 
her to a gloomy forest, where he effefled, by 
violence, what he could not otherwise obtain. 
Vixnu, Rutrem, and the thirty thousand mil- 
lion of gods, hearing what Brama had done, 
tmanimously agreed to punish him, by cutting 
off one of hi» heads. Rutrem was ordered to 
execute the sentence, and accidentally meeting 
his brother, performed the operation with a 
stroke of hts nails. Brama, not satisfied with 
the possession of his daughter, took to wife a 
woman called Sarassuadi, who is held in such 
veneration by the Indians for her learning and 
wisdom, that they daily and often invoke her 
by name. See Paraxa&i, Rutrem, Vixnu. 
BRANCH^DAE, priests of the temple of Apollo 
at Didyma in lOnia, a province of Lesser Asia, 
towards the Aegean sea, upon the frontiers of 

Caria. They opened to Xerxes the temple of 
Apollo, the riches of which he carried away. 
After this, thinking it unsafe to remain in 
Greece, they fled to Sagdiana, beyond the 
Caspian, and bordering on Persia, where they 
built a city, called by their own name. Their 
crime, however, escaped not unpunished, for 
Alexander, having conquered Darius, king of 
Persia, and being informed of their sacrilegious 
treachery, put them all to the sword, and de- 
molished their city. 

BRANCHUS, was reputedly the son ofMacareus, 
though his real father was Apollo. The story 
of his origin is thus given by Varro :— The mo- 
ther of Branchus being pregnant, dreamed, that 
the Sun entered her mouth and passed through 
her body ; whence, from B^o^x^' ^^® throat, 
through which the god found access to her 
womb, the child, at its birth, was denominated 
Brancbus. This ijoy, when grown, having 
rambled in the woods, was one day met by 
Apollo, who, after kissing him, bestowed on 
him a sceptre and a crown- The lad imme- 
diately commenced prophet, and soon after 
disappeared. A magnificent temple was treSt- 
ed to him and Apollo, under the title of Apollo 
Pbilaesius, (from ^tA/iv, to kiss), whence Statins 
says, he was in honour equal to his father.—. 
This temple was at Didyma, ani^ called the 
oracle of the Branchidae. Though burnt by 
the Persians, it was afterwards rebuilt by the 
Milesians, and so magnificently, as to exceed 
in extent, all the temples of Greece; its bulk 
was too great to admit of a covering, and its 
circumference included five furlongs of ground. 
It should not, however, be omitted, that Bran- 
dos is reported by others to have been a Thes- 
salian. youth, in such favour with Apollo, that 
the god not only received him into his temple, 
but conferred, at his death, divine honours 
upon him. Stephanus the Byzantian, not- 
withstanding, represents this oracle as sacred 
to Jupiter and Apollo ; perhaps it belonged to 
them all. 

BRASIDEIA, OH BRASIDIA, an anniversary 
solemnity at Sparta in honour of Brasidas, son 
of Tellis, th^ poet, famous for his achieve- 
ments at Methone, Pylos, and Amphipolis, in 
favour of the state. He defeated the Athenians 
by land and by sea, took many places^ and 

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rendered his country formidable. He con- 
quered the Athenians on their attempt to sur- 
prise Amphipolis, and died of the wounds he re- 
ceived in that battle. The Brasidia were cele- 
brated with sacrifices and games, at which none 
were permitted to contend but free-bom Spar- 
tans. Absence from these solemnities is s^d, 
by some writers, to have been criminal, and 
was, accordingly, punished with fines. 
BRAURONIA, a festival in honour of Diana, 
surnamed Brauronia, from its having been ce- 
lebrated at Brauron, an Athenian village, in 
whichthe famous statue of this goddess, brought 
by Iphigenia from Scythia Taurica, remained 
till the second Persian war ; when Xerxes car- 
ried it off. This festival was celebrated once 
in five years, and the vitSim offered in sacrifice 
was a goat. It was conducted \ty ten men, 
called, from their office, it^owmtt. During the 
celebration, a company of men sung one of 
the Iliads of Homer. The most distinguished 
persons in the solemnity were young virgins, 
habited in yellow, from five to ten years of age, 
it being unlawful for any of them to Ise above 
or under these years, and, therefore, to con- 
secrate them« was called &aunt»tn, from tt}M, ten ; 
or afXTiuHv, because the virgins themselves were 
iianied A^xlei, bears, for the following reason. — 
Among the Phlauidae, inhabitants of a town 
in Attica, was a bear whose natural fierceness 
had been so far subdued, that the peojrfe per- 
mitted him to eat and play with them. One 
day, however, a young maid happening to be 
too venturous, the savage tore her in pieces, 
and was kiUed, in return, by her brothers. A 
dreadful pestilence ensuing, the people were re- 
commended, by the oracle, to appease Diana, 
for the death of the bear, by consecrating vir- 
gins to her in memory of it. This the Athe- 
nians punftually performed, and enafted a law 
that no virgin should be married till she had 
undergone this ceremony. 
BRAZEN AGE. See Ages of the World, 
BREVIS, OR PARVA, a name of the goddess 
Fortune ; she being so called in the chapel de- 
dicated to her by Servius Tullus. 
BRIAREUS, the giant. See Aegean. 
BRIGIO, OB BERGION, the giant. See Albion. 
BRIMO^ {terror) an appellation of Diana, given 
her on account of her dreadful shrielcs, when 

Apollo, Mars, and Mercury, meeting her in 
the woods, attempted to ravish her. Others 
ascrilje it to Proserpme, to whom Mercury ii 
said to have offered the same violence. 

BRIS AEUS, a name of Bacchus, ascribed to hi^ 
on various accounts. Some pretend it to have 
been given from his inventing the wine-prera ; 
others from the name of the nymph who nursed 
him ; whilst a third party derive it from the 
discovery of wine, {brisa importing a buncb of 
pressed grapes) ; and a fourth, from the pro- 
montory of Brisa, in Lesbos, where he was so- 
lemnly worshipped. 

BRISEIS, assigned as a concubine to Achilles^ 
was the cause of the misfortunes of the Greeks 
before Troy. Her true name was Hippodamia, 
Briseis being only a patronymic from Briseus, 
or Brises, the name of her father. According 
to Homer, she became the property of Achilles, 
on the taking of Lymessus, where Mynes, the 
king, and her husband, was killed : but Die- 
tys, of Crete, gives a different account. He 
asserts, that when Achilles took Lyrnessus, 
Faftion, husband of Astynome, the daughter 
of Chryses, was king ; and adds, that Achil- 
les, after his conquest, reduced Pedasus, a city 
of the Leiegons, where Brises reigned, whose 
daughter Hippodamia was one among the cap- 
tives. Cedrenus follows the opinion of Diftys; 
and it must be admitted that Briseis and Hip- 
podamia are here the same person. Achilles, 
however, had, for his share of the plunder, 
whether of Lymessus or Pedasus, the beautiful 
Briseis, who flattered herself that, in Thessaly, 
he would make her his queen. On the reconci- 
liation between Agamemnon and Achilles, Bri- 
seis, who had been forced away, was honoura- 
bly restored. 

And now the delegates Ulysses sent, 
To bear the presents from the royal tent : 
The sons of Nestor, Phyleus' valiant heu', 
Thias and Merian, thunderbolts of war. 
With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. 
And Menalippus form'd the chosen train. 
Swift as the word was giv'n, the youths obey'd j 
Twice ten bright vases in the midit they lud; 
A row of six ^ir tri|>od5 then succeeds ; 
And twice the number of high-bounding steeds; 
Sev'n captives next a lovely line compose ; 
The eighth Bkiieis, like the blooming rose, 
Clos'd the bright band : great Ithacus, before. 
First of the train, die golden talents bore : 

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The rest in public view the chiefs dispose, 
A splendid scene ! then Agammnou rose : 
The boar Talthybius held : the Grecian lord 
Drew the broad cutlass, sheath'd beside his sword : 
The stubborn bristles from the Tiflim's brow 
He crops, and olTring, meditates his vow. 
His hands uplifted to th' attesting slties, 
On Heav'n's broad marble roof were fix'd his eyes. 
The tolemn words a deep attention draw. 
And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. 
Witness thou first 1 thou greatest Pow'r above ! 
All-good, all-wbe, and alUsurttying Jove ! 
And Mother-earth, and HeaW's revolving light. 
And ye, fell Furies of the realms of night, 
Wlio rule the dead, and horrid woes prepare 
For perjur'd Jungs, and all who falsely swear ! 
The bladi-cy'd Maid inviolate removes, 
Purei and unconsclousof my manly loves. 
If this be false, Heav'n all its vengeance shed. 
And levell'd thunder stiilte my guilty head. 

In conformity to this, Ovid makes Briseis swear, 
that in the tent of Agamemnon, she had passed 
her days in widow-hood, whilst Achilles con- 
soled himself with some fair substitute in her 
absence. The beauty of Briseis hath been ge- 
nerally renowned, but we know not her fate 
when Achilles was no more. 

BRISES, the high-priest of Jupiter, and father of 

BRISEUS. See Brisaeus. 

BRITANNIA, is often exhibited as a personal 
charafler. On a coin of the Emperor Claudius, 
she appears standing, with her right hand sup- 
ported by a helm, and her left extended over 
a prow ; to memorize his expedition and viflory. 
On a coin of Hadrian she is seen sitting, with a 
spear in her left hand, resting on a shield, her 
right arm on her knee, as supporting her 
head, and her foot placed upon part of a wall. 
On a coin of Antoninus Pius, she is seated up- 
on a rock, with a military standard in her right 
hand, her left hand holding a spear, and her 
arm resting on a shield. Other coins represent 
her sitting on a rock, or an eminence, with a 
military standard ; and one upon spoils inscrib- 
ing a shield with the words victoriae briian 
{nicae), in allusion to the success of SepUmius 
Severua. In other representations, she is seated 
on a globe, with a military standard in her 
right hand:— sitting, her right hand lifted up, 
a spear in her left, a globe and a buckler under 
her feet:— -with dishivelled hair, her right 

—sitting on rocksi a helmet on her head, a 
military standard in her right hand, a spear in 
her left, and a buckler resting against her seat. 
The Roman standard in-her right hand denotes 
her submission to that empire ; the spear in her 
left, the shield supporting her arm, and her 
helmet, are her own armour, or such as was 
used by the ancient Britons. 
BRITOMARTIS, daughter of Jupiter, by Carme 
daughter of Eubulus, being one day hunting, 
accidentally entangled herself in her own nets, 
whilst a wild boar was approaching her ; upon 
which she vowed a temple to Diana if she might 
escape the danger. Escaping, in performance 
of her vow, she erefled a temple to Diana Dic- 
tynna. Others, relating the story difFerentiy, 
say, that Britomartis, whom Diana favoured, 
on account of her passion for the chase, to a- 
void Minos her lover, threw herself into the 
sea, but falling into the nets of some fishermen, 
, her body was taken up ; and a plague immedi- 
ately succeeding in Crete, a temple was built 
to Diana Diflynna, who raised Britomartis to 
the rank of a divinity. 
BRIZO, the goddess of sleep, worahipped, as A- 
thenaeus informs us, at Delos : her name is de- 
rived from an old Greek word signifying to 
sleep. This deity presided over dreams, which 
she delivered in the manner of oracles. The 
Delians offered to her small boats, loaded with 
all sorts of eatables, except fishes ; and this they 
did for the happy success of their navigation. 
BROMIUS, a name of Bacchus, from the crack- 
ling of the fire, and noise of the thunder, when 
his mother perished in the embraces of Jupi- 
BRONTAIUS, OR BRONTEUS, the thunderer, a 
name given by the Greeks to Jupiter, from the 
word Bpovlfio^, which signifies thunder, whence 
the Latins called him tbunderbig Jupiter. Some 
have also given the same name, but improperly, 
to Bacchus, on account of the noise and niis- 
chief which attend inebriety. 
BRONTES, OR BROTES, one of the Cyclops 
who worked at Vulcan's forge, and was thus 
named from his forging Jupiter's thunder- bolts. 
BROTHEUS, son of Vulcan, by Aglaia, one of 
the Graces, being, like his father, deformed, to 
avoid ridicule, destroyed himself in the fire. 

hand supporting her head, her foot on a prow : | BRUIN, the god of a se6t of Banians in the East 

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Indies, known under the appellation of Goegby. 
They acknowledge a god, creator of all things, 
whom they call Bruin. They have a particular 
regard for one Meets, whom they call the ser- 
vant of this god Bruin. These Goeghys be- 
lieve that their god Bruin created all things, 
and that no figure, either of man or beast, can 
be a proper representation of him ; for, say 
they, he is a light which cannot be the objeft 
of our eyes, because he having created the sun, 
it is no wonder if we cannot contemplate the 
principle of so excellent a brightness. The 
Goeghys never marry, and are so supersUti- 
ously reserved, that they will not suffer a wo- 
• man to touch them. 
BRUMAE, OR BRUMALIA,fesUvals of Bacchus 
among the Romans, celebrated twice in the 
year, viz. on the 12th of the calends of March, 
and on the 18th of the calends of September.— 
They were instituted by Romulus, who, during 
these feasts, used to entertain the Senate. — 
They were called Brumalia, from Brumus, an 
ancient name of Bacchus. Tertullian, among 
other Heathen festivals which some of the pri- 
mitive Christians weremuchinclinedtoobserve, 
mentions the Brumalia, and objeAs to those 
Christians that they are not so consistent in 
their religion as the Pagans, who never would 
comply with the observation of any of the 
Christian festivals. Such are the accounts most 
authors give of the Brumalia ; but there are o- 
thera who say that the Brumalia was a religious 
festival, celebrated on the day of the winter sol- 
stice ; from which indications were taken of the 
felicity of the remaining part of the winter.— 
The word is also written Broumalia, and Bro- 
malia, as if formed from Bruma, the shortest 
day ; so that the supposition of its being a deri- 
vative of Brumus or Bromiua, names of Bacchus, 
and thence inferring it to be a festival in his 
honour, is a mistake in the generality of writers. 
The Brumalia were also called Hiemalia. 
BRUMUS, a name of Bacchus among the Ro- 
BUABIN, an idol of the Tonquinese : he is the 
guardian of all buildings and edifices. The 
person who comes into possession of any tene- 
ment, entertains this household deity in a small 
hut or apartment, prepared for his reception. 
He is solemnly invited by beat of drum, and 

presented with agreeable perfumes, and variety 
of dishes. After having been thus entertained, 
he is to proteft their houses from fire, lightning, 
thunder, wind, rain, or any thing by which 
they, or their inhabitants may be ii^jured. 

BUBASTAE, annual feasts of Diana, so called 
from^ Bubastis, one of her names, or from a 
city of Egypt, where they were celebrated. 

BUBASTIS, the Egyptian Diana, being a name 
given her by the Egyptians, because when she 
fled from Typhoeus into Egypt, she assumed 
the shape of a cat. 

BUBONA, an inferior rural deity : to h^ is com- 
mitted the care of oxen and kine. 

BUCOLION, son of Laomedon, by Abarbarea, 
one of the Naiads. Two of his sons fell before 

BUDDU, an idol of the inhabitants of Ceylon.— 
He is represented of gigantic stature, and is 
said to have lived a holy and penitent life. The 
inhabitants reckon their years from the time' of 
his decease, and as that agrees with the fortieth 
of the Christian era, most of the Jesuits are of 
opinion that he was the apostle St. Thomas : 
they add further, that this Buddu, who was 
not bom in their country, died on the conti- 
nent, at a time which agrees with the death of 
the apostle. It is, however, much more pro- 
bable that Buddu was a native of China, and 
perhaps the same with the Chinese Fo. The 
tooth of an ape, which the Portuguese governor 
caused to be burnt, was formerly adored as one 
of this divinity's. In vain did the Portuguese 
attempt, by this means, to put an end to their 
superstition and idolatrous worship, for they 
gave out that the tooth had escaped from the 
hands of its enemies, and taken refuge on a 
rose. It is the province of Buddu to watch over 
and proteft the souls of men, to be with them 
in this life, and to support them when dying ; 
and the Ceylonese are of opinion the world can 
never be destroyed while the image of Buddu 
is preserved in his temple. In sickness, in ad- 
versity, under all aifliftions, they make their 
addresses to this image, and in every house is 
kept a basket of flowers, devoted to his service, 
as part of their free-will offerings. 

BUDEA, a surname of Minerva. 

panese idol, which signifies, tbe worship oj^' 

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reign idols, for this god was fii-st imported a- 
mong them from some other part of Asia. He 
was born at Sicka, which signifies tbe country oj 
the heavens, about one thousand years before 
the Christian era, and at nineteen years of age 
became disciple of a famous hermit called A- 
rara Sennin^ who lived on the top of a moun- 
tain named Dandoif- Under this holy man he 
lived In the most austere manner, spending 
most of his time in the contemplation of divine 
thingSt and sitting cross-legged, with his hands 
in his bosom, so placed that the extremities of 
his thumbs touched each other, a posture con- 
sidered by these Heathens as the most proper 
for meditation. By this means he penetrated 
into the most secret and important points of 
religion, which he afterwards communicated to 
his followers. He taught that the souls of 
beasts, as well as of men, are immortal, and 
that both will be rewarded or punished here- 
after, according as they have a6led here. He 
prescribed five precepts of a' general nature, all 
negatives, being almost similar to those in the 
kingdom of Siam, and in many other parts of 
the East. These laws or precepts are as fol- 
low, vix. First, Thou shalt not kill. Secondly, 
Thou shalt not steal. Thirdly, Thou shalt not 
commit adultery. Fourthly, Thou shalt not lie. 
And, fifthly. Thou shalt not drink strong li- 
quors. Two of his disciples, Annan Sansja, and 
Rosia Sonsja, collected his wise sentences, which 
were found after his death, written with his 
own hand on leaves of trees, and made up into 
a book called Fobehio, that is, tbe book of fine 
Jtowers, as being the most perfeft performance 
in the world, and esteemed by them as we do 
the Bible. The two Sonsjas, the compilers, 
are now ranked among their gods, and are wor- 
shipped with their master in all his temples, 
one being placed on the right, and the other 
on the left hand of Budsdo. They have many 
temples in honour of this idol, but their priests 
never walking in procession, confine themselves 
to their own limits, and subsist on the volun- 
tary contributions of the people. The temple 
of Kataisi is remarkable for a statue of Budsdo 
of an extraordinary size, gilt, and sitting on a 
tarate-fiovier-faba Egyptiaca. 
EUGENES, that is, bom of an ox, a name of Bac- 
chus among the Greeks, because he was drawn 

with, and is supposed to have, horns ; he having 
first ploughed with oxen : or because he was 
tbe son of Jupiter Ammon, who had the head 
of a ram. For the same reason the Latins called 
him Tauriformis and Tauriceps. 
BUL AEA,* a surname of Pallas. 
BULAEUS, a surname of Jupiter. 
BULIS, mother of Aegypius, changed into a di- 

dapper. See Aegypius. 
BUNAEA, a name of Juno, from Bunaeus, son of 
Mercury, who built a temple to her at Corinth. 
She had another at Euboea ( probably under 
the same name) to which the Emperor Adrian 
presented a magnificent offering, consisting of 
a crown of gold, and a purple mantle embroi- 
dered with the marriage of Hercules and Hebe 
in silver, and a large peacock, whose body was 
gold, and his tail composed of precious stones, 
resembling the natural colours. 
BUNAEUS, son of Mercury, by what mother 
authors are silent. All that is known of him 
is related in the preceding article. 
BUNUS, a son of Mercury and Alcidamea, who 
obtained the government of Corinth when Ae- 
tes went to Colchis. He is said to have erected 
a temple to Juno. 
BUPHAGUS, the ox-eater, according to some 
was a son of Japetus and Thonax, killed by Di- 
ana for attempting her virtue. It was also a 
surname of Hercules, who challenged Lepreus 
to cat, and devoured an ox before him. 
BURA, a daughter of Jupiter, from whom a city 
in the Bay of Corinth, destroyed by the sea, 
was called Bura and Buris. 
BURAICUS, a surname of Hercules, from his 

temple near Bura. 
BUSIRIS. According to Diodorus Siculus, there 
have been several of this name in Egypt He 
relates that Osiris, having resolved on an im- 
portant expedition, declared Isis his queen re- 
gent, and left her two lieutenants, one for 
state affairs, the other to command the troops ; 
and that he gave the government of Phoenicia 
and the maritime territory to Busiris. In ano- 
ther part of his work he says, that after fifty- 
two princes had successively filled the throne 
of Menas, from whom they descended, Busiris 
was king of Egypt, and that eight of his de- 
scendants succeeded him, the last of which was 






tiamed Busiris, who buUt that magnificent and 
powerful city to which the Greeks gave the 
name of Thebes : and the Egyptians the city oj 
the Sun. He declares elsewhere, that what was 
related concerning the barbarity of a certain 
Busiris, was a fable of the Greeks, but a fable 
grounded on the Egyptian custom of sacrificing 
all the red-haired people they met with to the 
manes of king Osiris, through hatred toTyphon, 
hismurderer, who wasofthat colour. TheEgyp- 
tians themselves being of a differentcomplexion, 
their victims were chiefly strangers. In the E- 
gyptian language Biisiris signified the sepulchre 
of Osiris. Hence the fiflion so current among 
the Greeks, that Busiris, king of Egypt, caused 
all strangers to be murdered. It was supposed 
that he himself was sacrificed by Hercules, whom 
Busiris had audaciously attempted to destroy. 
AppUodorus relates that Hercules, after he had 
killed Antaeus, went into Egypt, where Busi- 
ris, son of Neptune and Lysianassa, daughter 
of Epaphus, was king. This Busiris sacrificed, 
ia obedience to an oracle, all strangers, to Ju- 
piter. The harvest had been extremely bad for 
nine years in Egyfrt: ; on which there came 
from Cyprus a soothsayer, called Thrasius, who 
declared that this calamity would cease, provi- 
ded a stranger were sacrificed every year to Ju- 
piter. Busiris giving credit to this declaration, 
began the execution with the soothsayer him- 
self, and proceeded accordingly to strangers, 
till at length Hercules, who had been doomed 
to the same fate, and was leading bound to the 
altar, broke his chains, and seizing Busiris, with 
Iphidamus his son, and Chalbes his herald, of- 
fered them all upon it. Orosius, in speaking 
of the era in which Busiris lived, and which he 
places in the year 775, before the foundation of 
Rome, says, " At that time was the cruel hos- 
pitality of Busiris, and his still more cruel re- 
ligion, in Egypt, he using to quaff, by way of 
offering, the blood of strangers to the gods who 
shared in his crimes." With this coincides the 
accountofSt. Austin. --Philargyrius relates, that 
•• Bu8!ris,kingof Egypt was used to offer an an- 
nual sacrificeof strangers tojupiter, to terminate 
afamtne which Pygmalion, the Cypriot,declared 
would not cease till the blood of a stranger had 
been offered ; and that the first viftim was Thy- 
estes," Isocrates materially varies the story. 

" Those authors, says he, who tell us that Bu- 
siris sacrificed foreigners, say also that Hercu- 
les put him to death : now all historians are a- 
greed that Hercules lived four centuries after 
Perseus and Danae, and upwards of 200 yean 
after Busiris. The latter was son to Neptune 
and Lybia, daughter of Epaphus, who first 
reigned overthe country called from hername." 
It is far from certain that there ever was a king, 
named Busiris, in Egypt. Strabo cites Eratos. 
thcnes, who declares that there never was a 
king or tyrant so called ; but that the story 
which had been related concerning him was 
founded on the barbarity exercised by the in- 
habitants of the city and province of Busiris 
against strangers ; and it must be allowed 
there was a ciiy of that name situated in the 
midst of Egypt, on the Delta, and celebrated 
for a temple in honour of Isis, and the monu- 
..ment of Osiris. According to some writers, 
Isis having the corpse of Osiris on an ox made 
of wood, built this monument to his honour, 
Eusebius makes Busiris contemporary with Jo- 
shua, about 700 years before the foundation of 
Rome. Melanfthon thinks it probable, that 
Busiris was the Pharaoh who occasioned the 
destruflion of the Israelites. 

BUSTUARll, a kind of gladiators among the 
ancient Romans, who fought about the hustum 
or pile of a deceased person, in the ceremony 
of his obsequies. The practice originally was, 
to sacrifice captives on the tomb, or at the hu. 
turn, of their chiefs and warriors. Instances of 
this kind occur in Homer, as at the obsequies of 
Patroclus, and are also introduced by the Greek 
tragedians. Their blood was supposed to ap- 
pease the infernal gods, and render them pro- 
pitious to the manes of the deceased. In after 
times this custom appearing too barbarous, 
gladiators called Bustuarii, were appointed to 
supply the defeft. According to Valerius Max- 
imus and Florus, Marcus and Decius, sons^of 
Brutus, were the first who honoured the funeral 
of their fatherwith this kind of spectacle, in the 
year of Rome 489. Some affirm, that the Ro- 
mans borrowed this custom from the Hetruri- 
ans, and they from the Greeks. 

BUTE, a city in Egypt famous for the oracle of 

BUTES, son of Boreas, was compelled to quit the 





states of Amycus, his reputed father, king of 
the Berbyces, who refused to acknowledge him 
as his son. Withdrawing himself into Sicily 
with a few adherents, he carried off Iphimedia, 
Pancratis, and Coronis, whilst celebrating the 

feast of Bacchus, to the coast of Thessaly. 

. Butes reserved Coronis for himself; but Bac- 
chus, to whom Coronis had been nurse, inspi- 
red him with such a frenzy, that he threw him- 
self into a well. — Others say, that he married 
Lycaste, whose beauty procured her the sur- 
name of Venus, and by her had Eryx. This 
Butes is spoken off as the founder of Naxos. 
There were several other persons of the same 
name : one, an Argonaut ; a second, a Trojan, 
killed by Camillus ; a third, son of Pandion 
and Zeuxippe, priest of Minerva and Neptune, 
and husband of Chithonia, daughter of Erech- 
theus : to this Butes, divine honours were ren- 
dered at Athens. 

BUTHROTUM, a city of Epirus where Aeneas 
met Andromache, whom Heleniis had mar- 

BUZYGES, an Athenian, who first harnessed 
oxen for the plough. Demophoon gave him the 
palladium with which Diomedes had entrusted 
him to carry to Athens. 

BYBLIA,aname of Venus, fromatemple erefled 
to her at By bios in Phoenicia. 

BYBLIS, daughter of Miletus, of Crete, by the 
Nymph Cyanea, became enamoured of her 
twin-brother Caunus, but, unable to inspire 
him with the like passion,hung herself through 
grief. Some affirm that Caunus, in love with 

her, fled to avoid a criminal intercourse ; 
whilst others report, that he fled from her, 
and that she, exhausted with fatigue in pur- 
suing him, fell to the ground in a torrent of 
grief, and was instantly changed to a foun- 
tain. Antoninus Liberalis relates, that Byblis, 
after hAving rejected various proposals of mar- 
riage, and finding herself unable to subdue 
her unfortunate passion for her brother, re- 
solved to throw herself from the topof a moun- 
tain ; but that the Nymphs, commisserating 
her condition, rendered her immortal, and 
admitted her, under the appellaUon of an Ha- 
madryad, into their society. Thewater which 
welled from the mountain, is said to have been 
called from her weeping, the tears of Byblis. 

BYBLUS, a town of Syria in Phoenicia, where 
a temple was devoted to Adonis. 

BYRSA, a citadel in the midst of Carthage, on 

which a temple was built to Aesculapius. 

When the city was taken, the wife of Has- 
drubal burnt- it. On the arrival of Dido in 
Africa, she purchased from the inhabitants of 
the distrift as much land as might be included 
within the compass of an hide. Having com. 
pleted her bargain, she cut the whole of the 
skin into thongs, and, by that means, inclosed 
a large piece of ground, which obtained it» 
name from Bujm, a bide. 

BYTHIS, son of Mars, who gave his name to 

BYZENUS, son of Neptune, whose speech was 
so unreserved as to become proverbial. 

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CAANTHUS, son of Oceanus and Tethys. Hav- 
ing been commanded by his father to pursue 
Apollo, who had carried off Melia, his sister, 
and not being able to overtake him, he, in re- 
venge, set fire to the wood and temple -of that 
deity in the confines of Ismenus, who, in re- 
turn, punished him with death. 

CABALINUS FONS, the spring of the Muses, 
a very transparent fountain of Mount Helicon 
in Boeotia, called Hippocrene by the Greeks, 
because opened by the horse Pegasus on strik- 
ing the rock with his hoof; and thence also, 

CABARITES, Nymphs, so called, descended 
from Cabira. 

CABARNIS, the name of the island of Paros, 
from Cabamus, a shepherd of that country who 
informed Ceres of the rape of her daughter. 

CABEREA, one of the daughters of Proteus by 
the Nymph Torone, his wife. 

CABiRA, the Nymph said to be wife of Vulcan, 
and mother of Camillus, and the Nymphs Cabi- 

CABIRI, that is, great, powerful. Pagan deities. 
Who they were is a question much contro- 
verted among mythological authors. Some 
say they were brought from Egypt into Samo- 
thracia, and the Aegean isles, and that they 
were Osiris, Isis, and Orus, under the namra of 
Axieros, Axiocusa, and Axiocersus, to which 
some add a fourth, called Camillus, or Cas- 
millus, who was the Egyptian Anubis. The old 
Scholiast on Apollonius's Argonautics, says, 
" In Samothracia they are initiated into the 
mysteries of the Cabiri, whose names are re- 
corded by Mnaseas; they are in number four, 
Axieros, Axiocersa, Axiocersus, and Casmillus. 
Axieros is Ceres, Axiocersa Proserpine, Axio- 
cersus, Pluto, and Casmillus, Mercury." Bo- 
chart gives Hebrew etymologies of the three 
first names: Axieros, he says, signifies, tbe 
earth is my possession, which agrees very well 
with Ceres; Axiocersa and Axiocersus means, 
death or dissolution is my portion, which is very 
yol.I. 4 


applicable to Pluto and Proserpine. Casmillus, 
he adds, was rather a minister and attendant 
on the gods Cabiri than one of them ; and 
Servius remarks, that Casmillus is a Tuscan 
word, signifying, the minister <^ the gods, an 
office always ascribed by the ancients to Mer- 
cury. A modern author, Fourmont, who finds 
most of the Pagan deities in thefamily of Abra- 
ham, makes Axieros to be Isaac, the heir of 
his father Abraham, in whom his seed was to 
be called ; and Axiocersa and Axiocersus to be 
Ishmael and his wife, because, it is said, " he 
dwelt in the desert or wilderness of Paran, and 
his mother took him a wife out of the land of 
Egypt ;" both which descriptions agree with 
the etymologies given by Bochart. The Cabiri, 
however, according to the Scholiast on Apol- 
lonius, were the gods of Samothracia. Varro 
reckons but two Cabiri, Tellus and Coelus ; 
others three, Jupiter, Juno, and Mmerva, 
whom Tertujlian means when he says, " There 
are three altars ereiSed to three gods. Great, 
Powerful, Strong ; the same are thought to be 
the deities of Samothracia." Macrobius, 
speaking of the latter Cabin, says, " Jupiter 
is the middle region of the air, Juno the 
lower, together with the earth, and Minerva 
the upper, or ether." He adds, " tiwit Dema- 
ratus, son- of Corinthius, being to be initiated 
into the mysteries of the Samothracian religion, 
joined the above-mentioned deities in one and 
the same temple ;" a circumstance, which, ac- 
cording to the ridiculous conceit of the learned 
Vossius, was, probably, the corrupt remains of 
an ancient tradition received from Noah con- 
cerning the three persons in the deity, on which 
hypothesis Jupiter must be taken for the su- 
preme God; Minerva for the word or wisdom 
of God; and Juno, for the Holy Spirit. That 
the Samothracian mysteries were very ancient 
appears evident, from this, that the Romans 
received them from the Albanians, these from 
the exiled Trojans, and the Trojans from king 
Dardanus, who brought them out of Samothra. 

,,y,u.ed by Google 





cia into Phyrgia, scarce more than 800 years 
after the deluge : nor is it improbable but the 
Samothracians had these deities some centuries 
before Dardanus. The term Cabiri comes from 
the Hebrew or Phoenician word Cabir, which 
signifies ^«(i^ or powerful, and seems to have 
been a general name given to deities of supe- 
rior rank. Such were Castor and Pollux, Dios- 
couroi, or sprung from Jove, as appears from 
an ancient Grefik inscripOon preserved by 
Gruter, thus rendered into English : Dedi- 
cated by Gaius, the son of Gaius the Acbamanian, 
made priest of the great gods Dioscouroi, Cabiri, &c. 
The Saracens, till the time of the emperor He- 
raclius, worshipped idols, adoring Lucifer and 
Venus, whom they called Cbabar, which, in 
their language, signifies the same as Cabir, in 
the Hebrew or Phoenician, viz. great. Julius 
Firmicus intimates, that the Cabiri were three 
brothers, one of whom was slain by the other 
two, and then deified. In earlier times it was 
judged an a6l of irreverence to pronounce their 
names, which was the case with the tetragram- 
maton of the Jews ; they were, therefore, only 
spoken of by the general denomination of Dios- 
couroi, sprung from Jove. It is impossible to 
reduce the numerous fabulous. stories of these 
Cabiri to any consistency, for they were all the 
inventions of later ages ; and when the fabulous 
accounts of recent times became intermixed 
with the ancient traditions, it is no wonder 
the truth should be materially darkened. 
CABIRIA, festivals in honour of the Cabiri, ce- 
lebrated in Thebes and Lemnos, but especially 
in Samothracia, an island consecrated to the 
Cabiri. This feast was very ancient, and sup- 
posed prior even to the time of Jupiter, who is 
said to have restored it. It was holden by 
night, and children above a certain age were 
initiated in the mysteries of th^e gods. All 
who were consecrated were thought to be se- 
cured thereby from storms at sea, and all other 
dangers. The ceremony of initiation was per- 
formed by placing the candidate, crowned with 
olive branches, and girt about the loins with a 
purple ribband, on a kind of throne, round 
which the priests and persons before initiated 
danced. When a person had committed mur- 
der, the Cabiria gave him an asylum- See 
Corybantes, Curetes, Da&yli, (fc. 

CABIRIDES, Nymphs, daughters of Cabira. 

CABURA, a fountain of Mesopotamia, in which 
Juno had bathed. 

whom little salted fishes were sacrificed. His 
worship was celebrated at Phaselis in Pam- 

CACA, sister of Cacus, discovered to Hercules 
the theft of his oxen by her brother ; for which, 
says Servius, the vestal virgins sacrificed her. 

CACUS, son of Vulcan, was of prodigious bulk, 
and is represented as half man, half satyr. 
He was a notorious robber, and received his 
name, which imports bad or wicked, from hig 
consummatevillany.Hefixed himself on Mount 
Aventine, and thence infested all Italy with 
his depredations. As Hercules was driving 
home the herd of king Geryon, whom he had 
slain, Cacus robbed him of some of his oxen, 
which he drew backward into his den, least 
they should be discovered ; but Hercules, at 
last finding them out, either by their lowing, 
or, a discovery of the robbery by Caca, sister 
of Cacus, as mentioned by Servius, killed Ca- 
cus with his club. Virgil gives an ample ac- 
count of this exploit. There are some ancient 
gems that represent Cacus in the a&. of stealing 
these oxen, and dragging them to his cave by 
their tails, just as the story is related in Virgil ; 
and, on the reverse of a medal of Antoninus 
Pius, you see him lying dead at the feet of Her- 
cules, whilst the country people press towards 
the hero, kissing his hand, as their great deli- 
verer. It is remarked by Mr. Spence, that " he 
never yet met with the combat itself between 
Hercules and Cacus, on any other medal, gem, 
or marble ; and, as to the ancient paintings, 
there is but a small share of them that re- 
mains. Virgil and Ovid differ in their ac- 
counts of this combat; the latter makes Her- 
cules dash out the brains of this robber with 
his club ; whereas, the former speaks very ex- 
pressly of his squeezing him to death. Virgil 
was certainly the most exa6l of all the Roman 
poets, and Ovid the least of all in his time.— 
Indeed Virgil, in this particular, seems to have 
very good reason for what he hath advanced : 
he makes Hercules go out with his usual wea- 
pon, his club, to pursue Cacus; but when he 
has found him out^ and plunges into his cave. 

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which was all dark and full of smoke, his club 
would be of no use to him, since he could not 
see where to dire6t his blows ; he, therefore, 
describes him rushing forward, and when he 
meets Cacus, laying hold of him with one 
hand, (in the manner of the Lu6tantes of old) 
whilst he throttles him with the other. Both 
Virgil and Juvenal mention, that Hercules, af- 
ter he had killed Cacus, dragged him out of his 
cave by the feet. Juvenal, particularly, in such 
a manner as shews, that he referred to some 
known painting or sculpture of this part of the 
story in his time, in which Cacus seems to have 
made a very contemptible and ignominous fi- 
gure. In the Palazzo Sampieri at Bologna, 
are three ceilings painted by Lewis, Hannibal, 
and Austin Carrache : the Bubje£t of the last 
is this very story of Hercules killing Cacus ; 
and, it is very remarkable, that, in it, he has 
given Cacus a human body, with the head of 
a beast. This work was executed in the 
heighth of the school of the Carraches, and 
might possibly be borrowed from some an- 
tique. What suggested this conjefture was, 
Virgil's calling Cacus a monster in one place, 
and half a man, half beast in others. Though 
no antique representing Cacus in this manner, 
has hitherto been discovered, yet, he may one 
day, be found to have had as much of the brute 
in marble, as Carrache has given him in Iiis 
CADMEUS, OR CADMEIUS, a Theban man, 
and Cadmeia, or Cadmeis, a Theban woman ; 
from Cadmus, the founder of Thebes. 
names of Mercury, who swept the room where 
the gods supped, made the beds, and under- 
went many other like servile employments, 
whence he was stiled Camillus or Casmillus, 
that h, inferior servant of tbe gods ; for anciently, 
all boys and girls under age were called Ca- 
milli and Camillae ; and the same name was 
afterwards given to the young men and maids 
who attended the priests at the sacrifices. — 
The Boeotians, instead of Camillus, say. Cad- 
mHlus, perha[» from the Arabic word Cbadam, 
tc serve, or from the Phoenician word Cbadtnel, 
God's servant, or sacer minister. 
CADMUS, king of Thebes, was son of Agenor, 
king of Phoenicia, and brother of Thasus, Phoe- 
"" 3 

nix, Cilix, and Europa, which last Jupiter 
carried into Crete. Agenor, disconsolate for 
the loss of Europa, dispatched Cadmus and 
Thasus with diferent fleets in search of her, 
injoining them not to return without her, 
under pain of banishment. Their search 
proving fruitless, Thasus settled in an island 
of the Aegean sea, to which he gave his name, 
and which was fonnerly called Plate. Cadmus, 
enquiring of the Delphic oracle for a settlement, 
was answered, that he should observe the mo- 
tions of a cow, having certain marks, and that 
he should build a city where she lay down. 
Coming among the Phocenses, one of Pela- 
gon's cows met him, and conducing him 
through Boeotia,till they came tothespot where 
Thebes was soon afterwards built, she there 
lay down. Cadmus intending to sacrifice the 
cow to Pallas, sent two of his company to the 
fountain Dirce for water, when a dragon, son 
of Mars and Venus, attacked and killed them. 
Cadmus, revenging the death of his people by 
slaying the dragon, Pallas advised him to pluck 
out the dragon's teeth, and sow them in the 
earth, which being done, there sprung up a 
number of armed men, who assaulted him, to 
revenge their father's death ; but Pallas, di- 
redling him to throw a stone amongst them, 
the warriors turned their weapons on each 
other with such animosity, that only five sur- 
vived the combat, who' proved very useful to 
Cadmus in building his new city. After this, 
to recompense his toils, the gods gave Cadmus 
Harmonia, or Hermione, daughter of Mars and 
Venus, to wife, and honoured the nuptials with 
peculiar marks of favour. Ceres gave plenty 
of corn ; Mercury, a harp ; Pallas, bracelets, a 
robe and pipe ; Ele6tra performed the ceremo- 
nies of Magna Mater, and gave drums and 
cymbals ; Apollo sang to his lute, and the 
Muses assisted in all the excellence of vocal 
and instrumental harmony. But the posterity 
of Cadmus and Hermione proving unfortunate, 
as appears from the stories of Semele, Ino, 
Agave, and the rest, they left Thebes to Pen- 
theus, son of Echion and Agave, went to the 
Eclellenses, and being, by advice of the oracle, 
cjiosen commanders in their war against the 
Ulyrians, they not only gained the yiaory, but 
. for some time reigned over the people,, till they 
U 2 


148 CAD 

were changed into serpents, or rather^ sent by 
Jupiter into the Elysian fields, in a chariot 
drawn by serpents. The Greeks were indebt- 
ed to Cadmus for the invention of brass, and 
the first use of arms. As to the meaning of 
this fable in the Phoenician tongue, the two 
words Sbeni Nacbasb, which the Greeks tran- 
slated serpents' teeth, signified as well spears of 
brass. The ambiguity of another word, Ciwwji, 
helped on the fidtion, as, according to a diffe- 
rence in pronunciation, it signified either the 
TiumbeT jive, or one ready for oBton : thus, the 
Bame sentence, which, with the Phoenicians, 
only intimated, that he commanded a disci- 
plined body of men armed wiib brass, was ren- 
dered, by those inclined to the marvellous, be 
made an army of Jive men out oftbe teetb of a ser- 
pent. Cadmus being a Hivite, a name of near 
affinity with that of a serpent, gave further 
occasion to that part of it which says, that his 
men sprung from a serpent, and himself and 
wife were changed into this animal. So indus- 
trious were the Greeks to involve the most 
simple fafts in mysterious confusion. The 
Phoenicians with Cadmus, expelled their coun- 
try by Joshua, first introduced among the 
Greeks the practice of consecrating statues to 
the gods, the use of letters, thence called Phoe- 
nician orCadmean letters, and the art of writ- 
ing in prose. Cadmus and Og, orOgyges, are 
the same, whence every thing very ancient 
was termed Ogygian, by the Thebans. The 
Gophyraei, setded at Athens, were the Phoe- 
nicians who came with him, and preserved his 
memory by the name of Ogyges, as from his 
name Cadmus, or Cadem, signifying tbe East, 
whence he came, was their famous place of 
learning, after which every other was called 
CADUCEUS, the rod or sceptre of Mercury, 
being a wand with two wings, entwisted by 
two serpents, borne by that deity as the en- 
sign of his quality and office, and given him, 
according to the fable, byApollo,for his seven- 
stringed harp. Wonderful properties are as- 
cribed to this rod by the poets, such as laying 
men asleep, raising the dead, &c. It was also 
used by tlie ancients as a symbol of peace and 
concord : the Romans sent the Carthaginians 
A javelin and a Caduceus, offering them by 


these their choice either of war or peace. A- 
niong that people, those who denounced war 
were called Fedales, and those who went to 
demand peace, Caduceatores, becaiSse they 
bore a Caduceus in their hand. The Caduceus 
on medals, is a common symbol, signifying 
good conduft, peace, and prosperity. The 
rod expresses power ; the serpents, prudence ; 
and the wings, diligence. The Caduceus is 
so punflually described by the poets, that one 
might almost instruft a painter, from them, 
how to colour every part of it. It should rather 
be held lightly between the two fingers, than 
grasped by the whole hand. The wand itself 
should be of the colour of gold, and the two 
serpents of a greenish viper-colour ; and might 
fling a cast of the same colour upon the gold, 
if the painter had skill enough to do it. In 
several antiques, the Caduceus itself is re- 
presented with wings ; but the mention of 
them is scarcely to be found in the poets. — 
Wings, therefore, may be given or omitted 
at the painter's option, and made of whatever 
colour he shall choose. The Caduceus, which 
Mercury is represented as holding generally 
in his right hand, is seen sometimes in his 
left ; and often, also, in the right hand of a 
female figure, to symbolize happiness, peace, 
concord, security, fortune, and, with a cornu- 
copia, plenty. — It may be seen on coins, in the 
hand of Hercules, Ceres, and Venus, and also 
of Anubis, with a canine head ; though, in 
this instance, it has a reference to the Mercury 
Of Egypt. 

CAUUCIFER, Mercury ; so called from his car- 
rying the Caduceus. 

CAEA, an island of the Aegean sea, which ob- 
tained his name from Caeus, the son of Ti- 

CAECA, signifying blind, is a name of Fortune. 
Neither is she only, says Cicero, blind her- 
self, but she many times makes those blind 
that enjoy her. 

CAECIAS,'^ wind blowing from the north, about 
the season of the equinox. 

CAECULUS, son of Vulcan, and brother of 
Cacus, so called, from his little eyes. He, 
like Cacus, lived by plunder. It is said, by 
some, that he was conceived by a spark of 
fire glancing into the bosom of his mother 

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Praenestc ; and as a mark of what gave him his 
bbing, bad always an inflammation in his eyes. 
Others relate, that some shepherds finding 
Caeculiis just born, unhurt in the midst of 
fire, thence concluded him to have been the 
son of Vulcan. He was afterwards founder of 
the city Praeneste, and took the ■part of Tur- 
nus against Aeneas. It is thought the noble 
Roman family of CaeciHi derived their name 
from the Caeculus of this article. Virgil men- 
tions him in the seventh Aeneid. 
CAEDICUS. See^lcatbous. 
CAELIGENA, an epithet given by Varro to the 
goddess Viftoria, because viftory comes from 
CAENEUS, one of the Argonauts : likewise, a 
hero in the ninth Aeneid, overthrown by Tur- 
nus, but who had vanquished Ortygius. 
CAENEUS, an epithet of Jupiter, from Caene 
a promontory on the coast of Laconia, where 
Jupiter had a temple. 
There was also a Thessalian of this name, who 
having been a female called Coenis, obtained 
from Neptune, as a compensation for the vio- 
lence he had offered her, to be changed into a 
man, and 'rendered invulnerable. Taking 
part with the Lapithae against the Centaurs, 
and making terrible havock amongst .them, 
the latter unable to wound, overwhelmed 
him by an overthrow of trees ; on which 
Neptune transformed him to a bird. Virgil, 
however, represents her as recovering her 
original form. This Caeneus is said to have 
been the father of Atalanta. 
CAENIS, daughter of Elatus, the Lapithian.— - 

See Caeneus. 
COEOS. See Caea. 

CAERULEUS FRATER. Neptune, so called 
from the colour of the sea. Caeruld Dei, are the 
marine deities. 
CAEUS, the son of Titan, who, with the rest of 

that giant brood, made war upon Jupiter. 
CAICUS,achara6lerintheAeneid, book the ninth. 
CAHOS. See Cbaos. 

CAJETA, nurse of Aeneas ; her death is men- 
' ironed in the ninth Aeneid, The promontory 
on which she died, as well as the port and city 
built near it, were denominated from her. 
^AICUS, son of Mercury, he gave his name to 
A river in Mysia. 

CAL 149 

CALABRUS. See Cabrus. 

CALAIS, son of Boreas, and brother ofZethes, 
one of the Argonauts. See Zetbes and Calais. 

CALOIDIA, solemn sports, celebrated by the 
Laconians, in honour of Diana. 

CALCAS, OR CALCHAS, son of Thestor, fol- 
lowed the Grecian army to Troy, in the func- 
tion of diviner, soothsayer, or prophet. He 
foretold that the siege would last ten years, and 
that the fleet which was detained in the port 
of Aulis by contrary winds, would not set sail 
till Iphegenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, 
had been sacrificed to Diana: also, that the 
plague in the Grecian army would not cease 
till Chryseis was restored to her father. After 
the taking of Troy, Calchas retired to Colo- 
phon, where he died of grief, because he could 
not divine what Mopsus, a person of his own 
profession, discovered ; and thus was fulfilled 
the prediction mentioned by Sophocles, that 
Calchas should die as soon as he met with his 
master in the art of divining. This adventure 
happened on the spot where Mopsus disputed 
with Calchas, which was the sacred grove of 
Apollo, at Claros, near the city of Colophon. 
Calchas had walked with Amphilochus from 
Troy to Claros, to try the skill of his rival, 
and required from him, on producing a sow 
with young, how many she had in her belly? 
Mopsus replied that she had three, one of which 
was a female ; and, upon examination, he was 
found to be right. Mopsus, in his turn, asked 
Calchas what was the exaft number of figs 
which grew upon a certain tree ? This, Calchas 
. not being able to ascertain, broke his heart 
from vexation. There are some authors, how- 
ever, who attribute the question of the figs to 
Calchas, and the reply to Mopsus, that there 
were ten thousand, all which but one might be 
contained in a certain measure. This answer, 
they sdd, being exaflly verified upon trial, 
caused Calchas to die of chagrin. Others say 
that Calchas only demanded of Mopsos what 
number of young a certain sow carried in her 
belly i* and that the accuracy alone of the an- 
swer killed him; so that Mopsus had no occa- 
sion to propose any question. Strabo remarks ■ 
that this contest did not happen at Claros, but 
in Cilicia. If we may believe Suidas, one of the 
Sibyls was the daughter of Calchas, her whom 

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he calls Lampasa and Colophonian, and to whom 
he ascribes some oracles in verse. See Lcmpasa, 

CALCHINIA, a daughter of Leucippus, had a 
son by Neptune, who inherited Sicyon, the 
kingdom of his grandfather. 

CALCIOPE. See Cbalciope. 

CALENDARIS, a surname given to Juno, be- 
cause the calends of each month were conse- 
crated to her, and sacrifices offered her upon 

CALESIUS, the charioteer of Axylus, who was 
killed by EHomedes, in the Trojan war. 

CALETOR, a Trojan prince, whom Ajax slew 
as he was going to set fire to the ship of Pro- 

CALIADNE, thewifeof Aegyptus. 

CALICE, OR CALYGE, the daughter of Aeo- 

CALISTO, OR HELICE, was the daughter of 
Lycaon, king of Arcadia, and one of the 
Nymphs of Diana. Jupiter being enamoured 
of her, and despairing of success from solicita- 
tion, assumed the form of the goddess of Chas- 
tity to effect his purpose. The consequence 
being discovered whilst Calisto was bathing, 
Diana banished her the society. The Nymph 
retired to a neighbouring wood, and was no 
sooner delivered of a son, than Juno, to revenge 
the infidelity of her husband, transformed them 
both into bears. Jupiter, however, commise- 
rating their condition, placed them both in the 
heavens ; whence Calisto is said to be the great 
bear, and Areas the little. See Areas. 

who presided over good conduct and propriety 
of manners. 

CALLICHORUS, a place hi Phocis, where the 
orgies of Bacchus were celebrated, and dances 
in honour of that god. 

CALLICON. See Acheus. 

CALLIGENIA, the nurse, or as others main- 
tain, one of the Nymphs of Ceres. Some consider 
it as the name of the goddess herself, whilst o- 
thers ascribe it to Tellus. 

CALLIOPE, the Muse who presides over elo- 
quence and heroic poetry ; so called from the 
extatic hannony of her voice. She was ac- 
counted the first of the Nine. The poets, who 
■ are supposed to receive their inspirations from 

them, chiefly invoke Calliope, as she presided 

over the hymns made in honour of the gods 

Calliope is spoken of by Ovid, as the chief of 
all the Muses. Under the same idea, Horace 
calls her Regina, and attributes to her theskill 
of playing on what instrument she pleases. Mr. 
Spence remarks, that ** The book she holds in 
her left hand, as inventress of heroic poetry, 
is much more like a modem book than an an- 
cient ;" adding, " The books of old were like 
the rolls in our offices; for old records, and the 
form we use for books now, was then only used 
for tablets, or pocket-books: these tablets, in 
the left hand of Calliope, mark out the distin- 
guishing charafter of this Muse, which was to 
note down the worthy actions of the living, as 
Clio's was to celebrate those of departed heroes. 
Though those are only tablets, Ausonius calls 
them Libri. The common names of them used 
by Pliny in his Epistles, and by several of the 
Roman writers, are much more proper, and 
more descriptive of them." 

CALLIPYGES, a surname of Venus. 

CALLIRHOE, ayoung female of Calydon, whom 
Coresus, the high- priest of Bacchus, distrafted- 
ly loved, but being unable to engage her af- 
feftion, he implored the god to revenge her 
insensibility, and, in consequence, the Caly> 
donians were afflifted with phrenzy. The oracle 
being consulted for a remedy, injoined the im- 
molation of Callirhoe, or the person who might 
offer to sufi^r in her stead. No substitute ap- 
pearing, the Nymph was led to the altar, but 
when Coresus, who was to perform the sacri- 
fice, beheld her decorated as a victim, his heart 
relented, and he turned the knife against him- 
self. Callirhoe struck with compassion, to ap- 
pease the manes of Coresus, immediately sacri- 
ficed herself. 

Another Callirhoe was daughter of the river A- 
chelous, and wife of that Alcmeon who killed 
his mother Eriphyle. Having married Callir- 
hoe whilst his former wife, Arsinoe, was alive, 
he took from her, and presented to his new 
bride, the celebrated necklace with which Eri- 
phyle had been bribed to engage her husband 
in the Thebari expedition. This necklace, 
which was of gold, had been given by Venus 
to Hermione her daughter,the wife of Cadmus, 
together with a peplum, or robe ; and with it 






came ir>to Eriphyle's posaeflsion, the former 
having been presented her by Polynices, and 
the latter by Thersander, his son. The history 
of the necklace is variously related. Some pre- 
tend it to have come originally from Jupiter, 
and that he gave it to Europa, she to Cadmus, 
and Cadmus to Hermione. Others, that Vul- 
can, the fabricator of the necklace, bestowed 
it as a present on Cadmus, to be revenged on 
Hermione, who was bom of the adultery of 
Venus with Mars, for his wife's perfidy to him ; 
and that hp caused the necklace to become fa- 
tal to ail those who should wear it. The ma- 
terials of it, he is said to have composed, among 
others, of the ashes which remained on his an- 
vil after he had made the thunderbolts, and that 
he had impressed upon it mystical figures : in 
a word, that he made it a fatal talisman, whence 
it happened that Hermione, Semele, Jocasta, 
Eriphyle, &c. who wore the necklace in suc- 
cession, severally came to an unhappy end. — 
When Polynices fled from Thebes to Argos, 
he is said to have taken with him, from Her- 
mione, her necklace and peplum. The former 
is described by StatillusandNonnus. The Scho- 
liast on Statius asserts, that this necklace was 
consecrated to Apollo, and thrown into a foun- 
tain, where, though it might still be seen, no 
one could touch it without offending the Sun, 
as was evident from the tempest that immedi- 
ately arose. The account, however, of Pausa- 
nias is much less chimerical. This author thinks 
that wh«j the temple of Delphi was plundered 
by the Phoceans, Hermione's necklace was part 
of their plunder ; and he shews that the one 
carried to Amathus, in Cyprus, and there de- 
posited in the temple of Venus and Adonis, 
though said to have been the necklace of Her- 
mione and Eriphyle, was not the genuine. Di- 
odorus Siculus assure* us, that a Phocian lady, 
after the pillage of the temple of Delphi, daring 
, to adorn herself with Eriphyle's jewels, was 
burnt in her house, her eldest son setting fire 
to it at the impulse of the Furies. It must, not- 
withstanding, be noted, that Athenaeus hath 
quoted an author, who says, Alcmeon did really 
consecrate Eriphyle's necklace'in the temple of 
Delphi, the oracle having required it, as a re- 
ward of him for the cure of bis madness. Cal- 
lirhoe having heard this necklace described, is 

reported to have refused Alcmeon access to her 
person, unless he would make it her own ; on 
which the unhappy man went to Phegeus, the 
father of Arsinoe, who resided at Psophis, in 
Arcadia, and pretended that the oracle had 
declared he could never be cured of his phren- 
zy unless this necklace was hung up in the 
temple of Delphi. Phegeus delivered him the 
necklace, but finding it designed for Callirhoe, 
commanded his two sons to murder Alcmeon. 
Callirhoe, concerned for the fate of her hus- 
band, passionately desired that his murderers 
should be punished, and, with this view, yielded 
to the importunities of Jupiter, on condition 
tliat her children, by Alcmeon, who were still 
very young, might instantly arrive at their full 
growth. The requisition being granted, her 
two sons Amphoterus and Acarnanus, set for- 
ward to execute her purpose. On their way 
they met the assasins, who were going to offer 
the necklace and robe of Eriphyle at Delphi, 
Killing them, they proceeded to Sophis, where 
they murdered also Phegeus and his wife. On 
their return, however, they were pursued to 
Tegeum, but there meeting with powerful as- 
sistance, they compel their opponents to flee. 
Having recited their exploits to Callirhoe, they 
repaired to Delphi, and consecrated to ApoUo 
the necklace and robe, as Achelous had en- 
joined. Thence proceeding to Epirus, they 
established the colony Acamania. See Alc- 

There was another Callirhoe, the daughter of 
Scamander, who, by Tros, her husband, was 
the mother of Ilus, Ganymede, and Assaracus. 

Another Callirhoe, was daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, and mother" of Echidna, Orthos, 
and Cerberus, by Chrysaor, 

Pi. fifth of the same name, daugliter of Lycus, the 
tyrant of Lybia, courteously received Diomedes 
on his return from Troy, and on his departure 
killed herself. 

A sixth CALLmHOE, the daughter of Phocus, was 
universally admired for her beauty ; but her 
lovers finding Phocus averse to their preten- 
sions, put him to death ; and Callirhoe, in re- 
turn, excited her countrymen to avenge her 
of the murderers of her father. 

Another Callirhoe, was daughter to Piras and 

Digitized by 




CALLISTEIA, that is, the reward of beauty, a 
Lesbian festival, at which the women present- 
ed themselves in the temple of Juno, and the 
prize was assigned to the fairest. The same 
kind of contest took place at the Eleusinia of 
Ceres, among the Parrhasians, first instituted 
by Cypselus, whose wife Herodice was ho- 
noured with the first prize: and we read of 
another among the Eieans, where the contest 
was among the men, the most beautiful of 
whom was presented with a complete suit of 
armdwr. which he consecrated to Minerva, 
walking, adorned with ribbands, and crowned 
with a myrtle garland, to the temple, accom- 
panied by his partizans and friends. 
CALLISTEPHANI, Nymphs so called. See 

Games Olympic. 
CALLISTO. SeeCalisto, 
CALLYNTERIA, an Athenian festival, of which 

no particulars are transmitted. 
CALOIDIA, solemn sports celebrated by the La- 

conians in honour of Diana. 
CALPE. SceJbyla. 

CALUMNY, a vice, deified by the Greeks and 
Romans : She had an altar ereaed to her by the 
Athenians. Apelles, the Ephesian, being mali- 
ciously accused of a conspiracy against king 
Ptolemy, and having escaped the danger to 
which Calumny had exposed him, revenged 
himself on that deity by thus depiaing her.— 
Credulity, represented by a man with large, 
open ears, invites this deity to him, extending 
his hand to receive her : Ignorance and Suspi- 
cion stand behind him. Calumny, the princi- 
pal figure of the piece, appears advancing, her 
countenance disturbed, and seemingly enraged, 
holding in her left hand a lighted torch, and 
with her right dragging along-a youth by the 
hair, who lifts up his hands as supplicating the 
gods: before her marches Envy, under the 
form of a pale, ill-looking man, with keen, 
squinting eyes : on her right side are Fraud and 
Conspiracy : behind follows Repentance, in the 
figure of a woman with tattered garments, 
shedding tears, and casting her eyes back- 
wards upon Truth, who slowly closes the rear. 
CALUS, the same with Acalus. 
CALVA, a name of Venus. There was a tem- 
ple at Rome dedicated to Venus Calva, because 
when the Gauls possessed themselves of that 


city, ropes for the engines were made of the-wo- 
mens' hair. 

CALYBE, the priestess of Juno, under whose fi- 
gure Aleao presented herself to Turnus. 

The wife of Laomedon, and mother of Bucolion 
was likewise so named. 

CALYCE, was the daughter of Aeolus, son of 
Helenus and Enarette, daughter of Deimachus. 
By Aethlius, son of Jupiter, she became the 
mother of Endyniion, king of Elis. 

Also a beautiful Grecian girl, who, from disap- 
pointment in love, threw herself from a preci- 
pice, and was on account of it celebrated by the 
Ppet Stesichorus, whose verses on this subjcfl 
were extant in the timeof Athenaeus. 

CALYDON, a city of Aetoiia, in which reigned 
Oeneus, the father of Meleager, and in a forest 
of which Meleager killed the monstrous wild 
boar. See Meleager. 

CALYDON, son of Aetolus and Pronoe, the 
daughter of Phorbas, from whom the city of 
Calydon just mentioned was called. 

Of the same name also Mars had a son. 

CALYDONIS, Dejanira, a native of Calydon. 

CALYDONIUS, a surname of Bacchus, from the 
worship paid him in Calydon. 


CALYPSO, daughter of Tethys and Oceanus, or, 
as others say, of Atlas. She was queen of the 
island Ogygia, which, from her, was called the 
island of Calypso. According to Homer, U- 
lysses suiFered shipwreck on her coast, and 
stayed with her several years. She is said to 
have offered him immortality, provided he 
would remain with her. But this the hero re- 
fusing, he was at length permitted to depart. 
Mercury being dispatched to him from JujMter 
for the purpose. During his continuation, how- 
ever, on the island, the goddess is said to had 
by him two sons, NauE^.thous and Nausinous, and 
on his departure to have become inconsola- 
CAMARASSUAMNI, that is. Son of the Lord. 

See Rutrem. 
CAMBES, a Lydian prince of so voracious an 

appetite, as to devour even his wife. 
of marriage, who were invoked by young fe- 
males at the approach of their nuptials. 
CAMENAE. See Camoeme. 

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CAMERS, brother of Numa, and son of Volscens, 

mentioned by Virgil in the tenth Aeneid. 
CAMERTUS, a llutilian chief, whose form is as, 
sumed by Jutuma, sister of Turnus, in the 
twelfth Aeneid, and under which she dissuades 
the Rutilians from acceding to the purposed 
combat between Tumus and Aeneas. 
CAMESES, a prince of Italy, who divided the 

sovereignty with Saturn. 
CAMILLA, daughter of Metabus and Casmilla, 
was queen of the Volscians, and a heroine bred 
to the exercise of arms. She was slain in de- 
fence of Tumus, when she assisted him against 
Aeneas. In the seventh Aeneid, Virgil gives 
a beautiful description of this heroine, and re- 
presents her so swift of foot as to outstrip the 
winds, to skim over standing corn, or^lide a- 
long the surface of the water. In the eleventh 
»Aeneid she kills Eumanius, Liris, Pegasus, A- 
niastrus, Tereus, Harpalycus, Demophoon, 
Chromis, Omytus, Butes, Orsilochus, and the 
son of Aunus, and at last she falls by the hands 
of Aruns. 
CAMILLAE, CAMILLI, boys and girls who 
ministered in the sacrifices of the gods, and es- 
pecially those who attended the Flamen Dialis, 
or priest of Jupiter. The word seems borrow- 
ed from the language of the ancient Hetruri- 
ans, where it signified minister, and was changed 
from CasmtUus. 
CAMILLUS, an appellation given by the Tus- 
cans to Mercury, in quality of minister of the 
gods. See Cadmillus. 
CAMILUS, son of Vulcan, by the Nymph Ca- 

CAMIRO AND CLYTIA, daughters of Pandarus 
of Crete, who, on the death of their parents, 
being left to the care of Venus, were fostered 
with tenderness. But Jupiter, though petitioned 
to bestow upon them kind husbands, retained 
so much rancour against their father, on ac- 
count of his conduct, that he consigned them 
to the Harpyes, to be delivered to the Furies. 
CAMIRUS AND CAMIRA, a town of Rhodes, so 
called from a son of Hercules and lole, who 
was said to have built it. 
CAMOENA, one of the deities presiding over 
adult persons. It was thought this goddess in- 
clined infants to sing. 
CAMOENAE; the Muses were all comprehended 
Vol, I, 4 

under this general appellation, which, accord- 
ing to Festus, Macrobius, and Servius, was 
given them from the melody and sweetness of 
their numbers, in singing the exploits of heroes 
and of gods ; the term itself being derived a . 
cantu amoem. 

CAMPE, the female jailer, who had the custody 
of the Titans, in Tartarus, and was killed by 
Jupiter for refusing to permit them to go to hU 

CAMPSER. SeeFixttu. 

CANACE, sister of Macareus, and daughter of 
Aeolus. See Macareus. 

CANACHE, one of the dogs of Aflaeon. , 

CANATE, a mountain in Spain, in a cavern on 
which the Evil Genii were supposed to have 
erected their palace. . 

CANATHUS, a fountain in Nauplia, where Juno 
bathed once a year, to recover her original pu- 
rity. The Grecian women are said to have a- 
dopted the practice with the same hope. 

CANCER, OR THE CRAB, was the animal which 
Juno is said to have sent against Hercules when 
he contended with the Hydra in the morasses 
of Lerna, and by which his foot was bitten.-— 
The hero," however, killed it, and Juno placed 
it in the Zodiac. 

CANDARENA, a name of Juno, so called from 
a town in Paphlagonia. 

CANDAULES, or MYRSILUS, son of Myrsus, 
and the last of the Heraclidae, who possessed 
the throne of Lydia. Being foolishly fond of 
his wife, and having exposed her naked to the 
eye of Gyges his minister, was put to death by 
him, at the command of the queen, who raised 
Gyges to her bed. 

CANDRENA, a surname of Venus. 

CANDIOPE, daughter of Oenopion, and mother 
of Hippotagus, by Theodotion her brother. — 
The father having banished Theodotion for his 
crime, they were ordered by the oracle to settle 
in Thrace. 

CANENS, daughter of Janus, by Venilia, and 
wife of Picua. So sincere was her grief for the 
loss of her husband, that, according to Ovid, 
she wasted away into air, and the place of her 
abode continued her name. 

CANEPHORAE, v^ere two virgins of quality at 
Athens, who resided in the temple of Minerva, 
and at the feast of the Panathenaea carried 

,,y,u.ed by Google 





baskets on their heads, containing something se- 
cret or mysterious, delivered to them by the 
priestess. The baskets were usxially crowned 
with flowers, myrtles, &c. The Oinepliorae 
in these ceremonies always marched first, the 
priest next, and the choir of mxisic followed.— 
The learned are at variance as to the contents 
of the baskets which the Canephorae carried : 
some asserting that neither they northe priestess 
herself knew the contents ; whilst others con- 
jetflure they were the requisites for sacrifice ; 
and a third party, with more probability, that 
they were the female pudendum, which had a 
peculiar share in those mysteries. There were 
also Canephorae in the ceremonies of Bacchus 
and Ceres, who, in the Bacchanalia, carried 
golden baskets, in which, besides divers sorts 
of first fruits, was the membrum virile. Among 
ancient monuments, we find mention of divers 
figures of Canephorae : in the famous Corne- 
lian, called Michael Angelo's ring, are three Ca- 
nephorae, with their baskets on their heads. This 
appellation was also given to virgins at Athens, 
when, becoming marriageable, they present- 
ed certain baskets of curiosities to Diana, to pro- 
- cure'her permission to quit her train, and change 
their condition of life.- — There were two figures 
of Canephorae, by Polycletes, in bronze of the 
middle size, which were greatly admired by the 
ancients. Abbe Winkelmann conjectures that 
those in terra cotta fronting each other, which 
are evidently designed in the antique stile, were 
copies of them ; and what confirms him in the 
opinion is, that the Canephorae of Poly- 
cletes were carried by Verres from Messina to 
CANEPHORl A, a ceremony in the feast celebra- 
ted by the Athenian virgins, on the eve preced- 
ing their marriage-day. It consisted in a pro- 
cession of the father and mother of the bride, 
who conducted her to the temple of Minerva, 
carrying a basket full of presents, to engage 
the goddess to make the marriage state happy ; 
or, according to the Scholiast of Theocritus, 
the basket was intended as a kind of honoura- 
ble amends made that goddess, the protei5lrix 
of virginity, for abandoning her party ; unless 
it were considered as a ceremony to appease 
her wrath for relinquishing the virgin state.— 
Suidas calls it a festival in honour of Diana. — 

Other authors mention the Canephoria of Bac- 

CANES, a name common to the Furies. 

CANETHUS, the son of Lycaon. 

CANG-Y, a deity worshipped among the Chi- 
nese, as the god of the lower heavens, and be- 
lieved by them to possess the power of life and 
death. He has always three ministering spirits 
to attend him, the first of whom sends down 
rain to refresh and nourish the earth, the second 
is the god of the sea, to whom all their naviga> 
tors, on sailing, make vows, and at their re- 
turn perform. The third presides over births, 
and is called the god of War. It is probable 
that some ancient astronomer among the Chi- 
nese was, and still is, worshipped pnder this 
name, especially when we find him represented 
as the god of the lower heavens. 

CANICULARES DIES, those days in summer 
when Cams, or the dog-star, was supposed to 
influence the season, by disseminating through 
the air a pernicious heat. 

CANON, a Japanese god, who, as represented in 
their pagods, presides over the waters and the 
fish. His votaries exhibit him with four arms, 
and the lower part of his body swallowed by a 
large sea-monster; his head is crowned with 
flowers ; in one hand he holds a sceptre, in 
another a flower, a ring in the third, and the 
fourth is closed, with the arm extended. Over 
against him stands the figure of an humble pe- 
nitent, one half of whose body is concealed with- 
in a shell. The temple is adorned with arrows 
and all sorts of warlike instruments. 

CANOPIUS HERCULES, the Egyptian Hercu- 
les, so called from the city Canopus. 

CANOPUS, one of the deities of the ancient 
Egyptians, and, according to some, the god 
of Water. It is said, that the Chaldeans, who 
worshipped fire, carried their imaginary deity 
through different countries to try his power, 
in order that, if he obtained the viflory over 
the other gods, he might be acknowledged as 
the true objeft of worship. Having, accords 
ingly, subdued the gods of wood, stone, brass, 
silver, and gold, his ministers declared, that 
all the gods did him homage. This the priests 
of Canopus hearing, and finding the Chaldeans 
had brought their god to contend wi th Canopus, 
they took a large earthen vessel, in which they 

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bored several holes, and, after stopping them 
with wax, filled the vessel with water, painted 
it of several colours, and fitting the head of 
an idol to it, brought it forth to contend with 
the Chaldean deity. The Chaldeans, accord- 
ingly, committed it to the flames, but the heat 
having melted the wax, the water rushed 
through the holes, and extinguished their 
fire : thus Canopus conquered the god of the 
Chaldeans. Canopus, or Canobus, according 
to Strabo, was pilot to Menelaus, and had a 
temple erefted to him in a town called Canopus, 
near one of the mouths of the Nile, which Dio- 
nysius also mentions. Vossius remarks, on this 
occasion, the vanity of the Greeks, who, as he 
conjeftures, hearing of an Egyptian deity 
named Canopus, took the opportunity of dei- 
fying the pilot of Menelaus, as being of the 
same name, and gave out, that the Egyptian 
god Canopus was of Grecian origin. Mont- 
fau'con gives several representaions of this 
deity : one, in allusion to the viftory above- 
mentioned, throws out water on every side 
through little holes. The Abbe la Pluche 
takes this imaginary deity to have been ori- 
ginally no more than a vessel used by the 
Egyptians to exhibit to the people the depth 
of the overflowing of the Nile ; and observes, 
that it probably held as many measures as the 
depth of the water had fathoms or cubits ; 
and adds, that they sometimes put upon the 
vase the figure of a man's head, as a symbol 
of industry or husbandry ; at others, the head 
of a young woman, to mark the state of the 
Nile under the sign Virgo ; and, at others, the 
head of a dog, to signify the state of that river 
at the time of the rising of the Dog-star. 

CANTHUS, son of Abas, and one of the Argo- 
nauts, was killed by Caphaurus the Lybian, 
with the fragment of a rock, as is related by 
ApoUonius in his fourth book. 

CANULEIA, one of the first four Vestals cho- 
sen by Numa. 

CAPANEUS. SteEvadne. 

CAPANEIA CONJUX, the wife of Capaneus, 
that is, Evadne. 

CAPEDUNCULA, the vessels in which the sa- 
cred fire of Vesta was preserved. 

CAPENI, a peo[^e of Etruia, in whose territory 

a temple and grove were consecrated to Fe- 

CAPHAREUS, a considerable promontory in 
the island of Euboea, upon which Nauplius, 
to revenge the death of Palamedes, his son, 
whom Ulysses had slain, set a blazing flam- 
beaux in a dark night, to mislead the Grecian 

CAPHAURUS, a Lybian shepherd descended 
from ApoUo, by Acacalis, daughter of Minos, 
who bore to the god Amphithemis or Gara- 
maus. Amphithemis having intrigued with 
Diana, according -to Apollonius, the goddess 
became the mother of Nasamon and Caphaurus. 
Canthus the Argonaut, was slain by the latter, 
and himself experienced a similar fate. 

CAPHYRA, daughter of Oceanus. She is said to ■ 
have nursed and brought up Neptune. 

CAPITOLINE GAMES. See Games, Capiio- 

CAPITOLINUS, a name of Jupiter, from the 
Capitoline Hill, upon the top of which he had 
the first temple ever built in Rome. Tarquin 
the Elder vowed to build it. Tarquin the 
Proud built, and Horatius the Consul dedicat- 
ed it. See under Temple. 

CAPNOMANTIA, the art of auguring from 

CAPREUS. king of Haliartus. SeeArion. 

CAPRICORN, a sign of the Zodiac, consisting 
of twenty-eight stars in the form of a goat- 
Some pretend that Pan, assuming this form, 
when terrified at the giant Typhon, was trans- 
ferred by Jupiter to the heavens ; whilst others 
suppose it to have been the goat Amalthea, 
which Jupiter sucked. 

CAPRIFICALIS, the day consecrated to Vulcan, 
on which the Athenians offered him money. 

CAPRIPEDES, a surname of Pan, the Fauni, 
and Satyrs, givai them from their having goat's 

CAPRONIA, a vestal virgin, who suffered death 
for having violated her chastity, 

CAPROTINA, a name of Juno. On the nones 
of July, that is, on the 7th day, the Roman 
maid-servants celebrated her festival, together 
with several free-born women, and offered sa- 
crifices to Juno under awild fig-tree (caprificus) 
in memory of that extraordinary virtue which 
dire(£ied them to those measures, by which the 

DigiUzed by VjOOQIC 





honour of the Romi^n name was preserved. 
After the city was taken, and the Gallic tu- 
mults quieted, the borderers finding an oppor- 
tunity of further oppressing the Romans, sent 
an herald to intimate, that if they desired to 
save the remainder of their city, they must 
send out to them all their wives and daugh- 
ters. The Senate was strangely distrafled at 
the nature of this summons ; but a maid-ser- 
vant, whose name was Philotis or Tutela, an- 
nouncing to it her design, took with her seve- 
ral other maid-servants, dressed them like mis- 
tresses of families and their daughters, and 
went with them to the enemy. Livy, the Dicta- 
tor, having dispersed them about the camp, 
they incited the enemy to drink, alleging, 
that the day was a festival. The soldiers 
sleeping soundly in consequence of the wine, 
a signal was given from a wild fig-tree, and the 
Romans rushed forth, and cut off the enemy. 
The Senate, in gratitude for so important a 
service, not only made the maid-servants free, 
but assigned them portions out of the public 
treasury ; and further, ordered, that the day 
should be called Nonae Caprotinae, from the 
wild fig-tree whence the signal was given ; and 
further enjoined, that an annual sacrifice should 
be celebrated to Juno Caprotina under a wild 
fig-tree, the juice of which, in memory of the 
aftion, was to be mixed with the sacrifices.-— 
ether authors, however, affirm, that Juno, on 
account of the skin and horns of the goatwhich 
she wore, had the name Caprotina. 

CAPRUS. ?>etCabrus. 
^CAPUA. the chief city of Campania, of which 
Capys is said to have been the founder. 

CAPYS, son of Assaracus, by a daughter of the 
Simois, was father of Anchises by Themis, and 
grandfather of Aeneas. 

Another of the same name came with Aeneas into 
Italy, and is the reputed founder of Capua. 

CAR, son of Phoroneus, king of Megara. Also 
a son of Manea, and husband of Callirhoe, the 
daughter of Maeander, from whom Caria was 

CAR AN US, the same with Recaratms, a surname 
of Hercules. 

CARAEUS, great, e/enc/frf, a surname of Jupiter. 
Others derive it from the worship paid him in 

CARCINUS, a constellation mentioned by Lu- 
can, the same with Cancer. 

nally the Nymph Grane, whom Janus is said 
to have surprized ; and, to compensate the in- 
jury, made her goddess of door-hinges. She is 
generally supposed to have been the same with 
Carma, or Cams. 

CARE, one of the children of Nox and Ere- 

CARIUS, son of Jupiter and Torrebia, walking 
round the lake Torrebia, and listening to the 
melodious voices of the Nymphs, learnt their 
music, which he afterwards taught the Lydians, 
who, out of gratitude, worshippcfd him as a 
god, and built him a temple upon a hill, which 
was called by his name. 

CARMA, OR CARNA, the goddess who pre- 
sided over the vital parts, and occasioned a 
healthy constitution of body. Some say, this 
goddess was the wife of Janus. To Carma they 
sacrificed on the 1st of June, with a pottage 
of beans, meal, and bacon. She is also called 
Dea Cardims, or The Qoddess of the Hinge, be- 
cause, says Ovid, by her influence she opens 
what is shut, and shuts what is open. 

CARME, daughter of Eubulus, and mother of 
the huntress Nymph Britoniartis, by Ju- 

CARMALIS, a divinity amongst the inhabitants 
of Mount Carmel, which lay between Judea 
and Syria. 

deity. Some think her a destiny who presides 
over the birth of man ; for which reason she 
is particularly honoured by mothers: others 
say, she was wife of Evander, the Arcadian, 
and a prophetess, who used to deliver her ora- 
cles in verse, and from carmen, a verse, was cal- 
led Carmenta ; others, more probably, derive 
Carmenta from carens mente, as being bereft of 
her wits in the paroxysms of enthusiasm. Her 
true name was Nicostrata, and not the wife, 
but mother of Evander, with whom she left 
Arcadia, and ai rived in Italy, where king 
Faunus, about sixty years before the taking of 
Troy, hospitably received them. She had an 
altar dedicated to her near the Porta Carmen- 
talis; also, a temple in the eighth quarter of 
the city of Rome,*erefiled to her on the follow- 

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ing occasion: The Roman matron's having 
resolved not to see their husbands till the pri- 
vilege of riding in vehicles, which had been 
abolished by a decree of the Senate, was re- 
stored to them ; the Senate, to appease their 
resentment, revoked the decree; an inter- 
course with their husbands was renewed, and 
the good ladies proving uncommonly proli- 
fick, they not only returned thanks to the god- 

' dess Carmenta,who, they supposed, had occasi- 
oned their extraordinary fertility, but also built 
a temple, and instituted sacrifices in honour 
of her. Leathern cloaks were forbidden to be 
worn in her temple, on account of their im- 
purity, as being the skin of a dead animal. — 
Ovid, who relates the story of this Arcadian 
matron at large, particularly describes her as 
a prophetess, and Virgil introduces Evander 
himself, ascribing his arrival in Italy to the 
prophetic warnings of his mother. Carmenta 
is said to have turned the Greek letters n and 
y, inverted by Epicharmusf, into Latin ones, 
which were brought by Evander when he fled 
from Arcadia into Italy. Carmenta is repre- 
sented on a coin of Q. Fabius Maxinius Ebur. 
nus, in a youthful form, with loose curled 
hair falling in ringlets to her shoulders : on her 
head is a crown of bean-leaves, and by her 
side a harp, the symbol of her prophetic cha- 
rafler. See Evander. 

Carmenta, a tutelar deity of infants. She sung 
their destinies, and probably was the same 
with the preceding. 

GARMENT ALIA, a feast among the ancient 
Romans, celebrated annually upon the Uth of 
January, in honour of Carmenta, a prophetess 
of Arcadia, and mother of Evander, with whom 
she came into Italy sixty years before the Tro- 
jan war. The solemnity was also repeated on 
the Uth of January, which is marked in the 
old calendar by Carmentalta relata. This feast 
was established on account of a great fecundity 
among the Roman dames, after a general re- 
conciliation with their husbands, with whom 
they had been at variance, on the. score of ve- 
hicles being prohibited them by an edift of the 
Senate. It was celebrated by the women. He 
who offered the sacrifices was called Sacerdos 

CARNE. SeeCarjjw. 

CARNEIA, a festival solemnized in most cities 
of Greece, but particularly at Sparta, where it 
was first instituted, about the 26th Olympiad, 
in honour of Apollo, sumamed Cameus, either 
from Camus, a Trojan, who was son of Jupiter 
and Europa, and beloved by Apollo, or from 
Carnus the Acarnanian, who was instructed by 
that god in the art of divination, and after- 
wards murdered by the Dorians ; for which 
instance of barbarity, Apollo sent them a 
plague. To avert their punishment, they in- 
stituted, according to Pausanias, this festival : 
aire tk xf«wni«, l. 6. from the cornel-tree, by trans- 
posing the letter j , as the sameauthor intimates ; 
it being reported by some, that thisfestival was 
instituted by the Greeks, who had incurred 
Apollo's displeasure by cutting down several 
cornel-trees, in a grove consecrated to him on 
Mount Ida, for the purpose of building the 
wooden horse ; or, lastly, an-a n n^mn, i. t. from 
accomplisbing the request of Menelaus, who, 
when he undertook the expedition against 
Troy, made a vow to Apollo, promising to 
pay him some signal honour, if his undertak- 
ing met with success. This festival lasted 

nine days, beginning on the ISth of the month 
Cameus, which answered to the Athenian Me. 
tagitn'um, and was an imitation of the method 
of living, and the discipline used, in camps; 
for there were nine tents erefted, in each of 
which nine men of three different tribes, three 
being chosen out of each tribe, lived for th(i 
space of nine days, during which time they 
were obedient to a public cryer, and did no- 
thing without his express order. Thepniesti 
whose ofBce it was to attend at this solemnity, 
was named Ayvnt ; and out of every tribe five 
other ministers were chosen, who were called 
Ka^Micrai, and obliged to continue in their 
, function four years, during which they were 
not allowed to marry. At this festival, the 
musical numbers called Ko^wioi MjMt were sung 
by musicians, in a contest for vi&ory. The 
first prize was won by Terpander. 

CARNEUS, a name of Apollo. SeeCameia. 

CARNUS, son of Jupiter and Europa. Also, 
an Acarnanian so called, killed by the Dorians. 
See Carneia. 

CARON. See Cbaron. 

CARPO, daughter of Zcphyrus, and one of the 




Seasons, loved and was beloved by Camillns, 
the son of Maeander, in whose streams being 
drowned, Jupiter changed her into all kinds 
of fruit. 

CARPOPHORA, an epithet given by the Tega- 
eans to Ceres and Prosft-pine. 

CARTHAGO, a daughter of Hercules, after 
whom the Tyrians named the city of Car- 

CARYA, GARY AXIS, a festival in honour of 
Diana, surnamed Caryatis, from Caryum, in 
Laconia, where this solemnity was celebrated. 
It was usual for virgins to meet on this occa- 
sion, and join in a certain dance, said to 
have been invented by Castor and Pollux, which 
they called K«puaTi$»y. During the invasion of 
Xerxes, when the Laconians durst not stir out 
for fear of the enemy, the neighbouring swains, 
to avert the wrath of the goddess for inter- 
mitting the solemnity, assembled in the ac- 
customed place, and sung pastorals, which 
were called BeuKoA(r/<ot, from Bsxoa^ aneat-berd ; 
whence some are of opinion, that Bucolic poe- 
try came first into use. 

CARYBDIS. SeeCbarybdis. 

CASIUS, a surname of Jupiter, who was wor- 
shipped under it in three difierent places. The 
first was a considerable mountain which sepa- 
rated Egypt from Palestine, about twelve 
leagues from Pelusium, and was not less re- 
markable -for the tomb of Pompey the Great, 
than for the temple of Jupiter himself. Mount 
Casius in Syria, near Seleucia, was the second, 
where Jupiter had a temple under the title of 
Casius, not far from Antioch, as is evident from 
the inhabitants resorting thither every year to 
celebrate a feast in honour of Triptolemus. — 
The third place where Jupiter Casius was wor- 
shipped, was at Cassiope, a city in the island 
Corcyra," situate on the westernmost cape of 
the island, and nearest the main land. Sue- 
tonius represents Nero as landing on this point, 
and singing before the altar of Jupiter Casius. 
There are medals still extant, which exhibit 
JujHterwith these inscriptions— ZEYC KACIOC, 
& ZEYX KAIIOE— expressive of this title. 

CASMILLA, the mother of Camilla. 

CASMILLUS, was reckoned the fourth of the 
Samothracian gods, or the gods Cabiri. Where- 
ever he came^ by the hM-mony of his voice, the 


eloquence of his speech, his graceful mien, 
and decent behaviour, he persuaded mankind 
to a regular, discreet, and moral way of liv- 
ing. This Casmillus was supposed to have 
been Mercury, who was sometimes distin- 
guished by this name, as well as by th(»e of 
Cadmillus and Camillus. See Cadmillus, Ca- 

CASPERIA, wife of Rhoetus, king of the Mar- 
rubii, committed adultery with the son of her 

CASSANDRA, daughter of Priam, king of Troy, 
and Hecuba, was tempted by Apollo, and de- 
ceived him. He promised to bestow -upon her 
the gift of prophecy, on condition she consent- 
ed to gratify his passion. Cassandra seemingly 
assented, but no sooner had she obtained the 
gift of prophecy, than she laughed at the temp- 
ter, and kept not her word. Apollo, how- 
ever, to revenge himseff, did not deprive her 
of the gift he had conferred, but caused her to 
be considered as mad, and her prediiftions, 
when delivered, to pass unregarded. Others 
give a different account of her acquiring the 
prophetic spirit. They relate that Helenas and 
Cassandra were carried, in their infancy, to 
the temple of Apollo, and, either out of for- 
getfulness, or because it was the custom, left 
there the whole night. On being the next day 
sought for, they were found with serpents 
twisted round ^eir bodies, and licking their 
ears, which were said to have endowed theiji 
with the gift of prediction. When the Greeks 
sacked Troy, Cassandra fled for shelter to the 
temple of Minerva, and there saved her life. 
Her honour, however, she lost through the 
violence of Ajax, son of Oileus, in the middle of 
the temple. Under the article Ajax Oileus, it 
has been related in what manner Minerva re- 
sented this injury ; in respeft to the punish- 
ment of this obscene impiety, it is remarkable 
that it fell on the sex which had been injured, 
for the Locri were obliged to send annually 
young maidens to Troy, where they passed 
their days in a severe condition, being doomed 
to sweep the temple of Minerva, and remain in 
perpetual virginity. Cassandra, in the divi- 
sion of the plunder of Troy, fell to the lot of 
Agamemnon ; though, if we believe Euripides, 
he obtained her from the Greeks as a gifl> she 

ii^ed by 






being set apart for the monarch at first. That 
she was not an unacceptable present^ is obvious 
from the jealousy with which she inspired Cly- 
temnestra, it having been considered as the. 
motive which stimulated her to perpetrate the 
murder of her husband ; who, together with 
the Trojan princess and the twin-sons she had 
bom him, were miserably butchered by his 
queen, on his return from Troy to Mycenae. — 
In vain did Cassandra predial the fate of Troy ! 
in vain that Agamemnon would be assassinated 
when he came to his country ! She was extreme- 
ly beautiful, and had been sought in marriage 
by powerful princes, among whom were Oth- 
ryoneus, who fell fighting for the Trojans, and 
Coroebus, wHo was killed the night in which 
Troy was taken. The latter is mentioned by 
Pausanias as the destined husband of Cassandra. 
A contest arose between the cities of Mycenae 
and Amides about her tomb, each pretending 
to possess it. A temple was built to her ho- 
nour in Leuftra, where a statue was conse- 
crated to her under the name of Alexandra, by 
which she was nearly as well known as by that 
of Cassandra ; witness the poem still extant of 
Lycophron. This author speaks of a temple 
of Cassandra, built by the Daunians, and by 
the inhabitants of the city of Dardanua : the 
statue of this lady was there an asylum to such 
maidens as were determined not to marry, and 
who grounded their refusal eirtier on the ugliness 

or low birth of those who addressed them 

The remedy they employed on these occasions 
was, to embrace the statue of Cassandra ; but 
as a previous requisite, they were obliged to 
-put on the dress of Furies, and change the hue 
of their complexion, by daubing their faces 
with drugs. They devoted themselves in a 
particular manner to the worship of Cassandra, 
and honoured her as a goddess. Plutarch in- 
forms us that there was in Thalame an oracle 
ofPasiphae, and that, according to some wri- 
ters, Cassandra died in that place, and was 
called Pasiphae, because she gave oracles to all 
who consulted her. 
CASSIOPE, OR CASSIOPEIA, wife of Cepheus, 
king of Ethiopia, and mother of Andromeda, 
boasting that she was more beautiful than the 
Nereids, it so provoked them, that they desired 
Neptune to revenge them, on which he sent 

into the country of Cepheus a sea-monster, 
which committed dreadful ravages. To ap- 
pease the god, Andromeda was chained to a 
rock, and exposed to the monster, but was res- 
cued by Perseus, who married her, and ob- 
tained of Jupiter, that Cassiopeia might be 
placed, after her death, among the stars ; hence 
the constellation of that name, in the northern 
hemisphere, situated opposite to Ursa Major, 
on the other side the pole. 

CAST ALIA, the Nymph, was beloved by A- 
pollo, but she vanished from the god in the 
form of a fountain, which was afterwards sa- 
cred to the Muses, who were thence called Cas- 
talides, and the Castalian Sisters. 

CASTALIDES, a name common to the Muses, 
from the fount Castalia, at the foot of Mount 

CASTIANIRA. See Gorgytbio. 

CASTOR AND POLLUX. Jupiter having an a- 
mour with Leda, wife of Tyndarus, king of 
Sparta, in the form of a swan, she brought 
forth two eggs, each containing twins: from 
that impregnated by Jupiter, proceeded Pollux 
and Helena, who were both immortal ; from 
the other Castor and Clytemnestra, who being 
begotten by Tyndarus, were Iwth mortal : they 
were all, however, called by the common name 
of Tyndaridae, Apollodorus relates the story 
otherwise, and says Jupiter, being in love with 
Nemesis, transformed himself into a swan, and 
his mistress into a duck ; adding it was she 
that gave Leda the egg she had hatched, and, 
consequently, was the real mother of the twin, 
brothers. These brothers entered into an in- 
violable friendship, and when they grew up, 
cleared the Archipelago of pirates, on which 
account they were esteemed deities of the sea, 
and accordingly were invoked by mariners in 
tempests. They went with the other noble 
youths of Greece in the expedition to Colchis, 
in search of the golden fleece, and on all occa- 
sions signalized themselves by their courage. 
In this expedition Pollux slew Amycus, son of 
Neptune, and king of Bebrycia, who had chal- 
lenged all the Argonauts to box with him.-— 
This vi6tory, and that which he gained after- 
wards at the Olympic games which Hercules 
celebrated in Elis, made him be reckoned the 
hero and patron of wresUers, while his brother 

ized by 





Castor distinguished himself in the race, and in 
the management of horses. Being returned 
home, they recovered their sister Helen, whom 
Theseus had ravished, by taking the city of 
Aphidna, and spared all the inhabitants except 
Aethra, mother of Theseus, whom they carried 
away captive ; and for this clemency they ob- 
tained the title of Dioscouroi, sons of Jupiter ; 
yet love soon phinged them in the same error 
they had sought to punish in the person of The- 
seus. Leucippus and Arsinoe had two beauti- 
ful daughters, called Phoebe and Talyra. 

These virgins were contracted to Lynceusand 
Ida, sons of Aphareus, but the two brothers, 
without regarding these engagements, carried 
them ofF by force. The lovers 6ew to their re- 
lief, and met the ravishers, with their prize, 
near Mount Taygetus : a smart conflict ensued. 
In which Castor was killed by Lynceus, who, 
in return, fell by the hands of Pollux. This 
immortal brother had been wounded by Ida, if 
Jupiter had not struck him with his thunder. — 
Pollux, however, was so touched at the loss of 
his brother, that he earnestly begged of Jupiter 
to make Castor immortal, but it being impos- 
sible to grant this request, he obtained leave to 
share with his brother his own immortality, so 
■that they were said to live and die alternately 
every day. They were buried in the country 
of Lacedaemon, and forty years after their de- 
cease, translated to the skies, where they form 
the constellation Gemini, one of which rises as 
the other sets. Castor and Pollux were es- 
teemed propitious to navigation ; for when the 
Argonauts weighed from Sigaeum, they were 
overtaken with a tempest, during which Orphe- 
us oiFered vows for the safety of the ship, when 
immediately two lambent flames appeared over 
the heads of Castor and Pollux, which appear- 
ance was succeeded by so great a calm, as gave 
the crew a notion of their divinity. In suc- 
ceeding times, these fires, often seen by mari- 
ners, were taken as a favourable omen ; but 
when one was seen alone, it was called Helena, 
and imagined to forebode some evil. A mar- 
tial dance, called the Pyrrhic, or Castorian, 
was invented in honour of these deities. Cicero 
relates a wonderful judgment which happened 
to one Scopas, who had spoken disrespeftfully 
of these divinities : he was crushed to death by 

the fall of a chamber, whilst Simonides, who 
was in - the same room, was rescued from the 
danger, being called out a little before, by two 
persons unknown, supposed to be Castor and 
Pollux. Concerning these brothers, Pausanias 
relates that they came once to the house where 
they had lived upon earth, and begged of Phor- 
mio, who was then in possession of it, to take 
them in for that night, pretending they were 
strangers from Cyrene : they asked, moreover, 
to be in one particular chamber, which they 
had been formerly fond of ; but Phormio told 
them the whole house was at their service ex- 
cepting only that chamber, in which was a 
young girl whom Phormio kept. They seem- 
ingly agreed to accept of any other apartment, 
but in the morning Phormio found both the 
young woman and his guests gone, and nothing 
left in the chamber but two statues of Castor 
and Pollux. The Greek and Roman histories 
are full of the miraculous appearance of these 
brethren ; particularly we are told they were 
seen fighting upon two white horses, at the 
head of the Roman army, in tlie battle between 
the Romans and Latins, near the lake RegilHus, 
and brought the news of the decisive vi<Sory of 
Paulus Aemilius to Rome, the very day it was 
obtained. The Cephalenses, inhabitants of 
Cephalonia, placed these brothers among the 
Dii Magni, or gods of the first order. They 
had a temple at Rome, erected in memory of 
the assistance they w ere supposed to nave given 
the Romans in the battle just mentioned. This 
edifice, though built in honour of the two dei- 
ties, was railed only by the name of the former. 
The fountain in the neighbourhood of this tem- 
ple, was also consecrated to the twin- brothers. 
The Romans likewise celebrated a festival on 
the ides of July, in honour of Castor and Pol- 
lux, which was the anniversary of the memo- 
rable battle of Regellius. On this occasion the 
Roman equites, or knights, formed a splendid 
cavalcade. They began their march at the 
temple of Mars, situated without the walls, and 
passed through the Forum, before the temple 
of Castor and Pollux. They were sometimes 
in number five thousand, and were crowned 
with olive branches. The Romans sacrificed 
white lambs to Castor and Pollux. Frequent 
representations of these deities occur on ancient 

y Google 

monuments, and particularly on Consular me- 
dals. They are exhibited together, each hav- 
ing a helmet, out of which issues a flame, and 
each a pike in one hand, and in the other a 
horse held by the bridle : sometimes they are 
represented as two beautiful youths, complete- 
ly armed, and riding on white horses, with 
stars over their helmets. Spence says, " Their 
statues were very common in Rome of old, and 
they were placed, in particular, before the tem- 
ple of Jupiter Tonans, on the Capitoline hill. 
The chief thing to be remarked in their figures 
is, that they are exaftly alike. They have each 
a chlamys, and yet are almost wholly naked : 
each has a star over his head ; each has his 
horse of the same colour, and his spear held in 
one and the same posture. In a word, each 
has the same make, look, and features. Never 
were any twins more alike than these are repre- 
sented to have been, by the poets ; and yet 
they are not more alike in their descriptions 
of them than they are in the old figures, and 
particularly on the Roman family-medals, 
where one meets with them extremely often." 
The vessel in which St. Paul embarked from the 
island of Melita, for Rome, carried the figures 
of Castor and Pollux, according to the practice 
of the ancients, who usually painted or carried 
on the prows of their ships, the image of some 
god. to whom they dedicated the vessel. A- 
mongst the Lacedemonians, these divinities 
were represented under the figure of two pa- 
rallel pieces of wood, joined together at top 
and bottom, so as to form the present astrono- 
mical charafter of the Twins, thus II. 

CATAEBATES, a surname of Jupiter, taken 
from the prodigies by which he announced his 
will.— Apollo, for the same reason, was stiled 
Catabasius, or ProdigialU. 

CATAGOGION, a festival at Ephesus, celebra- 
ted on the 22d of January, in which the devo- 
tees ran about the streets dressed in divers an- 
tic and unseemly habits, with huge cudgels in 
their hands, and carrying the images of their 
gods. In this guise they ravished the women, 
abused and often killed the men, and com- 
mitted many other disorders to which the 
religion of the day gave a sanftion. It is 
not smd on what account, or to whom, this 
festival was instituted. Meursius, who wrote 
Vol. I. 3 


De Festis Graecorum, has entirely overlooked 

CATAMITUS, a surname of Ganymede. 

CAT APACTYME, a festival kept by the natives 
of Peru in the month of December: dedicated 
to three figures of the Sun, called by them A- 
pointi, Cburiunti, and Entiaquacqui ; i. e. tbe Sun 
the father, tbe Sun tbe son, and tbe Sun tbe bro- 

CATHARI ; The divinities of Arcadia were so 
called ; as was a nation of Indians mentioned 
by Diodorus, whose wives attend the bodies of 
their husbands to the funeral pile, and are 
burnt with them upon it. 

CATHARM A, in antiquity, some miserable or 
flagitious wretch, sacrificed to the gods as an 
expiation for the plague, or other calamity. 
Such was the prophet Jonas, when cast into 
the sea ; and such did St. Paul wish himself 
to have been. 

CATILLUS, son of Amphiaraus, and brother 
of Corus and Tyburtus, to whose memory he 
built Tybur. These brothers are both men- 
tioned in the seventh Aeneid, and Corus again 
in the eleventh. 

CATINENSIS : Ceres was thus named from Ca- 
tana, a city in Sicily, where she had a temple 
which men were forbidden to enter. 

CATIUS, one of the deities presiding over adult 
persons: he made men circumspect, acute, and 

CATIZI, a race of Pigmies, supposed to have 
been driven from their country by cranes. 

CATREUS, a king of Crete, whom his son killed 
without knowing him, at Rhodes, See Atbe- 

CATULIANA, a surname given to Minerva, 
from a standard consecrated to her by Lucius 

CAUCASUS, the name of a shepherd who fed 
his flocks on Mount Niphates, This shepherd 
is said to have been killed by Saturn, who, af- 
ter the war with the giants, having fled thither 
to avoid the threats of Jupiter, sought to dis- 
possess him. From this asylum, however, Sa- 
turn was driven, and cast by his son into Tar- 
tarus. To honour the shepherd, the mountain, 
at the command of Jupiter, was named from 
him; and upon it Prometheus was chained. 

GAUCON, son ofCUnua, who first introduced 

uyuzed by Google 




amongst the Messenians the orgies of Eleu- 

Lycaon had alsoason of the same name. 

CAVE, OR CAVERN : See jieolus, Sibyl, Tro- 

CAUMAS, the name of a celebrated Centaur. 
The others were Gryneus, Rhoetus, Arnaeus, 
Medon, and Pysenor. The more celebrated of 
this race however were, Chiron, Eurytus, A- 
mycua, Pholus, and Caumus. 

CAUNIUS, a surname of Cupid. 

CAUNUS. See Byblis. 

CAURUS, a wind blowing from the west. 

CAUSA Y. SeeCa;^-y. 

CAYSTRIUS, a hero to whom divine honours 
were rendered in Asia Minor, where he had 
altars on the river Cayster, which flowed near 
Ephesus. The banks of this river were cele- 
brated by the Poets as the favourite resort of 

CEADES, a Thracian, whose son Euphemius 
was engaged in the Trojan war, and condufted 
thither an armament of Thracians in favour of 

ster worshipped at Memphis, supposed to have 
been a Satyr, or Ape. 

CEBREN, the father of Asterope, and Oenone. 

CEBRENIS, the patronymic of Oenone, the 
daughter of Cebrenus. 


CEBRIONES, one of the giants who made war 
on the gods, and was killed by Venus. 

Another of the same name, natural son of Priam, 
and charioteer of Heflor, after the death of 
Archeptolemus, was killed by Patroclus, with 
a stone which he hurled at his head. 

CECROPES, auxiliaries engaged by Jupiter in 
his war against the Titans ; but these, after 
having received his money, refusing to follow 
him, he turned them all into apes. 

CECROPIA, the original name of Athens, given 
it from CecropSfc its founder. The ancients 
frequently extend it to Attica at large, and the 
Athenians are stiled Cecropidae from it. Hence 
also the epithet Cecropian applied to Minerva. 

CECROPlI>ES,an appellative applied to Theseus, 
by Ovid. 

CECROFIS, the patronyiriic of Aglauros, daugh- 
ter of Cccrops. 

CECROPS, a native of Sais in Egypt, and the 
first king of the Athenians, built, or, accord- 
ing to others, embellished the city of Athens. 
He married Agr&ule, daughter of Aitaeus, and 
civilized the people of Attica, about 1U8 years 
before the Christian era. He had sixteen suc- 
cessors in the space of 488 years, till the time 
of Codrus. He was the first who established 
civil government and marriages among the 
Greeks ; and was also the first who acknowledg- 
ed Jupiter by the name of Supreme, teaching 
his 8ubje(5t8 that no sort of cruelty ought to ap- 
proach the divine altars, and that nothing 
which had life was to be sacrificed, but rather 
cakes of their country corn, since clemency 
and beneficence were most consonant to the 
celestial nature. He died after a reign of fifty 
years, leaving three daughters, Aglauros, Herse, 
and Pandrosos, and was succeeded on the throne 
by Cranaus, a native of Attica. The twelve 
villages which he had established, were said to 
have been incorporated into one city by These- 
us, and denominated Athens. Some writers 
describe Cecrops as a monster, half man and 
half serpent. This fiftion has been supposed to 
symbolize either his being possessed of both 
the Greek and Egyptian language, "or else of 
the power which he retained both in Egypt 
and Greece. 

Cecrops, as he is stiled, the second, was the seventh 
kingof Athens, son and successor of Erechtheus, 
and father of Pandion, by Metiadusa, the sister 
of Daedalus ; he is said to have reigned forty 

CECULUS, son of Vulcan. Se&Caeculm. 

CEDREATIS, an epithet of Diana amongst the 
Orchomenians, by whom her images were sus- 
pended on the loftiest cedars. 

CEGLUSA, the mother of Asopus, by Neptune. 

CEIX. SeeCcy-r- 

CELADON, one of those who were killed by Per- 
^us, at his marriage with Andromeda. Also 
the name of one of the Lapithae. 

CELAEN A, a situation in Campania consecrated 
to Juno, There was likewise a mountain of 
Asia so called, near which Apollo flead the Sa- 
tyr Marsyas. 

CELAENEA DEA, Cybele, thus named from 
Celaenae, a city of Phrygia, where she was 

Digitized by 






CELAENO, one of the Pleiades, and daughter 
of Atlas by Pleione, who having suffered vio* 
lence from the passion of Neptune, became by 
him the mother of Lyeus. 

Likewise one of the Harpyes, daughter of Nep- 
tune and Terra. 

Another daughter of Neptune by Ergea, was of 
this name : as was also one of the Danaides, and 
the daughter of Hyamus, who was the mother 
of Delphus, by ApoHo. 

CELENEUS, a Cimmerian, who first taught by 
what means murderers might expiate their 

CELERES DEAE, or tbe Nimble Goddesses, an ap- 
pellative of the Hours. 

Deities Celestial. 

CELEUS, king of Eleusis, and by Metanira, fa- 
ther of Triptolemus. Ceres, in return for the 
hospitality with which he entertained her, in- 
stru(5ted him in the various branches of agri- 
culture, fostered his son with celestial milk, 
and by night covered him with fire, to render 
him immortal. Celeus, through curiosity, 
having discovered the last particular, was great- 
ly terrified, and exclaimed that his son would 
be killed, on which she imjiiediately destroyed . 
him. See Triptolemus. 

There was another Celeus, king of Cephallenia. 

CELEUSTANOR, son of Hercules, by Lao- 

CELEUTOR, the son of Agrius. 

CELME, a Thessalian, was changed into a dia- 
mond,forherhavingpropagated the declaration 
of her husband, that Jupiter was mortal. 

CELMUS, the foster-father of Jupiter, was ex- 
tremely fond of his ward whilst an infant; but 
Jupiter, after he had banished his father Saturn, 
recollefting that Celmus had aflirmed he was 
mortal, transformed him into a diamond. 

There was another of this name amongst the Cu- 
retes, who was exiled by his brethren for want 
of reverence to the Mother of the Gods. 

CENAEUS. SceCaenis. 

CENCHRIAS, daughter of the Nymph Pirene, 
was accidentally killed by a dart which Diana 
had aimed at a beast 

CENCHRIS, wife of Cinyras, king of Assyria, 
according to some, and of Cyprus, according 
to others; was mother of Myrrha, who was 

mother of Adonis by her own father. See Myr- 
rba, Adonis. 

CENCHREUS, a river of Ionia, in which Diana 
is said to have been bathed immediately after 
her birth. 

CENEUM, a promontory of Euboea, whence, 
from his worship there, Jupiter obtained the 
surname of Ceneus. 

CENCHREUS. SeeCycfi««i. 

CENEUS, a hero mentioned by Homer. 

CENSER, in Latin Tburibulum, a sacred instru- 
ment used in the religious rites of the ancients. 
It wasavase, containing incense to beofferedin 
sacrificing to the gods. Herodotus relates, that 
a most elegant one was presented by Evelthon 
at Delphi. Dionysius Halicarnassus tells us, 
that, in their solemn processions, they carried 
censers of silver and gold. There is the figure 
of one preserved by F. Montfaucon, under the 
form of a shallow cup, with a lid to it, and 
chains running through small handles. That 
Censers were in use among the Jews, we learn 
from their early history, and particularly from 
the story of Nadab and Abihu. Censers of pure 
gold were afterwards made by Solomon. 

CENTAUKI, CENTAURS. The Thessalians 
early distinguished themselves from the rest of 
Greece, who fought only on foot or in cha. 
riots, by their application to horsemanship. 
To acquire the greater dexterity in this art, 
they frequently contended with bulls ; and as, 
in provoking the animal to attack them, or in 
resisting h!m when enraged, they employed 
darts or javelins, they thence obtained the 
name of Centaurs, xfrnw signifying to goad or 
lance, and T«ufo; a bull ; and Hippocentaurs, from 
I'srirot a borse. These horsemen becoming for- 
midable by their depredations, the equivoca- 
tion of the name occasioned them to be ac 
counted monsters of a compound nature ; and, 
as this idea favoured the marvellous, it was 
eagerly adopted by the poet. These Cen- 
taurs are said, by some, to have been the off- 
spring of Centaurus, son of Apollo by Stilbia, 
daughter of the Peneus ; and that the Mares of 
Magnesia were their mothers : whilst others 
derive their origin from Ixion, and the Cloud 
which Jupiter substituted in the form of Juno, 
for that goddess, when Ixion attempted her 
chastity. Hence, accordingly, they were sUled 


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Nubigenae, or Cloud-horn, This fable has ad- 
mitted of various explanations. Some suppose 
the Centaurs to have been a body of shepherds 
and herdsmen, rich in cattle, who inhabited 
the mountains of Arcadia ; and to whom the 
invention of Bucolic poetry is given. Palae^ 
phatus, in his book of Incrediblea, relates, that 
under the reign of Ixion, king of Thessaly, a 
herd of bulls on Mount Thessaly ran mad, and 
ravaged the whole country, rendering, in par- 
ticular, the mountains inaccessible ; that some 
young men, who had found the art of curbing 
and mounting horses, undertook to clear the 
mountain of the bulls which infested it; and 
that, having pursued them on horseback for 
this purpose, they were thence called Centaurs. 
Rendered insolent by their success in this en- 
terprize, they insulted the Lapithae, a people 
of Thessaly, and because, when attacked, they 
fled with great expedition, they were conjec- 
tured to be half horses and half men. Ridicu- 
lous as it may seem, grave writers have con- 
tended for the aflual existence of these mon- 
sters. Plutarch mentions one, as having been 
seen by Periander, tyrant of Corinth : and 
Pliny says, that he himself saw one embalmed 
in honey, which had been brought in the time 
of Claudius from Egypt to Rome ; and adds, 
that the same emperor mentions another, born 
in Thessaly, but which, however, died on the 
day of its birth. Nor is this the last upon re- 
cord ; for St. Jerome relates, in the life of Paul 
the hermit, that a Centaur had been seen by 
St. Anthony ; the good father, notwithstand- 
ing, as he doubts neither the veracity nor eye- 
sight of the saint, suspetfla the objeift to have 
been an illusion of the Devil. — Few stories are 
more famous in historical fable than the battle 
of the Centaurs with the Lapithae, already re- 
ferred to. This battle is said to have happened 
in consequence of the brutalities which had 
been offered at the nuptials of Pirithous and 
Hippodamia, by the Centaurs, when intoxicat- 
ed, to the females then present. Theseus and 
Hercules undertaking their defence, the assail- 
ants were not only wounded and defeated, but 
driven from their country, and compelled to 
seek shelter in Arcadia. Here, however, they 
remained not quiet ; for, at an entertainment 
which Pholus had given Hercules, when on his 

way to destroy the boar of Erjnnanthus, they 
not only intruded, though they had not been 
bidden, but loudly contended on account of 
the wine, and attacked Pholus with fir-trees 
uptorn by the roots. Hercules, to requite the 
hospitality of his host, strenuously engaged to 
defend him, and with such efFeft were his exer- 
tions made, that the Centaurs betook them- 
selves to Chiron. As this Centaur had been 
the preceptor of their opponent, it was hoped 
his influence might secure them proteflion ; 
but Hercules, though retaining a respeft for 
his instru6tor, obstinately continued the con- 
flift, during which an arrow, glancing on the 
knee of Chiron, unfortunately occasioned his 
death. Irritated the more by this accident, 
Hercules pursued them without mercy, till the 
whole were destroyed, — Mr. Spence observes, 
that in the works of the ancient artists, female 
Centaurs are not uncommon. As an instance 
of this, he might have cited a bas-relief in the 
Villa Borghese, and a beautiful gem which 
exhibits a mother suckling a young one, appa- 
rently of the same sex. He has, however, no- 
ticed the description in Lucian of " a very fine 
pidure of a whole family of Centaurs, done by 
the famous Zeuxis, in which the male was re- 
presented as returning home from the chase, 
with a lion's whelp, and the female pressing 
one of her little ones to her breast as frightened 
at the sight of it." SeeCaumas. 

CENTAURUS, or the Centaur, properly so cal- 
led, was the most celebrated of the Centaurs, 
Chiron. See Chiron. 

A ship in the fleet of Aeneas, which bore the fi- 
gure of a Centaur, was likewise called Cen- 

CENTICEPS BELLUA, the beast with a hundred 
heads, was a name given to Cerberus, from the 
multiplicity of snakes on his triple mane. 

CENTIMANUS, having a hundred hands, an ap- 
pellative of Briareus. 

The sons of Coelus and Terra were distinguished 
by the epithet Cetttimani, as were the Cyclops 
and Titans ; though, according to some, the 
progeny of Coelus and Terra were appointed 
to guard the Titans in the infernal regions. 

CENTUMGEMINUS, a name of Briareus, or 
Aegeon, as having an hundred hands. 

CEPHALENIA, an island in the lopian sea. so 

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called from Cephalus, an armament from which 
followed Ulysses to Troy. 

CEPHALUS, a beautiful and graceful youth, 
with whom Aurora is said to have fallen in 
love, and by whom she had Phaeton. Cepha- 
lus is supposed to have been the same with the 
Sun, the head or prince of the stars, and Phae- 
ton, or Heat, to have been produced by the 
rapid force of his motion. The fable is thus 
related : Cephalus was son of Aeolus, and hus- 
band of Procris, daughter of Erechtheus king 
of Athena. Aurora, frequently meeting him 
early in the woods, intent on his sport, con- 
ceived a violent passion for him, and carried 
him with her to heaven. There she solicited 
him in vain to gratify her passion ; for no arts 
could induce him to violate his vow, from the 
persuasion that his wife was inexorably faith- 
ful. Aurora, however, that he might not be 
deceived, sent him to Frocris, in disguise, as 
a merchant. At the display of his presents, 
Procris relented, and just at the moment she 
was ready to yield, the unhappy husband threw 
off his disguise. Procris, overcome with shame 
and regret, immediately fled to the woods, but 
being afterwards reconciled, she presented to 
Cephalus an unerring dart. A present like 
this encreased his love of hunting, and proved 
doubly fatal to the donor. One day the young 
prince, fatigued with his toil, reposed himself 
in the woods, and called upon Aura to cool 
him. This being overheard, was related to 
Procris, who suspefting he had invoked the 
goddess Aurora, became jealous, and following 
her hfisband, hid herself in a thicket, where 
she unobserved could watch all his motions.-— 
Unfortunately, however, the rustling she made 
alarmed Cephalus, who thinking some savage 
might lie there concealed, discharged at a ven- 
ture the infallible dart. 

The accounts of Cephalus are various in respeft 
to his descent, whence we may infer there 
were several of the name ; for, though the Ce- 
phalus carried off by Aurora is said to have 
been the son of Aeolus, yet Apollodorus makes 
him descended from Mercury and Herse, and, 
notwithstanding he married Procris, the daugh- 
ter of Erechtheus, yet, according to the same 
author, the husband of Procris, whom he killed 
unawares, was the son of Deion and Diomede. 

ApolIodoruB adds, that as a punishment for 
his crime, he was exiled his country. Thence 
he is said to have gone to Thebes, and after- 
wards with Amphitryon, against the Teleboae, 
but finally settled in the fortunate islands. It 
should be observed that Cephalus, the son of 
Mercury and Herse resided some time ih Sy- 
ria, and was father to Tithonus. Other parti- 
culars are also mentioned of Procris, and a- 
mongst them that she gave Cephalus, with the 
arrow, a dog. 

CEPHEUS, a king of Aethiopia, father of An- 
dromeda, by Cassiope. He was one of the Ar- 
gonauts, and after his death, became a con- 

There was another Cepbeus, prince of Arcadia, 
and favoured by Minerva, who transferred to 
his head a lock from the head of Medusa, by 
which he was rendered invincible. He is men- 
tioned by Apollodorus as the son of Lycurgus, 
and hunter of the Calydonian boar. 

A third Cepbeus is said by the same author to 
have been the son of Aleus, an Argonaut, king 
of Tegea, father of Sterope, and an associate of 
Hercules, in opposition to Hippocoon. 

CEPHISIADES, a patronymic of Eteocles, son 
of Andreus and Erippe, though supposed to 
have been the son of Cepheus. 

CEPHISUS, the father of Diogenea. One of this 
name was reported to have been changed into 
a sea-monster, whilst venting his grief for the 
death of his grandson. 

CEPHISUS, OR CEPHISSUS, a celebrated river 
of Phocis, in which the Graces delighting to 
bathe, were thence stiled the goddesses of the 
Cephisus. This river, or rather River-god, is 
said to have been enamouredof several Nymphs; 
who all slighted his passion. 

CEPHISIUS, Narcissus, son of Cephisus. 


CEPHYRA, daughter of Oceanus, but by what 
mother is not said. She is fabled to have edu- 
cated Neptune. 

CERAMBUS, a man who, at the deluge, was 
changed to a beetle. 

CERAMUS, son of Bacchus and Ariadne, gave 
his name to two distrifts of Athens, one in the 
city, and the other in the suburbs. 

CERAMYNTUS, a surname of Hercules. 

CERASTES, a people of Amathus, whom Venua 

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because they sacrificed strangers to her, changed 
into bulls. 

derer, an epithet of Jupiter. 

CERBERUS, a terrible dog with three heads, 
each furnished with snakes for hair, was said 
to have sprung from Typhon and Echidna.-— 
It was his office to guard the gate of hell. Those 
who entered it were caressed by him, but to 
such as would return he was more terri ble than 
hell itself ; except in the instances of Bacchus 
and Hercules, Mercury, and Orpheus. The Dog 
of Darkness of the Edda, in some rcspefts, re- 
sembles this monster. Mythologists under- 
stand by Cerberus, the Earth ; and derive his 
name from xftoSepof, carniverous, it being the 
property of the earth to devour dead bodies. — 
The Platonists consider him as the Evil Dae- 
mon, who, as Porphyry expressed it, is found 
in the three elements, air, water, and earth ; 
whence the three heads. In a monument pre- 
served by, Montfaucon, Cerberus is represented 
on a box, withone headofa man, another of a 
dog, and the third of an ape, two serpents 
twisting round him, bind together his legs.— - 
This figure was brought from Egypt. Heaiod 
gives Cerberus fifty, and others an hundred 
heads ; but more commonly he appears with 
but three. He is said by some to have had the 
tail of a dragon, and instead of hair a skin 
shagged over with snakes, whence perhaps the 
epithet Medusean. 

CERCAPHUS. son of Aeolus, and grandfather 
of Phoenix. 

CERCEIS, a sea-nymph, daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys. 

CERCESTES, the son of Aegyptus and Phoe- 

CERCIUS, a charioteer of Castor and Pollux.— 
See Rbecius. 

CERCOPES, inhabitants of Pithecusa, whom Ju- 
piter, for their depravity, turned into apes. 

Also a people of Ephesus, whom Hercules con- 
ducted toOmphale in chains. 

CERCYON, the Arcadian king of Eleusis, and 
son of Vulcan, as pretended by some, or of 
Neptune by others, was the first that made 
wrestling an art As he was himself a profi- 
cient, he compelled all strangers to contend 
with him, and death followed their defeat. 

Having, however, challenged Theseus, and be- 
ing overcome in the contest, he experienced 
the same fate from his conqueror, which he had 
inflicted on the vanquished. He was succeeded 
in his kingdom by Hippothoon, tlie son of A- 
lope, his daughter, by Neptune, whom, though 
he had himself exposed, Theseus placed on his 
throne. Cercyon is said to have been so stron g 
that he could bend the tallest trees, to which 
he fastened thixe he overpowered, and with a 
jerk dismembered them. The scene of his 
confiiiSls was called, even in the time of Pausa- 
nias, the palaestra, or wrestling place of Cer- 

CERCYRA AND CORCYRA, an island in the 
Ionian sea, so named from Cercyra, the daugh- 
ter of Asopus. 

CERDEMPORUS, that is, greedy of gain, a sur- 
name of Mercury, the god of traffic. 

CERDOS, gain. See Cerdous. 

CERDOUS, an epithet conferred on Mercury, 
for the reason just given, and on Apollo, for 
the venality of his oracles. 

CEREALI A, feasts of Ceres, instituted by Trip- 
tolemus, sonofCeleus, kingof Eleusis, in At- 
tica, in gratitude for his having been instructed 
by Ceres, who was supposed to have been his 
nurse, in the art of cultivating corn, and con- 
verting it to bread. There were two fe^ts of 
this kind at Athens, one called Eleusinia, the 
other Tbesmopboria. What both agreed in, and 
was common to all the Cerealia, was, that they 
were celebrated with a world of religion and 
purity, so that it was esteemed a great pollution 
on those days to have intercourse with the sex. 
It was not Ceres alone that was honoured in 
them, but also Bacclms. The victims offered 
were hogs, by reason of the waste they make 
in the products of the earth. Whether any 
wine were offered, or not, is a matter of debate 
among the critics. Plautus and Macrobius 
seem to countenance the negative, Cato and 
Virgil the positive. Macrobius says, indeed, 
that they did not ofltr wine to Ceres, but mul- 
sum, which was a boiled confeClion of wine and 
honey ; that the sacrifice made on the twenty- 
first of December to that goddess and Hercules, 
was a pregnant sow, together with cakes and 
mulsum, and that this is what Virgil means by 
Miti Baccbo. The Cerealia passed from the 





Greeks to the Romans, Q. Memmius, the Ae- 
dile, being the first who introduced these rites 
into Rome, as appears from a coin of this ma- 
gistrate (on which is tlie figure of Ceres hold- 
ing in one hand three ears of corn, in the other 
a torch, whilst her left foot trod on a serpent) 
with this inscription, Memmius Aedilis Ce- 
REALiA i-RiMus FECIT. The Ronians held them 
for eight days successively, commencing, seiic- 
rally, on the iifth of the kles of April. Wo- 
men alone were concerned in tl.iy ce'ebniUnn, 
all dressed in wliite : the men, liVcwIycin wliite, 
being only spciftators. Tliey cnt noLhiiig till 
sun-set, in memory of Ceres, wlio, in lier 
search after her daughter Proserpine, took no 
repast but in the evening. The festival closed 
with a banquet, and public horse-races. After 
the battle of Cannae, the desolation was so 
great at Rome, that there were no women to 
celebrate the feast, they being all in mourning, 
so that this solemnity was omitted that year ; 
but after the second Punic war, it was celebra- 
ted with an accession of splendor, statues, 
paintings of chariots, crowns, and rich plun- 
der taken from the enemy, being carried in 
the procession. Macrobius says an egg made 
part of the shew, as being an emblem of Ce- 
CERES, was daughter of Saturn and Ops, or 
Vesta, Sicily, Attica, Crete, and Egypt, claim 
the honour of her birth, each country produc- 
ing the ground of its claims, though general suf- 
ferage favours the first, in her youth being ex- 
tremely beautiful, her brother Jupiter fell in 
love with her, and by him she had Perephata, 
called afterwards Proserpine. Neptune next 
enjoyed her, but the fruit of this amour is con- 
troverted, some making it a daugliter called 
Hira, and others the famous horse Arion. But 
as the intercourse of the deity with her was in 
the figure of a horse, (Ceres throwing herself 
in the form of Erynnis among a herd of mares, 
to elude his pursuit) the latter opinion seems 
tiie better founded ; and hence, perhaps, the 
story which Pausanias relates, that upon Mount 
Aeleus, in Arcadia, was an altar dedicated to 
Ceres, and an image of her with the body of a 
woman, but the head of a horse. This statue 
is said to have remained unhurt in the midst of 
fire ! There is but one other amour of Ceres 

recorded, if the preceding deserve that name. 
Finding Jasion, son of Jupiter and Eleflra, a- 
sleep, in a field newly plowed up, she acquaint- 
ed him with her passion, and bore him Plutus, 
the god of Richei ; but Jupiter, incensed that 
his son should become 4iis rival, is said to have 
killed hira with thunderbolts. Ceres, ashamed 
of her afl^ir with Neptune, clothed herself in 
iiDMrning, and retired to a cave, where she 
rc:M;i'.-]ed so long, that the world was in dan- 
g;r of ^-'cribliinc: for want, because during her 
al-sciir.e the earth produced neither corn nor 
iViiJLf.. At length Pan, hunting in Arcadia, 
discovered her retreat, and acquainted Jupiter 
with it, who, by the intercession of the Parcae, 
or Fates, appeased her, and restored her a- 
gain to the world. For some time she took up 
her residence in Corcyra, so called in later 
times, from a daughter of Asopiis, there buri- 
ed,' but anciently Drepanum, from the sickle 
used by the goddess in reajMng, which had been 
presented her by Vulcan. Thence she removed 
to Sicily, where the violence of Pluto deprived 
her of Proserpine. Disconsolate at her loss, 
she importuned Jupiter for redress, but ob- 
taining little satisfa<5tion, she lighted torches at 
the volcano of Mount Aetna, and mounting 
her car, drawn by winged dragons, set out in 
search of her beloved daughter. This trans- 
aftion the Sicilians annually commemorated, 
by running about in the night with lighted 
torches and loud exclamations. Ceres first 
stopped at Athens, where she was hospitably 
received by Celeus, whom she taught in re- 
turn to sow corn, and fostered Triptolemus, 
his son. [^See Celeus.'} To the latter she lent 
her chariot, and sent him through the world to in- 
stru(5l mankind in the art of agriculture. j^See 
Triptolemus.'] Shenextwas entertained by Hypo- 
thoonandhiswifeMeganira, but the wine set be- 
fore hershe refused, as not suiting her mournful 
condition. She, however, prepared herself a 
drink from an infusion of corn, which she after- 
wards freely used. During a sacrifice here ofl^er- 
ed her. Abbas, son of Meganira, having derided 
the ceremony, and ridiculed the goddess her- 
self, was punished for his impiety, by being 
turned into a newt; and Erisichthion, for fel- 
ling her consecrated grove, she visited with 
insatiable hunger. Thence Ceres ptwsed into 

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Lycia, where being thirsty, and desirous of 
drinking at a spring, the clowns not only hin- 
dered her, but Birilying and disturbing the 
water, jeered her for her misfortunes, on which 
she changed them to frogs. It is disputed by 
several nations, who first informed Ceres where 
her daughter was, and thence acquired the re- 
ward, which was the art of sowing corn. Some 
ascribe the intelligence toTriptolemus, and his 
brother Eubuleus ; but the generality agree in 
conferring the honour on the Nymph Arethusa, 
daughter of Nereus and Doris, and companion 
of Diana, who, flying from the pursuit of the 
river Alpheus, saw Proserpine in the infernal 
regions. It must be owned, that Ceres was not 
undeserving the highest titles bestowed upon 
her, considered as the deity who had blessed 
man with the art of cultivating the earth, hav- 
ing not only taught them to plow and to sow, 
but also to reap, harvest, and thresh out their 
grain ; to make flower and bread ; and fix li- 
mits or boundaries to ascertain their posses- 
sions. Ceres had abundance of names, the 

meaning of which will be given respectively 
under them. See Jlma, Altrix, Despoma, El- 
eusinia, Eucbiaea, Magna Dea, Malaena, Mam- 
mosa, and Tbesmopboros. Her feasts and festi- 
vals were as follow, [^an ample account of which 
will also befoundin the order of thealphabetj; 
the j^oa, Ambarvalia, Cercalia, Cbloeia, CbtbO' 
nia, Eleusinia, Epiledia, and the Tbesmopboria. 
Besides which, the gardeners sacrificed to Ce- 
res on the 6th of April, to obtain a plentiful 
produce of their grounds, which were under 
her immediate protection. The usual sacrifice 
to this goddess was, a pregnant sow, or a ram. 
The garlands used^n her sacrifices were of 
myrtle, or rape-weed; but flowers were pro- 
hibited, Proserpine being carried off as she 
gathered them. The poppy alone was sacred 
to her, not only because it grows amongst corn, 
but because, in her distress, Jupiter gave it her 
to eat, that she might sleep and forget her trou- 
bles. Cicero mentions an ancient temple de- 
dicated to her at Catanea, in Sicily, in which 
the offices were performed by matrons and 

virgins only, no man being admitted. If to 

explain the fable of Ceres, we have recourse 
to Egpyt. it will be found, that the goddess of 
Sicily and Eleusis, or of Rome and Greece, is 

no other than the Egyptian Isis, brought by 
the Phoenicians into those countries. The 
very name of Mystery, from Mistor, a veil, or 
covering, given to the Eleusian rites, perform- 
ed in honour of Ceres, shews them to have been 
of Egyptian origin. The Isis, or the emble- 
matical figure exhibited at the feast appointed 
for the commemoration of the state of man- 
kind after the flood, bore the name of Ceres, 
from Cerets, dissolution or overtbr&w. She was 
represented in mourning, and with torches, to 
denote the grief she felt for the loss of Perse- 
phone, (from peri, fruit or corn, and sapban, lost, 
comes Persepbone, or the com lost) her favou- 
rite daughter, and the pains she was at to 
recover her. The poppies with which this 
Isis was crowned, signified the joy men re- 
ceived at their first abundant crop, bobo, which 
signifies a doiU>le crop, being also a name for the 
poppy. Triptolemus (from terap to break, and 
telem afurrow, comes Triptolem, or the aB of plow- 
ing, was only the attendant Horus, bearing the 
handle of a plough; and Celeus, his father, 
from ceil a tool, or vessel, was no more than the 
name of the tools used in forming this instru- 
ment of agriculture. Eiimolpus, (from wam, 
people, and alep to learn, is derived Eumolep or 
Emolpus, i. e. the people regulated or instructed) 
expressed the regulation or forming of the 
people to industry and tillage ; and Perso- 
phone, or Proserpine being found again, was 
a lively symbol of the recovery of corn, and 

its cultivation, almost lost in the deluge. 

Thus, emblems of the most important events 
which ever happened in the world, simple in 
themselves,become when transplanted to Grecee 
and Rome, sources of fable and idolatry. A late 
writer takes Ceres to be the Keturah of Scrip- 
ture. Keturah, he says, wm called Guerarit, 
being of Gerar, and the difference between that 
word and Cereri, whence the nominative Ceres, 
is very small ; besides, that Ceres is, by some, 
supposed to be derived from the Hebrew gue- 
rescb, barley. He proceeds ; Ceres, being tired 
in her journey, laid herself down by the side 
of a well, and thither came persons of the 
neighbourhood to comfort her, among others 
Triptolemus and a good woman, who gave her 
water to drink. Here is plainly, says this 
author, the well, the angel, and the water« 






mentioned in the story of Hagar. which they 
applied to Keturah ; and this, he taya, is only 
taking one trf" Abraham's wives for another.- — 
It may be sufficient to observe, that such ex- 
planations are little less than ridiculous 

Ceres, according to Abbe Banier, was usually 
represented of a tall majestic stature, fair com- 
plexion, languishing eyes, and yellow or flaxen 
hair ; her head crowned with a garland of pop- 
pie^i, or ears of corn ; her breasts full and 
swelling ; holding, in her right hand a bunch 
of the same materials with her garland, and in 
her left a lighted torch. When in a car or 
chariot, she is drawn by lions, or winged dra- 
gons. Mr. Spence makes the following obser- 
vations on this subjeft : " The face of Ceres is 
a very pretty one, and, I am apt to imagine 
from some expressions in the poets, that she 
was a beauty of the brunette kind ; but here, 
as usual, we want some good paintings of the 
ancients to shew, whether that conJe6lure be 
true or false. Her head is often crowned either 
with corn or,poppies, and her robe falls down 
to her feet ; which signifies dignity, in the lan- 
guage of statuary. There is one objeflion that 
may be made to the beauty of Ceres, from most 
of the figures I have seen of her, which gene- 
rally represent her breasts as none of the 
smallest.. Virgil, in his Georgics, gives us an 
idea of Ceres, as regarding the laborious hus- 
bandman from heaven, and blessing the work 
of his hands with success." In respeft to the 
representations of Ceres, as here given by these 
learned writer^, it may be proper to observe, 
that, in their different accounts of her com- 
plexion, they are not more opposite to each 
other, than to the best taste of antiquity, in 
that protuberance of breast assigned her by 
both. In their female divinities, the ancients 
make the beauty of this part to consist in a 
moderate elevation. To prevent the promi- 
nence described, a stone from the isle of Naxos 
was pulverised and compressed upon it. The 
poets compare this virginal form to that of 
unripe grapes; and Apollonius expresses it by 
a term which notices its gentle elevation as not 
decidedly marked. That shape of the bosom 
was deemed,' by the ancients, most beautiful, 
which resembled thfMe eminencies that termi- 
nate in points. As well might these criticks 
rol. I. 4 

have described the goddess with red feet, be- 
causethefirstclay statues of herwere(fomx«n^«) 
BO coloured, as with the brawny breasts (^ a 
Flemish hay-maker j for their descriptions, in 
this particular, could have been takm from 
statues only, comparatively modern. Cereg 
has been no where exhibited with more beauty 
than on a c(Hn of Metapontum in Magna Gra- 
ecia, and another, found at Naples in the col- 
leaion of the Duke of Caraffii Noifl, witii the 
common reverse of an ear of com, and a mouse 
on its blade. On these, the goddess appears 
with her veil thrown behind her vestment ; her 
head, beudes the ears and blades, crowned 
with an elevated diadem, in the manner of Ju- 
no ; and her hair over her forehead, in beau- 
ful disorder, as if to indicate her affli6lion for 
the rape of Proserpine.— The drapery of Ceres, 
in allusion to ripe corn, should be yellow, espe- 
cially, as she is distinguished in Homer by an 
epithet corresponding. 

CERNES, a priest of Cybele. 

CERRHAEI, a people of Greece, who profaned 
the temple of Delphi. 

CERTHE, thedaughterof Thespius, and mother 
of lobe. 

CERUS, the god of opportunity, thus named, 
from the tardiness of his arrival ; was, perhaps, 
the same with Cerusmanus, who was revered 
as a beneficent deity, and the Creator. 

CERYCES, that is, heralds, thus named from 
Ceryx, the son of Mercury, were held in great 
veneration. A sacerdotal family of this name 
at Athens is mentioned by Thucydides. 

CERYX. SeeCeryces. 

CESTRINUS, son of Helenus and Andromache, 
settled himself with a company of Epirots, his 
voluntary followers, in a province near the 
river Thyamis, soon after the death of his fa- 
ther, whose kingdom fell to the lot of Molos- 
sus, son of Pyrrhus, Andromache's second 

CESTUS. With this article of female habili- 
ment we have no further concern than as it re- 
lates to Venus. It is justly remarked by Abbe 
Winklemann, that the goddess, when dressed, 
has always twocinftures ; one immediately be- 
neath the breast, the other round the bottom 
of the body. To confirm the truth of this ob- 
servation, he refers to the Venus of the Cspi- 

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tol, and the statue of the goddess, in the pos- 
session of Lord Egremont. It is the lower 
cincture which is properly the cestus of Venus. 
When Juno, wishing to inflame tlie heart of 
Jupiter, solicited and obtained the loan of this 
mysterious girdle, she put it, according to Ho- 
mer, not upon the ordinary cinfture, immedi- 
ately under her breast, but where Venus wore 
it, below ; for that such is the true sense of 
iM i^reflo Ktkvtf, is evident from the context. 
which informs us that Junowas already encom- 
passed with a zone, profusely adorned with 
fringe. Of what the mystic cestus consisted, 
the description of Homer will shew, 
" In it was every art, and ev'ry chann. 
To win the wisest, and the coldest wann : 
Fond love, the gentle vow, the gay desire. 
The kind deceit, the still-reviving fire. 
Persuasive speech, and more persuasive sighs. 
Silence that spoke, and eloquence of eyes." 

This fi6lion, than which nothing can be more 
beautiful, has been happily imitated by TassOj 
in his magic cincture of Armida. 

Teneri sdegni, e placide e tranquille 
Repulse, cari vezzi, e lieti pad, 
Sorrisi, parolette, e dolcl stille 
Di pianto, e sospir tronchi. e molU baci. 

CETES, an Egyptian king, supposed to have 
been the same with Proteus. 

CETHEGUS, a Rutilian leader^ killed by Ae- 
neas, in the twelfth Aeneid. 

CETO, daughter of Neptune, by the Nymph 
Thesea, and sister of Phorcus, or Phorcys, by 
the same parents, married her brother Phor- 
cus, by whom she had the Phorcydes and Gor- 
gons, Thoosa and Scylla. 

CEUS, OR. COEUS, son of Coelus and Terra, 
married Phoebe, and by her became the fa- 
ther of Latona and Asteria. 

The father of Troezen was thus named. See 
also Eupbcmus. 

CEYX, son of Lucifer, and husband of Alcyone, 
was drowned on his voyage to consult the ora- 
tle at Claros. His wife, apprized by a dream 
of his misfortune, found his dead body washed 
up on the shore. They both are said to have 
been changed into Halcyons. This Ceyx is ge- 
nerally called king of Trachinia, but Apollo- 
dorus makes that king to have been a different 
person from^band of Alcyone. 

CHABES, a herald of Busiris^ whom Hercules 
put to death. 

CHAERON, son of Apollo, gave his name to 
Chaeronea, which before was called Arne. 

CHALCEA, a festival among the Athenians, so 
named from wtAxof, brass, because it was cele- 
brated in memory of the origin of working that 
metal in Athens. The whole Athenian nation 
assembled at the celebration of the Chalcea. — 
Sometimes also this festival was called Afbetiaia, 
because it was kept in honour of Minerva, called 
Athene, who was the goddess of all sorts of arts, 
and on that account named Ergane, from JEr- 
gon, work. In later times it was only kept by 
mechanics, those especially concerned in brass 
work, and to the honourofVulcan, the god of 
smiths, and instructor of the Athenians in it. 
This festival was celebrated on the thirtieth 
of the month Pyanepsion. 

CHALCIOEUSj a surname of Minerva, from 
her temple at Chalcis. She was also called Cbal- 
ciolis and Cbalcidica. 

CHALICOPE : of this name there were three.— 
One daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, sis- 
ter of Absyrtus and Medea, and wife of Phryx- 

us. [See Pbryxus.'] A second, daughter of 

Eurypilus, or Euryalus, king of Coos, and by 

Hercules, mother of Thessalus. The third, 

daughter of Rhexenor, and wife of Aegeus. 

CHALCODEMUSA, the wife of Arcesius,. mo- 
ther of Laertes, and grand-mother of Ulys- 

CHALCODON, a son of Aegyptus by Arabia ; 
also an inhabitant of Cos, who wounded Her- 
cules ; an assistant of Hercules in cleansing the 
Augean stable, and the father of Elpenor, a 
Grecian chief in the war against Troy, were 
all of this name. 

CHALCON. See Bathyclaeiis. 

CHALYBS, son of Mars. The name of his mo- 
ther is unknown. 

CHAMANIM, the Hebrew denomination of the 
Pyreia or Pyrateria of the Greeks. These Cha- 
manini were, according to Rabbi Solomon, 
idols exposed to the Sun upon the tops of houses. 
Aben Ezra affirms them to have been portable 
chapels or temples, in the form of chariots, in 
honour of the Sun. What the Greeks call Py- 
reia, were temples consecrated to the Sun and 
the element of fire, in which a perpetual fire 

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was preserved. They were placed upon emi- 
nences, and were large inclosures without co- 
vering, where the Sun was worshipped. The 
Guebres, or worshippers of fire, in Persia and 
the East Indies, have still these Pyreia. The 
word Chamanim is derived {Tomcbaman, which 
signifies to warm or buns. 

^HAMARIM, a word which occurs in several 
places of the Hebrew Bible, and is generally 
translated the priests of the idols, or the priests 
clothed in black, because cbamar signifies black, 
or blackness. St. Jerom, in the second book of 
Kings, renders it Aruspices. In Hosea and Ze- 
phaniah he translates it Aeditid. The best 
commentators are, however, of o|Mnion, that 
by this word we are to understand the priests 
of the fabulous deities, and in particular those 
of the worshippers of fire, because they were, 
as they say, dressed in black ; or, perhaps, the 
Hebrews gave them this name in derision, from 
the blackness incident to their attendance upon 
fire. We find priests among those of Isis called 
Melanepbori, that is, -who wear black ; but whe- 
ther this name originated from the blackness 
of their ordinary dress, or from their wearing 
a black veil, in the processions of this goddess, 
is not ascertained. Camar, in Arabic, signifies 
tbemoon: Isis Is the same deity. Grotius thinks 
tlxat the Roman priests called CamilU, came 
from the Hebrew Chamarim. Those among 
the Heathens who sacrificed to the infernal gods, 
u ere dressed in black. 

CHAMOS, OH CHAMOSH, an idol of the Canaan- 
ites and Moabites, who had his temples on 
mountains surrounded with tall oaks. The 
name Chamos comes from a root which, in A- 
rabic, signifies to make baste, fpf which reason 
many believe Chamos to be the Sun, whose 
preci^tate course might' well procure it the 
name of swift, or speedy. Others have con- 
founded Chamos with the god Hammon, adored 
not only in Libya and Egypt, but also in Ara- 

' bia, Ethiopia, and the Indies. MacroMus 

thews that Hanunon was the Sun, and the horns 
with which he is represented, denoted his rays. 
Calmet'is of opinion that the god Hamonus and 
Apollo Chomeus, mentioned by Strabo and 
Ammianus Marcellinus, was the same with 
Chamos, or the Sun; . These deities were wor- 
shipped in man^ of th^ Eastern provinces. 

Some who have gone upon the resemblance of 
the Hebrew term Cbames, to the Greek Comos, 
have believed Chamos to signify Bacchus, the 
god of inebriety, according to the signification 
of the Greek Comos. St. Jerom, and with him 
most other interpreters, take Chamos and Peor 
for the same deity ; but it is more probable 
that Baal-Peor corresponded with Thammuz, 
or Adonis ; so that Chamos must be the same 
with the Sun. They who derive this word from 
the Hebrew Camos, with a capb, mem, and a sa- 
mfci*, 0133, pretend that it signifies the ii/rfrfm 
god, Pluto, whose abode is in hell. In this 
sense it will indeed signify the same as Tham- 
muz, and is taken for Adonis, because this god 
was adored as one that had been concealed and 
buried, and then raised from the dead. But 
the god Chamos is never written in Scripture, 
so as to justify this explanation. To Chamos, 
an altar on the mount of Oiives was crefted by 

CHANG'KO, a Chinese goddess worshipped by 
bachelors. She. is held in as great esteem by 
their learned men, as Minei"va was by the Greeks 
and the Romans. 

CHAON, son of Priam, whom Helenua his bro- 
ther inadvertently killed. To do honour to 
his memory, the country of Epirus was from 
him called Chaonia. 

CHAONIA, a festival celebrated by the Chaoni- 
ans in Epirus. 

CH AQR-BOOS, an idol in the kingdom of Asem, 
in which every man is permitted to marry four 
wives, but, lest any family disputes should 
take place, every woman is obliged to bring up 
lier own children. When any person is taken 
sick, a priest is sent for, who breathes upon 
the patient, and repeats several prayers, but 
should no hopes of recovery appear, the sick 
person is direfied to sacrifice to Chaor-boos^ 
god of the four winds. This sacrifice consists 
of a certain number of fowls, according to the 
circumstances of the padent, ofl^ered four times, 
according to the number of the winds. 

CHAOS. Hesiod, the first author extant of the 
fabulous system of the creation, begins his ge- 
nealogy of the gods with Chaos. In the begin- 
ning, says he, was Chaos, after this Terra, the 
Earth, then Love, the fairest of the inmiortat 
gods : Chaos engendered Erebus and Nightj 

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from whose mixture was bom Aether and the 
Day. Terra formed afterwards Coelus, or Hea- 
ven> and the Stars, the mansion of the immor- 
tal gods : she likewise formed the mountains, 
and by her marriage with Coelus, brought forth 
. Oceanus and with him Caeus, &c. &c. Incapa- 
ble of conceiving how something could be pro- 
duced out of nothing, Hesiod asserted the eter- 
nity of matter, and imagined to herself a con- 
fused mass lying in the womb of nature, which 
contained the prLnciples of all beings, and af- 
terwards rising by degrees into order and har- 
mcmy, at length produced the universe. Thus 
the ancient poets endeavoured to account for 
the origin of the world, of which they knew so 
little, that it is no wonder they disguised, rather 
than illustrated, the subject in their writings. 
Virgil represents Chaos as one of the infernal 
deities ; and Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, gives 
a very poetical pifture of that disorderly state in 
which all the elements lay blended, without 
order or diatinAion. It is easy to see, under all 
this confusion Mid perplexity, the remains of 
truth : the ancient tradition of the creation be- 
ing obscured with a multiplicity of images and 
allegories, became an inexhaustible fund for 
fiction to im{H'ove upon, and swelled the Hea- 
then theology into an un.measurable compass ; 
so that, in this sense. Chaos may indeed be 
properly stiled the father of the gods. Though it 
seem not easy to giveapiflure or graphical repre- 
sentation of Chaos, a modem painter has been 
bold enough to attempt it. Beyond the clouds, 
which compose the body of his piece, he has re- 
presented an immense abyss of darkness, and 
in the clouds an odd medley of water, earth, 
fire, smoke, winds, &c. but he. has unluckily 
thrown the signs of the zodiac into his work, 
and thereby spoiled the whole. This painter 
was Diepenbeke, a pupil.of Rubens, whom M. 
Meysens stiles a great artist. The piece itself 
has been ftmsidered as a very Ingenious jum> 
CHARAXUS, one of the Centaurs, 
CHARICLO, mother of Tiresias, hy Euerea. See 

There was afso a Nyniph of thi»name, daughter 
of Apollo, and mother of Ocyroe, by Chiron 
the Centaur. 
CHARILA, a festival observed ooce in nine 

years by the Delphians, of which Plutarch 
has given the following account. A long 
droughthavingbroughtafamine upon the Del- 
phians, they went with their wives and chil- 
dren as supjriicants to the palace, on which the 
king, not having enough for all, distributed 
meal and pulse to those who were most known. 
Being troubled, however, with the importuni- 
ties of a strange child, who was an orphan, he 
beat her with his shoe, and threw it in her face. 
The girl, grieved at the affront, departed and 
himg herself. The famine becoming more in- 
tolerable, the Pythia was consulted by the king, 
who answered, that the death of Charila must 
be expiated. The Delphians, after a long 
search, having discovered that the girl who 
had been beaten was so named, instituted cer- 
tain sacrifices with expiatory rites, which were 
religiously performed every ninth year. The 
king presided at them, and having distributed 
corn and pulse to all persons, strangers as well 
as citizens, the image of Charila was brought 
in, arid smitten by him with his shoe. The 
governess of the Thy'ades then took it, and con- 
veying it to a desolate place, put a halter round 
its neck, and then buried it where Charila was 

CHARIS, wife of Vulcan. 

CHARISIA, a no^umal festival in honour of the 
Charities or Graces. It continued the whole 
night, most of which was spent in dancing, 
which being ended, cakesj made of yellow 
flour, mixed with honey, &c. were distribu- 
ted among the assistants. 

CHARISIUS, a name of Jupiter, derived from 
a Greek word signifying grace, ' or favour, 
he being the god by whose influence men ob- 
tain the favour and affeAion of one another ; 
on which account the Greeks used at their meals 
to make a libation of a cup to Jupiter Chari- 

CHARISTA. See Ocyroe. 

CHARISTERIA, a thanksgiving day at Athens, 
upon the twelfth of the month Boedromion, 
that being the day on which Thrasybulus ex- 
pelled the thirty tyrants, and restored liberty 
to the Athenians. 

CHARISTIA, the Jbnjffiinj'/«'w/, a festival of the 
Romans, celebrated on the eleventh of the ca- 
lendsofMarch^i.e. the nineteenth ofFebsuary, 

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in honour of the goddess Concord- The Cha- 
ristia were instituted to re-establtsh peace and 
amity in families embroiled, or at variance in 
themselves : it consisted in a great entertain- 
ment made in each family, to which relations 
and kindred only were admitted. The joy and 
freedom inspired by the repast was looked upon 
as a proper means to re-unite divided minds, to 
which the good offices of their friends present 
would greatly contribute. So most authors ; 
yet some say the Charistla was a festival of 
Pluto, because oblations were then made for 
the dead : these add, that black bulls were the 
victims offered, and the ceremdnies were per- 
formed in the night, it not being lawful to sa- 
criiice to Pluto in the day-time, on account of 
his aversion to the light. Both accoimts may 
be easily reconciled ; for these religious obser- 
vancies were no more than expressions of ho- 
mage to their common ancestors deceased. 

CHARITIES. See Graces. 

CHARME AND CARME, the mother of Brito- 
martis, by Jupiter. 

CHARMOSYNA, a festival at Athens, and, ac- 
cording to Plutarch, in Egypt. 

CHARON, according to the theogony of Hesiod, 
was son of Erebus and Nox, parents of the 
greatest part of the infernal monsters. His 
post was to ferry the souls of the deceased over 
the waters of Acheron. His fare was never un- 
der one obolus, nor above three, which were 
put into the mouths of persons interred, for as 
to bodies which were denied funeral rites, their 
ghosts were forced to wander an hundred years 
on the banks of the river before they could be 
admitted to a passage. The Hermonienses a- 
lone cljumed a free transportation, because their 
country lay near to hell. Some mortal heroes 
also, by the favour of the gods, were allowed 
to visit the iaf»mal realms, and to return to 
light again. Such were Hercules, Orpheus, V- 
lysses, Aeneas, and Theseus. Charon was of 
a rough and churlish temper, treating all his 
passengers with the same rudeness, without re- 
gard to rank, age, or sex ; the poor, the rich, 
the beautiful, and defcn-med, were all alike to 
him. The present inhabitants of Egypt call the 
tanwus lake of Moeris the laim af Cbarm, con- 
cerning whwn they relate, that being a person 
of mean. extraAion, he planted himself by this 

lake, andexaCted for every corjMe that waifer. 
ried over to be interred, a certain sum ; and 
though he did this without authority from the 
prince, yet he carried ah the imposition for se- 
veral years, till, refusing passage to the dead 
body of the king's son, unless the usual sum 
was paid him, the fraud was discovered. The 
king, however, was made so sensible of the great 
advantage which would attend the continuance 
of this impost by royal authority, that he or- 
dered it to be regularly paid, appointed Charon 
his first minister, and confirmed him in his old 
employment, which he made the best post in 
the kingdom. Charon, they add, gained by 
it such vast riches, that he became powerful 
enough to assassinate the sovereign, and ascend 
the throne in his stead. To this narrative we 
must subjoin another from Tzctzes, who speak- 
ing of the Fortunate Islands, which he makes 
to be the British, observes : " It is reported 
that the souls of the dead are carried over thi- 
ther ; for on the shore of the ocean, which 
washes that island called Britain, there live men 
who are employed in fishing, and are subject to 
the Franks, but pay them no tribute, because, 
as it is reported, they convey over the souls of 
the dead. These men, returning from fishing 
in the evening, lay themselves down to sleep 
in their huts ; soon after they hear a knocking 
at the door, and a voice calling them to their 
wonted business; getting up, they go to the 
shore, not knowing by what necessity they are 
impelled : there they see ships fitted out, yet 
without having any men in them, into which 
entering, they row, and find the vessels bur- 
thened as if it were with passengers, yet thty 
see none. In an instant they arrive at the ialand> 
to which they could scarce have sailed in twen^- 
four hours, making- use of their own yesseU.™ 
Being arrived, they again see nothing, but they 
hear voices familiarly greeting their paasengers, 
and caUing them by their names. Having thui 
set their freight <m shore, they return with 
lighter vessels. Hence many believe that Bri- 
tain is among the islands of the blessed, and 
that men, when dead, are transported thither." 
This venerable boatman of the lower wiH-Id is 
represented as a fat, squalid old man, with a 
grey beard, and rheumatic eyes, his tattered 
rags scarce covering bis nakedness. Virgil de- 

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scribes him as strong, and in all the vigour and 
firmness of old age, meanly clad, with a large 
rude beard, hair grey and matted, and eyes 
fixed and fiery. His chara^er was probably 
supposed to be rough, for the reason that he 
presided over the Hateful Passage. 

CHAROPOS AND CHAROP^, ferocious, furious, 
an epithet applied to Hercules. 

CHAROPS, son of Hippasus, and brother of 
Socus, slain by Ulysses in the ninth Iliad. 

CHAROPUS. SeeNireus. 

CHAkYBDIS, was a rapacious woman, a female 
rebber, who; it is said, stole the oxen of Her- 
cules, for which she was thunder-struck by 
Jupiter, and turned into a whirlpool, dange- 
rous to sailors. This whirfpool was situate 
opposite the rock Scylla, at the entrance of 
the Faro from Messina, and occasioned the 
proverb of running into one danger to avoid 
another. Some affirm, that Hercules killed 
her himself; others, that Scylla committed 
this robbery, and was killed for it by Her- 
cules; but that her father Phorcus put her 
into a chaldron, and stewed her in it so long, 
that he brought her to life. 

CHASTITY, a virtue, deified by the Romans. 
Chastity is represented, on the reverse of a 
medal of Faustina, the younger, sitting, and 
dressed in the habit of a Roman matron, (in 
whom -this virtue was supposed to reign in its 
utmost perfeftion), holding a sceptre in her 
hand, and two doves at her feet. " They 

■ called her," says Mr. Spence, " The Goddess 
Pudicitia,'and represented her like a Roman 
matron ; she has her veil on, and is in the 
modest attitude of pulling it over part of her 
face." Juvenal speaks of her personally, and 
says humourously enough, " That he believes 
she was once upon our earth in the reign of 
Saturn, but that she quitted it about the time 
Jupiter began to have a beard." There were 
in Rome two of this name, the Pudicitia Patri- 
ciae, and the Pudicitia Plebeia. See Pudi- 
CHELIDONIA, a festival anciently celebrated 
at Rhodes in the month Boedromion, when the 
boys went from door to door begging and 
singing a certain song called Cbelidonisma, 
because it began with vx invocation of the 

Cbelidon or swallow. It is said to have been 
composed by Cleobulus the Lindian, as an ar- 
tifice to get money in a time of public calafc 

CHELONE, a Nymph who was changed to a tor- 

CHEMENS, genii, or spirits so called by the in- 
habitants of the Caribbee islands, who suppose 
them to watch over the concerns of men ; eve- 
ry man. In their apprehension, having a Che- 
men to himself. They offer the first fruits of 
every thing to the Chemens, and place these 
oflferings at one comer of their huts, on a table 
made of rushes, where, they pretend, the 
Chemens assemble to eat and drink the obla- 
tions ; as a proof of which they affirm, that 
they hear not only the vessels, in which the 
presents are placed, to move up and down, 
but also the noise of the mouths of these deities 
in the a6l of eating. 


CHERA, that is, the -widow, an epithet of JunOj 
on account of her frequent diiferences with 
Jupiter and his alienation from her. 

CHEREMOCRATES, tlie architea of the tem- 
ple of Diana at Ephesus. 

CHERON. SeeCia^TOfl. 

CHEROPONIA, a Grecian festival, celebrated 
by artizans in general. 

CHERSIDAMAS, killed by Ulysses in the ninth 

CHIAPPEN, an idol of the savages,- inhabiting 
the valley of Tunia, near Panama, and is their 
Mars, or God of War. Before they set out to 
fight they sacrifice slaves and prisoners in ho- 
nour of him, and besmear the body of the idol 
with the blood of the viaims. They seldom 
undertake any enterprise without first coq. 
suiting Chiappen, for which purpose they un* 
dergo a penance of two months, abstaining, 
during that time, from the use of salt, and from 
all commerce with women. 

CHICOCKA, an idol of the African negroes, 
supposed to be the guardian of the dead. He 
is thought to take eflfeAual care, that no magi- 
cian clandestinely remove the deceased, or 
compel them to work, hunt, or fish. His 
statue, composed of wood, is erefted at a small 
distance from their burial places. 

CHILO. See Seven Wise Men of Greece, 

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CHILON, a celebrated Athlete, whom the Greeks 
long held in great veneration. 

CHIMAERA, was daughter of Typhon and E- 
chidna: she breathed a fire that was fierce, 
menacing, and tinextinguishable : she had 
three heads, one of a lion, one of a goat, and 
a third of a dragon, and corresponding to 
those were the upper, middle, and lower parts 
of her body : the place of her habitation was 
in Lycia, where she was bom, and her educa- 
tion was committed to Amisodarus. Jobates, 
king of Lycia, commanded Bellerophon, not 
only to destroy this monster, but also to ex- 
tirpate a people called the Solymi. Minerva, 
or as others say, Neptune, commiserating his 
situation, as exposed to %uch dangers, sent him 
the flying horse Pegasus, by whose assistance 
he overcame the Solymi, and slew the Chimae- 
ra. The foundation of the fable is this : An- 
ciently in Lycia there was a volcano, or burn- 
ing mountain of this name, the top of which 
being desert, was inhabited only by lions; the 
niiddle, having good pastures, by goats ; and 
the foot, being marshy, by serpents. As Bel- 
lerophon was the first who caused this moun- 
tain to 'be inhabited, It was feigned he slew the 

■ Chimaera. Pliny says, the fire of this volcano 
would kindle even water, and only be extin- 
guished with earth and with dung. Some re- 
present the Chimaera with the form of a lion 
before, of a goat between, and of a dragon 
behind; and explain the figure by referring 
to three captains of the Solymi, whose names, 
in the language of that people, Iiappened to 
signify these three creatures, ory, a lion, axal, 
or urxil, akid, and tooban, a dragon. Others sup- 
pose, the Chimaera to have been a pirate-ship, 
whose prow bore the figure of a lion, her mid- 
dle that of a goat, and her stern a serpent. By 
Chimaera, philosophers understand a mere crea- 
ture of the imagination, such as can exist no 
where but in thought. — Amongst the bronzes 
in the Grand Duke's colledlion at Florence, is 
a curious representation of the Chimaera, com- 
posed of a lion and goat in their respeftive pro- 
portions, with an inscription in Etruscan cha- 
rafters, which makes it the better worth no- 

CHIM-HOAM, a Chinese idol, supposed to be 
the guardian of cities. It is an established law 



in China, that all the mandarins, or governors 
of towns and cities shall, when they enter up- 
on their government, and twice a month 
throughout the year, upon pain of forfeiting 
their employments, repair to the temple of 

. Chim-Hoam, and there prostrating themselves 
before his altar, and bowing their heads to the 
ground, adore and worship this idol, and sa- 
crifice candles, perfumes, flowers, flesh, and 
wine. When they take possession of their go- 
vernment, they take an oath before the idol, 
that they will govern uprightly, and, in case 
they fail, submit themaelves to be punished by 

CHINA, an idol of the people ofCasamanse, on 
the coast of North Guinea, in Africa. In ho- 
nour of this deity, they make a general yearly 
procession, about the end of November, at 
mid-night, previous to the sowing their rice, 
which devotion is thus performed. The whole 
people being assembled at the place where 
the idol is kept, they take it up with great 
humility and reverence, and go m procession 
to the appointed statiwi, where sacrifice is 
to be offered : the chief priest walks at the 
head of the mulUtude, immediately before the 
idol, carrying in his hand a long pole, to which 
b fastened a banner of silk, with some shin- 
bones of men, who, perhaps, have been put 
to death for that very purpose, and several 
ears of rice. Being come to the intended 
place, a quantity of honey is burnt before the 
idol, after which every one present makes his 
offering, and smokes his pipe ; they then unite 
in prayers, begging of the god to bless their 
harvest. This done, they carry him back in 
the same order, to the place of his residence, 
observing the profoundest silence. This deity 
is represented by the head of a bullock or ram, 
carved in wood, or else made of paste of the 
flourofmillet, kneaded with blood, and blend- 
ed with hair and feathers. 

CHlNES,idolsofthe Chinese, notin the shape of 
any living creature, but built in a pyi'amidlcal 
form, and curiously wrought. The people have 
such a veneration for these Chines, that when 
they purchase a slave, they carry him before one 
of them, and after they have offered rice, beg of 
the idol that if the slave runs away, he may be 
devoured by tigers and lions : this keeps the 

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poor wretches in awe, and prevents their run- 
ning off, even under the cruelist treatment. 
In the province of Tukien, near the walls of 
the city Fohieu, is one of those Chines or py- 
ramids, nine stones high: it is built in the 
form of an oftagon, and its perpendicular 
height is nine hundred cubits : it is adorned 
with several curious figures, and the whole of 
the outside Ib faced with porcelain : at every 
story is a marble colonade, and an iron balu- 
strade giit, and round each balustrade are a 
great number of little bells, which being agi- 
tated by the wind, make a pleasing kind of 
harmony : upon the top of the pyramid is a 
large copper idol, spread over with gold. 

CHIONE, daughter of Daedalion, being caressed 
both by Apollo and Mercury, bore twins, Fhi- 
lammoti, son of Apollo, a famous musician, 
and Autolycus, son of Mercury, a juggler and 
thief. The mother was imprudent enough to 
boosted her infamy, preferring the honour of 
an amour with the two deities, by whom she 
had her children, to the chastity even of Diana 
herself, and attributing the virgin modesty of 
the goddess to a want of personal attractions. 
This insolence the goddess punished, by pierc- 
ing the tongue of Chicme with an arrow, which, 
at once, terminated her boasting and her 

CHIROMANTIA, the art of fore-telling events 
by inapedling the lines of the head. 

CHIRON, was son of Saturn and the nymph Phi- 
lym, daughter of Oceanus. In his intercourse 
with the Nymph, to avoid being surprised by 
Ws wife, he assumed the form of a horse. The 
offspring of this amour was a creature whose 
upward parts resembled a man, and its extre- 
mities those of a horse. When grown up he 
betook himself to the woods ; and, by hunting 
with Diana, not only acquired that art in per- 
feAion, but likewise the knowledge of simples, 
and the methods of applying them. He had so 
light and exquisite a hand in chirurgical ope- 
rations, that some say he obtained the name of 
ChirOn on that account. His skill in music was 
BO great, that he could cure diseases by its har- 
mony alone ; and such was his knowledge of 
the celestial bodies, that he could ascertain the 
influence of each, in the destruction or preser- 
vation of mankind. So far the fable. Plutarch, 

in his Dialogue on Music, stiles this famous 
personage, Tbe wise Centaur ; and Sir Isaac 
Newton places hi^ birth in the first age after 
Deucalion's deluge, commonly called theGoWcB, 
adding, that he formed the constellation for the 
use of the Argonauts, when he was fourscore 
and eight years old ; for he was a practical as- 
tronomer, as well as his daughter Hippo ; he 
may therefore be said to have flourished in the 
earliest ages of Greece, as he preceded the 
conquest of the Golden Fleece, and the Trojan 
war. He is generally called the son of Saturn 
and Philyra, and is said to have been born in 
Thessaly, among the Centaurs, who were the 
first Greeks th^t acquired the art of breaking 
and riding horses ; whence the poets, painters, 
and sculptors have represented them as a com- 
pound of man and horse; and perhaps it was 
at first imagined by the Greeks, as well as by 
the Americans, when they saw cavalry, that 
the horse and rider constituted but one animal. 
Chiron was represented by the ancients as one 
of the first inventors of medicine, botany, and 
cbirurgery, a word which etymologists have 
derived from his name. He inhabited a grotto 
or cave in the foot of -Mount Pelion, which, 
from his knowledge and wisdom, became the 
most famous school throughout Greece. Al- 
most all the heroes of his time were ambitioua 
of receiving his instructions ; and Xenoj^on 
hath enumerated the following amongst his dis- 
ciples, viz. Cephalus, Aesculapius, Melanion, 
Nestor, Amphiaraus, Peleus, Telamon, Mele- 
ager, Theseus, Hippolitus, Palamedes, Ulysses, 
Mnestheus, Diomedes, Castor and Pollux, Ma- 
chaon and Podatirius, Antilochus, Aeneas, and 
Achilles. From this catalogue, it appears, that 
Chiron instructed both fathers and sons. Xe- 
nophon has given a short eulogium on each, 
which redounds much to the honour of the ja-e- 
ceptor. The Greek historian, however, has 
omitted the names of several of his scholars. 
such as Bacchus, Phoenix, Cocytus, Aristaeus, 
Jason, and his son Medeas, Ajax, and Prote- 
silaus. Of these we shall only notice such as 
more particularly interest CWron. It is pre- 
tended, that the Grecian Bacchus was the fa- 
vourite scholar of the Centaur, and that he 
learned of this master the retels. Orgies, Bac. 
chanalia, and other ceremonies of his worship. 

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According to Plutarch, it was likewise at the 
school of Chiron that Hercules studied music, 
medicine, and justice ; though Diodorus Si- 
culiis teils us, that Linus was the music-master 
of this hero. But of all the heroes who have 
been disciples of Chiron, none reflefled upon 
him so much honour as Achilles, whose re- 
nown he, in some measure, share.d, and to 
whose education he minutely attended ; being 
his grand-father on the side of his mother. 
Apollodorus tells us, that the study of music 
employed a considerable part of the time which 
he bestowed upon his young pupil, as an incite- 
ment to virtuous afitions, and a curb to the 
impetuosity of his temper. One of the best re- 
mains of antique painting, is a pi^ure on this 
subje<3. dug from the ruins of Herculaneum. 
The death of this philosophic musicianwas oc- 
casioned, at an extreme old age, by an acci- 
dental wound in the knee, with a poisoned 
arrow, shot by Hercules, his scholar. He was 
placed by Musaeus, after his death, among 
the consteilaticms, through respeft of his vir- 
tues, and in gratitude for the services he had 
rendered the people of Greece. Sir Isaac New- 
ton alleges, in proof that the constellations 
were formed by Chiron and Musaeus for the 
use and honour of the Argonauts, that nothing 
later than that expedition was delineated on 
the sphere. According to the same author, 
Chiron lived till afler the Argonautic expedi- 
tion, in which he had two grand-sons. The 
ancients have not failed to attribute to him se- 
veral writings, among which, according to Sui- 
das, are Precepts in verse, composed for the 
use of Achilles, and a medicinal treatise on the 
diseases incident to horses. Fabricius gives a 
list of the works ascribed to Chiron, and dis- 
cusses the claims of others to them. He also 
assigns him a distinguished place in his cata- 
logue of ancient physicians. Mr. Spence re- 
marks, that " The poets observe of the figure 
of Chiron, (what is chiefly to be observed in 
all good figures of Centaurs, and particularly 
in those two finer ones from the Villa Adrian! 
at Rome,) that the upward or human part is 
roughened by degrees, and is united extremely 
well with the equine part, a little below his 
breast. This cannot so well be justified from 
the Famcse globe, because, in that, his back 
Vol. I. 3 

is turned towards us. He is represented as 
coming from the chace, with a young lioness 
in his hand, which is held by him, as a sacri- 
fice toward the altar just before him." In tlie 
pi(5ture dug from the ruins of Herculaneum, 
it may be observed, that the attitude of Achil- 
les is composed and tranquil, but his counte- 
nance very expressive. The animation of his 
features announce the future hero, and in the 
attention of his eyes, which are bent on Chi- 
ron, may be perceived, a promptitude to ac- 
quire knowledge, and an ardor to complete 
that career of instruction which might enable 
him to fill up with heroic deeds the short life 
the Fates had decreed him. On his brow ap- 
pears an ingenuous shame, and a secret reproach 
at his own incapacity ; his instruftor is taking 
the pledtrum from His hand, and making him 
touch the lyre, at the same time shewing him 
in what he had failed. Achilles, according to 
Aristotle, was remarkable for his beauty, and 
here the sweetness of his countenance and the 
graces of his youth are finely blended with pride 
and sensibility. In respe<5l to Chiron, it may 
be remarked, that though, in this pi6fure, he is 
not distinguished by his hair rising on his fore- 
head, and flowing down his temples, like Ju- 
piter's, so as to cover his ears, and mark his 
relation to the god ; yet on the Centaur of the 
Villa Borghese, and the most ancient in the ca- 
binet of the Capitol, their hair is so repre- 

CHITONIA, a festival in honour of Diana, nam- 
ed Cbitonia, from Chitone, a village in Attica, - 
whpre it was celebrated. 

Another festival of the same name was celebrated 
at Syracuse, with songs and dances proper to 
the day. 

CHiUN. SeeKiion. 

CHIUS, son of Apollo by Anathrippe. He gave 
his name to the island so called. 

CHLAM YS, part of the dress of Mercury, which 
is fastened over the shoulders on his breast, 
and floats behind him in the air. Spence says, 
that the reason why painters have added the 
Chlamys, as part of Mercury's dress, is very 
obvious, because " The old artists generally 
niarked out the motion of any person as going 
on very swiftly by the flying back of tlie dra- 
pery." The same authoi'adds, in a note, *' The 






flying back of the clothes, which one sees so 
frequently in the best old statues which repre- 
sent any person as in a swift motion, is strongly 
marked out by Ovid, in his Daphne flying from 
Apollo." After what is here observed by Mr. 
Spence, in respeft to this article, it may not be 
improper to add, that the Clilamys was a part 
of the dress of a warrior, in shape rather oval 
than round, short, and fastened on the left 
shoulder: particularly affected by Castor and 
Pollux, but worn by them over both shoulders, 
and fastened by a knot on the breast ; a pecu- 
liarity, as Aelian remarks, for which they only 
were distinguished. 

CHLOE. See Cbloeia. 

CHLOEIA, a festival celebrated at Athens on 
the sixth of the month Thargelion, with mirth, 
sports, and the sacrifice of a ram to Ceres, who 
was worshipped in a temple in or near the A- 
cropoHs of Athens, under the title of Cbloe ; a 
name supposed by Pausanias to involve some 
mystical sense, though understood by none but 
the priests, may yet have been derived from XXn, 
grass, Ceres being goddess of the earth and all 
its produAions. Gyraldus is of opinion that 
Ceres was called Chloe among the Greeks, for 
the same reason that among the Latins she was 
named Flava. 

CHLOREUS, a priest of Cybele, who accompa- 
nied Aeneas to Italy, and was there killed by 

CHLORIS, daughter of Arftunis, was debauched 
by Boreas, and carried by him to Mount Ni- 
phates, called the bed of Boreas, but since known 
by the name of Caucasus. She brought him a 
daughter called Hyrpace. 

Chlorb, according to the Greeks, or Flora a- 
mongst the Romans, a Nymph married to Ze- 
phyrus, from whom she received power over 
all flowers. 

Chlobis, daughter of Amphion, the first female 
who gained the prize of Tunning in the Olym- 
pic Stadium. Some assign this honour to Hip- 
podamia, wlio instituted this female race. See 
Games, Olympic. 

CHOCHAEUS, a surname of Apollo. 

CHOES, an Athenian festival in honour of Bac- 
chus, celebrated in the month' Ant hesterion. 

CHOLAS, a festival in honour of Bacchus. 

CHON, an Egyptian title of Hercules. 

CHONNIDAS, the preceptor to whom Theseus 
was committed by his grandfather Pittheus. In ^ 
acknowledgment of the beneiits which resulted 
from his instructions, sacrifices were instituted 
by the Athenians to his honour. 

CHORINAEUS, a priest in the army of Aeneas. 
Messapus having violated the truce, by killing 
Aulistis, the irritated priest seized a blazing 
fire-brand, dashed it in the face of Ebiosus, and 
stabbed him in the side with his poniard. 

CHOROEBUS. See Coroebus. 

CHOUBRET, a festival observed by the Maho- 
metans of India, in which they commemorate 
the examination of departed souls by the good 
angels, who record all the good actions done in 
this life, whilst the bad angels write all the 
bad : this, they believe, is perused by God ; 
for which reason they at this season examine 
themselves, say a few prayers, give alms, &c. 
but flattering themselves that their account will 
be clear, and written down in the book of life, 
they end the solemnity with illuminations and 
bonfires, treating and making presents to each 

CHRESIPHON, an architeft concerned in the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

CHRESFHONTES, a son of Aristodemus. 

CHRETEIS, an epithet of Atalanta. 

CHRETHON, son of Diocleus, and brother of 
Orsilochus, killed by Aeneas before Troy. 

CHROMIA, daughter of Itonus. 

CHROMIS, son of Hercules, fed his horses on 
human flesh, and was destroyed with a thun- 
derbolt by Jupiter. 

There was likewise a Satyr so called ; a Phrygian 
whom Camilla slew in the eleventh Aeneid ; 
and a young Shepherd mentioned by Virgil. 

CHROMIUS, son of Neleus and Chloris, was 
killed, together with his ten brothers, by Her- 

Priam had a son also of this name, who was killed 
by Diomedes. f 

CHRONIA. See Kronia. 

CHRONIUS, the builder of the temple of Diana 
at Orchomenos. 

CHRONOS, the Grecian name of Saturn. See 

CHRONUS, son of Uranus and Gea. 

CHRYASUS, a king of Argos, descended from 

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CHRYSA AND CHRYSE, daughter of Halmus, 
aiid mother of Phlegyas, by Mars. 

There was also a city of the Troaa of this name, 
celebrated for a temple of Apollo Smintheus. 

CHRYSAME, a Thessaljan priestess of Diana 
Trivia. Having fed a bull with some noxious 
esculent, she sent it amongst the enemies of her 
country, who, eating it, became delirious, and 
by that means were easily defeated. 

CHRYSANTIS, a Nymph who acquainted Ceres 
with the rape of her daughter. 

CHRYSAOR, son of Medusa by Neptune, or, as 
some report, siH-ung from the blood of Medusa 
armed with a golden sword, whence his name 
Xfvrtt tuf ; but whatever was his origin, it is a- 
greed that he was the husband of Calirrhoe, one 
of theOceanides, and, by her, fatherof Geryon, 
Echidna, and the Chimaera. 

Glaucus had a son Trhose name was Cbrysaor, 

CHRYSAOREUS, a surname of Jupiter, from his 
temple at Chrysaoris, where the Carians assem- 
bled on critical occasions. 

CHRYSAS, a river of Sicily, worshipped as a god. 

CHRYSEIS, daughter of Chryses, priestof Apollo, 
is more known by this patronymic than by her 
true name Astynime. She was taken by Achilles 
when he sacked Lyrnessus, and was wife to the 
king of that country. Agamemnon falling in 
love with her, retained her for himself, and was 
so far from consenting to restore her to her fa- 
ther, (who came to demand her attired in his sa- 
cerdotal ornaments and furnished with a con- 
siderable ransom) that he repulsed him very 
unbecomingly. Chryses besought Apollo to re- 
venge him, and was heard. A pestilence was, 
sent on the Grecian army, and ceased not 

■ till Chryseis was restored to her father, at 
the express monition of the soothsayer Cal- 

chas. Though with child, she denied all 

intercourse with man, affirming herself to be 
pregnant by the god Apollo. The son she 
was delivered of was named Chryses, who was 
Informed of his extraction time enough to serve 
his brother Orestes. Some make Iphigenia the 
daughter of Agamemnon and Chryseis : others 
relate that Chryses, being acquainted with the 
kind treatment his daughter had received from 
the Greeks, brought her back to the army, and 
delivered her to Agamemnon again. Briseis 
and Chryseis appear to have been cousins, as 

Briscs and Chryses were said to be brotheis. — 
Bayle remarks on this article, that if three or 
four persons could have lain without females, the 
Ifves had been saved of three hundred thousand. 

There was another Chryseis, daughter of Thea- 
pius, and mother ofOnesippus. 

CHRYSES, priest of Apollo, and father of Asty- 
nome, who, from him, was called Chryaeis.— - 
See Chryseis. 

Another Chryses was grandson of the former, be; 
ing the son of Astynome, by Apollo, or, as 
others contend, Agamemnon. When Orestes 
and Iphigenia fled from Taurica with the statue 
of Diana, they betook themselves for safety to 
Sminthe. Here Chryses, who had succeeded his 
grandfather -in the priesthood, received them, 
and, having accompanied them to Mycenae, 
reinstated them in their father's possessions. 

CHRYSIPPE, a daughter of Danaus. 

CHRYSIPPUS, natural son of Pelops, king of 
Phrygia, was of incomparable beauty : some 
say his mother was the nymph Danais ; others 
name her Axioche, or Astyoche. Laius, king 
of Thebes, being entertained by Pelops, fell 
in love with Chrysippus, his host's son, and 
carried him away by force ; but beingpur^ued 
with speed, his prey was taken from him, and 
himself brought prisoner to Pelops, whoforgave 
him the fait, considering that love had induced 
him to commit it. The affection of Pelops for 
Chrysippus was greater than that which he bore 
his legitimatechildren,for which reason his wife 
Hippodamia, animated by the spirit of a step- 
mother, exhorted Atreus and Thyestes, two of 
her sons, to take away the life of their rival ; 
for she made no doubt but he would one day 
aspire to the crown. They refusing to perpe- 
trate so base a deed, she formed the resolution 
to do it herself, and seizing, whilst Laius was 
asleep, his sword for that purpose, she made 
use of it to dispatch Chrysippus. The suspicion 
fell upon Laius, from the circumstance of his 
sword being found in the youth's apartment, 
but Chrysippus, before he expired, had time 
to clear him. Some authors report that she did 
not kill Chrysippus witli her own hand, but 
caused the murder to be committed by Atreus 
and Thyestes, who, after they had killed, threw 
him into a well ; and, as their father banished 
them his presence, they retired to Triphilia, 
Aa 2 

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a difltri6l of Elis in Peloponnesus. Thucydides 
relates, that Atreus fled to his nephew Eurys- 
theus, king of Mycenae. Some authors repre- 
sen Pelops as satisfying himself with turning a- 
way Hippodamia ; whilst others assert that she 
avoided the revenge he meditated on her by es- 
caping to Midea,atown in theterritoryof Argos, 
Others, however, affirm that, finding herself ac- 
cused by her husband, she put an end to her life. 

CHRYSIS, priestess of Juno, at Argos, was, by 
her negligence, the occasion of the temple's be- 
ing burnt in which she presided. Having placed 
a lamp too near the sacred ornaments, they took 
fire, and she, falling asleep, the building was 
consumed. Some say that she herself perished 
in the flames ; some that she escaped to Phlius ; 
others, to Tegea, where she took refuge at the 
altar of Minerva ; and that the Argians, in re- 
speft to that asylum, forebore to demand her. 
They even preserved her statue, which, in the 
time of Pausanias, might be seen at the en- 
trance of the temple. The Argians eletSed a- 
nother priestess, named Phaeinis. The dele- 
gation of this dignity was very considerable ; 
as it regulated their dates and chronology. — 
This conflagration is said to have happened in 
the ninth year of the Peloponnesian war. Ar- 
nobius demands, " Where was Juno when the 
same flames destroyed her celebrated temple, 
and burnt her priestess Chrysis, at Argos r"— 
upon which Mr. Bayle remarks, that "/little 
judgment is shewn in employing such a proof 
against the Heathen gods, for might Hot the 
same question be retorted on Arnobius him- 
self ? might they not ask hi m where the God of 
Israel was when the king of Babylon pillaged and 
burnt the temple of Solomon ? " I do not know," 
continues Bayle, " what the Fathers were think- 
ing on when they wrote some of their arguments 
against the Gentiles." St. Jerome has observed 
that Chrysis, priestess of Juno, was a virgin.— 
Marianus Viflorius erroneously asserts, in his 
Notes on that passage, that the said Father is 
speaking of Chryseis.concubineof Agamemnon. 

CHRYSOMALLUS. See Bisaltis. 

CHRYSOCERl, a designation given to the oxen 
selefled for sacrifices. They were so called from 
their horns being gilded. 

CHRYSOR, a divinity amongst the people of the 
East, supposed to be the same with Vulcan. 

CHRYSOTHEMIS, daughter of Agamemnon 
and Clytemnestra. 

CHTHONIA, in Grecian antiquity, an anniver- 
sary kept by the Hemionians in honour of Ce- 
res, named Chthonia, either from her being 
goddess of the earth, which is called in Greek 
xAm*, or from a damsel of that name whom Ceres 
carried from Argolis to Hermione, where she 
dedicated a tem|Je to the goddess. Pausanias 
reports, that this festival was celebrated every 
summer. In it a procession was led up by the 
priests and the afting magistrates, attended by 
a crowd of men and women : the boys also made 

, a solemn procession in honour of the goddess, 
clothed in white, and crowned with wreaths of 
hyacinths, to commemorate the untimely death 
of Hyacinthus. These were followed by per- 
sons dragging an untamed heifer, fast bound, 
to the temple, which havifig entered, she was 
let loose, and the gates of the temple shut, on 
which four old women, who had been left with- 
in, armed with scythes, pursued the heifer, and 
dispatched her, by cutting her throat; the 
doors were then opened, and three other heifers, 
in succession, were killed in the same manner. 
It uas observed that they all fell on the same ' 

CHTHONIUS, one of the five companions of 
Cadmus, who survived the confliit with the men 
which sprung from the sown teeth, and who 
assisted in the building of Thebes. 

Also a son of Aegyptus and Caliadne, and like- 
wise a Centaur killed by Nestor at the marriage 
of Pirithpus. 

CHYTLA, an infusion of wine and oil, sometimes 
tisedin sacrifices. 

CHYTRI, an Athenian festival in honour of Bac- 
chus and Mercury, kept on the thirteenth of the 
month Anthesterion. 

CICONES, a people residing near the Hebrus in 
Thrace, who tore asunder Orpheus for his ob- 
scene praftices, and were themselves conquered 
on his return from Troy, by Ulysses, who 
plundered their capital, Ismarus. 

CILENO, one of the Pleiades. 

CILIX, son of Agenor, and brother of Cadmus 
and Europa, built Cilicia. ApoUodorus men- 
tions liim as the son of Phoenix, but this per- 
haps was a different person. 

CILLAEUS, a surname of Apollo, from Cilia, 





a city of Boeotia, where he had a celebrated 

CILLUS, a charioteer of Pelops, who, from af- 
faftion to his memory, ere6leda city,and called 
it after him. Cilia. 

CIMMERIANS, CIMMERII; inhabitants of the 
western coast of Italy, whose country was sup- 
posed to be so dark as to become proverbial. — 
Homer, according to Plutarch, drew his ima- 
ges of Hell and Pluto from the gloomy regions 
of the Cimmerians. 

CIMMERIS, a surname of Cybelc. 

CINNARADAS, a descendant of Cinyras, and 
high-priest of Venus in the island of PaphOB. 

CINGULA, a name of Juno. 

CINCIA. SeeC/«xw. 

CINXI A, a name of Juno, from her unloosing at 
marriages the virgin's zone or girdle, on which 
occasion she was invoked. 

CINYRAS, king of Assyria, according to some 
writers, and of Cyprus, according to others, 
was father of Adonis by his own daughter. — 
This incest was involuntary on the part of Ci- 
nyrap, he not knowing at their intercourse that 
Myrrha was his daughter. On discovering her 
face, he endeavoured to murder her, and would 
certainly have done it, had she not escaped.- — 
He is said to have suffered so much from re- 
flefling on his incest, that he meditated vio- 
lence on himself: but his death is ascribed to 
other causes, for, according to some, he lost his 
Kfe in rashly disputing the prize of music with 
Apollo, which happened after he had broken 
his promise to the Greeks of furnishing them 
with provisions during the siege of Troy ; i 
failure which not only exasperated Agamem- 
non, but provoked the Greeks to drive him 
from Cyprus. The long life ascribed to him 
by Anacreon but ill accords with the musical 
contest ; for who could believe that a man, at 
a hundred and sixty, would have the presump- 
tion to contend with Apollo? Mythological 
history varies exceedingly in respe£t to the fa- 
ther, the wives, the sons, and the daughters 
of Cinyras. He is said to have had fifty diiugli- 
ters, who v,ereall transformed into halcyons, 
or, as Ovid relates, into stones, by Juno, for 
steps to the stair-case of her temple. Cinyras, 
according to Pindar, was much beloved by A- 
pollo, and he amassed such prodigious riches. 

that they, as well as those of Croesus, became 
proverbial. According to tlie same author, he 
was extremely beautiful, and largely enjoyed 
tlie gratuities of Venus. The Fathers of the 
church, who wrote against the abominations of 
the Heathens, reproached them with saying, 
that the Venus who was honoured in the island 
of Cyprus, had been the strumpet of Cinyras. 
The chief temple of Venus in that island was at 
Paphos : there indeed was an ancient tradition 
which declared that it had been built by king 
Aerias, but, according to modern tradition, 
was consecrated by Cinyras, upon whose birth 
the goddess came thither. It was not he who 
instituted the science of the Aruspices, but 
Thamyras, of Cilicia, after which an ordinance 
was made that tlie descendants both of Cinyras 
and Thamyras should preside in the sacred ce- 
remonies. In process of time the descendants 
of Thamyras resigned their privilege to those 
of Cinyras, which removed all occasion of com- 
plaint, it being alleged that the royal family 
did not enjoy any prerogative above tiiat of afo- 
reign one. Tacitus observes that no one but 
the Cinyrades, or descendants from Cinyras, 
were consulted. Cinyras had united in himself 
the officesof priest and king ; for wliich reason 
the priesthood of the Paphian Venus was, ever 
afterwards, enjoyed by a prince of the blood. 
Hence Cato imagined he had dealt li berally with 
Ptolemy in offering him, on condition of sur- 
rendering the island, an appointment from the 
Romans to the priesthood of Venus. Mention 
is made by Lucian of another temple built by 
Cinyras, upon Mount Libanus. He also built 
three cities, Paphos, Cinyrea, and Smyrna, 
and called the last by the name of his daughter. 
He is mentioned as the inventor of tiles, pincera, 
the hammer, the lever, and the anvil ; and also 
as the first who discovered copper-mines in Cy- 
prus. He is ranked among the ancient sooth- 
sayers. His monument, and that of his de- 
scendants, stood in the temple of Venus at Pa- 
phos, as is observed by Clemens Alexandrinus. 
According to some writers, Cinyras was not 
born in the island of Cyprus, but came thither 
from Assyria, over which he reigned. 

CINYREIUS Juvaiis. Adonis, the son of Cy - 

CIONES, OR KioMf, a kind of idols very conuium 

y Google 





in Greece, being only oblong stone$ ere6l- 
ed pillar-wise, whence they obtained their 
CIRCE, daughter of Phoebus, by Persis, daug^l. 
ter of Oceanus. She was the most skilful of 
all sorceresses. Her first husband was king 
of the Sarmatae, whom she poisoned, as also 
several of his subjefls, to try the effe6ts of her 
skill, and prove the force of her poisons ; for 
which she was expelled the kingdom. Sol car- 
ried her in a chariot to a promontory on the 
coast of Tuscany, afterwards called the Cape of 
Circe; here she fell in love with Glaucus, one 
of the sea deities, but he preferring Scylla, Cir- 
ce, impatient of such a rival, turned her into 
a sea-monster, by poisoning the waters she 
used to bathe in. Picus, king of the Latins, 
her next favourite, for rejecting her addresses, 
was changed by her into a wood-pecker. The 
most remarkable of Circe's adventures was with 
Ulysses; this prince, returning from Troy, 
was shipwrecked on her coast, and his men, by 
a drink she gave them, were transformed into 
brutes. Ulysses himself was preserved by 
Mercury, who gave him the herb moly to 
secure him from her enchantments, and in- 
strufted him, when she attempted to touch 
him with her wand, to draw his' sword, and 
make her swear by Styx that she would use him 
as a friend, otherwise he would kill her. Ulys- 
ses following this advice, escaped the potent 
efFefls of her charms, and procured for his 
companions the restoration of their shapes.-— 
During his abode with Circe, she bore him two 
sons, Agrius and Latinus. Circe had a sepul- 
chre in one of the isles called Pharmacusae, 
near Salamis. Some writers contend, that 
Circe was no other than the Egyptian Isis, 
whose Horus, or attending image, every month 
assuming some different form,a?, a human body, 
with the heads of a lion, dog, serpent, &«. gave 
rise to the fable of her changing men by her 
enchantments .into animals : hence the Egyp- 
tians gave her the name of Circe, which signi- 
fies the Aenigma. Boccace, in h\^Geneology of 
the Gods, mentioris two Circes, who, afterwards, 
came to be confounded: she whom Diodorus 
from Hesiod, calls the daughter of th.e Sun, 
utas much more ancient than Ulysses, since 
she lived in the time of the Argonauts, and 

was sis^pr of Aetes. The other, whose court 
Ulysses visited, and who reigned over the 
coasts of Italy about the time of the Trojan 
war, was daughter of the former Circe, grand- 
daughter of Elius, and sister of Aetcs, the se- 
cond. As few authors distinguish these two 
Circes, and the two Aetes, kings of Colchis, it 
is not to be wondered that the fable is ob- 
CIRCENSES LUDI, were games celebrated in 

the circus at Rome. See Games, Cirrensian. 
CIRCUMPOTATIO. a funeral feast provided in 
honour of the dead. This was frequent among 
the Romans as well as the Athenians. Solon 
at Athens, and the Decemviri at Rome, endea- 
voured to reform this custom, for they thought 
it absurd, that mirth and inebriety should min- 
gle with grief. 
CIRIS, Scylla, daughter of Nisus, was changed 

into a bird so called. 
CIRRHA AND CYRRHA, a town at the foot of 
Parnassus where Apollo was worshipped, and 
from whose caverns proceeded the oracular 
CISSEIS, Hecuba; thus named from her fa- 
CISSEUS, king of Thrace, and father of Hecuba. 
Melampus and Aegyptus had each a son of 
this name, as was the father of Theano, wife of 
CISSOTOMOI, a Grecian festival in honour of 

Hebe, goddess of youth. 
CISSUS, a youth greatly esteemed by Bacchus^ 
was unfortunately killed whilst sporting with 
tlie Satyrs. Bacchus changed him into the 
plant ivy, which became in a peculiar manner 
consecrated to his worship. 
CISSUSA, a fountain in which Bacchus was wash- 
ed when young. 
CITHAERON, king of the Plataeenses. See 

CITHAERONIA, a name of Juno. Jupiter 
having restored lo to her former shape, the 
rage and jealousy of Juno became so violent, 
that nothing could pacify her, upon which 
Cithaeron, then esteemed the wisest man, ad- 
vised Jupiter to give out, that he would take 
another wife. The expedient pleasing the god, 
he caused a magnifient oaken image to be 
dressed, and putting it into a chariot, declar- 

Digjtized by 





cd, he would marry Plataea, the daughter of 
Aesopus, This report soon reaching Juno, 
she immediately flew to the chariot, fell furi- 
ously on the image, and stripping offits clothes, 
discovered the jest. After laughing heartily 
at the trick, she was reconciled to her husband ; 
and from king Cithaeron, adviser of the arti- 
fice, she was afterwards called Cithaeronia. See 
Daidala. In honour of this king the mountain 
in Boeotia was called by his name, and consi- 
dered as sacred to Jupiter and the Muses. 
common to the Mxises,from Mount Cithaeron, 
where they sometimes abode. 
CITU, a solemn festival, formerly observed by 
the Peruvians cm the first day of the moon of 
September, after the equinox. It was looked 
upon as a day of general lustration, and the 
people prepared themselves for it by fasting 
twenty-four hours> and abstaining from all 
commerce with women. They made a kind of 
paste, mixed with blood, which they drew from 
between tlie eye-brows and nostrils of young 
children, and with this they rubbed their 
heads, faces, stomachs^ shoulders, arms, and 
thighs, having first washed their bodies all 
over. This purification was Intended to drive 
away diseasesand all kinds of infirmities. They 
likewise rubbed the door-posts of their houses 
with the paste, and left some of it sticking, to 
shew that the house was purified. The high 
priest performed the same ceremony in the 
palace, and in the temple of the Sun, whilst 
the inferior priests purified the chapels and 
oUier sacred places. The moment the Sun 
began to appear, they worshipped it. One of 
the royal family presented himself in the great 
squareofCusco, magnificently dressed, having 
a lance in his hand adorned with feathers of 
various colours, and enriched with a great 
number of gold ri^igs : this Inca joined him- 
self with four others, armed likewise with 
lances, which he touched with his own, and 
this was a kind of consecration of them ; he 
then declared, tliat the Sun had made choice 
of them to drive away diseases and infirmities : 
these four ministers of the Sun then visited the 
several quarters of the city, upon which occa- 
sion every body came out of their houses, shook 
their garments, and rubbed their heads, faces. 

arms, and thighs. These ceremonies of puri- 
fication were accompanied with great accia 
mations of joy ; and the superstitious Peruvians 
believed, that all evils were thereby driven to 
five or six leagues distance from their city. 
CLADEUB, a river of Elis, which the Greeks , 

made a divinity. 
CLADEUTERIA. SeeClodeouteria. 
CLARA DEA, tbe splendid Goddess, or Iris. 
CLARIUS, a surname of Apollo, from Clariiim, 
a city in Ionia, or rather from Claros, an island 
in the Aegean, where he was particularly wor- 
shipped, and oracles were statedly given. 
CLAROS. SeeClarius. 
CLARUS, aLycian chief who commanded under 

Aeneas in the Latian war. 
CLAUDIA, a vestal virgin, being suspcfted of 
unchastity, is said to have cleared herself from 
the imputation in the following manner : the 
image of Cybele having been brought out of 
Phrygia to the Tyber, in a barge, the vessel 
stuck so fast that it could not be moved, even 
by the united strength of a thousand men, till 
the vestal Claudia tying her girdle, the badge 
of chastity, to the barge, drew it easily along 
to the city. 
CLAVIGER, or the key-bearer, an epithet of Ja- 
nus, from his being represented with a key.— 
The same epithet, in the sense of & club-bearer^ 
was given to Hercules, from his club. Ciavi- 
gera Proles Vulcani, is Cercyon or Periphetes. 
CLAUSUS, a Sabine king, who joined Aeneas a- 
gainst Tumus. From him the Claudian family 
are said to have sprung. 

Divination by ominous words. 
CLEMENCY, ob MERCY, had an altar at A- 
thens, erefted by the kindred of Hercules, and 
a temple dedicated to her by order of the Ro- 
man Senate, after the death of Julius Caesar, 
on some of whose denarii this goddess appears. 
The poets describe her as the guardian of the 
world, and she is pictured holding a branch 
of laurel, or olive, and a spear, to shew that 
gentleness and pity ought principally to fis- 
tinguish vrfitorious warriors. The Greeks and 
Romans gave the name of Asylum to the tem- 
jdes they erefted to this goddess. Mr, Spence 
remarks, that " The distinguishing charafter 
of Clemency, both in her statues and in the 

ized by 






poets is, the mildness of Iier countenance : she 
lias an olive branch in her hand, as a mark of 
her i)eaceful and gentle temper. The Romans 
were at first of so rough a turn, that I question 
vhether she was admitted as a goddess among 
them in the earlier ages of the state. 1 do not 
remember that she is ever mentioned as such 
by any poet of the two tii-st ages ; and the 
fullest passage relating to her in one of the 
third, speaks of an altar to her indeed, but 
it is of an altar at Athens, and not at Rome. 
The Athenians, as less warlike, were more 
compassionate ; they made a goddess of Miseri- 
cordia too, who, perhaps, was never received 
as a goddess among the Romans at all." 

CLEOBIS. Set Croesus. 

CLEOBULA, daughter of Boreas and Orythia, 
who was also called Cleopatra, married Phineus 
the son of Agenor, and by him had Flexippus 
and Pandion. She was repudiated by her hus- 
band for the sake of a daughter of Danaus. 

There were several other women named Cleo- 
bula: for instance, the wife of Amynton, and 
mother of Phoenix. The mother by Apollo of 
a son named Euripides. Another who bore to 
Aegeus Amphidamas and Cepheus; and also, 
the mother of Pithus. 

CLEOBULUS, a Trojan slain by Oileus, as men- 
tioned in the Iliad. See also Seven Wise Men 
of Greece. 

CLEOCHARIA, the mother of Eurotas by Le- 

CLEODAEUS, son of Hyllus, who, after the 
death of his father, made an unsuccessful efTott 
to recover Peloponnesus. 

CLEODICE, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. 

CLEODORA, a Nymph, mother of Parnassus, 
from whom the mountain so called had its 
name. Also, one of the Danaides. 

CLEODOXA, daughter of Nioheand Amphion, 
who, for the pride of her mother, was changed 
into stone. 

CLEOGENES, son of Silenus. 

CLEOLAUS, son of Hercules by a menial ser- 
vant of Jardanus. 

CLEOMEDES, a celebrated Athlete of Asty- 
palaea above Crete, who, in a combat at Olym- 
pia, having killed his antagonist, an Epidau- 
rian, with a blow of his fist, was deprived of 
his prize, and became delirious. On his re- 

turn to the place of his residence, he entered 
a school, and by pulling away the pillars 
which supported it, crushed sixty of the boys 
in the ruin. Being pursued with stones, he 
withdrew to a tomb, but his assailants having 
entered it, were unable to find him. The ora- 
cle at Delphi was consulted on his sudden dis- 
appearance, and returned for answer, that 
Clcomedestbe Astypalaean was the last of the heroes; 
on which, sacrifices were offered him as a god. 

CLEONAEAN LION: the killing of this animal 
was the first labour of Hercules. See Her- 

CLEONAEUS, an epithet of Hercules from the 
lion he killed. 

CLEONE, a daughter of Asopus. 

CLEOPATRA, one of the four daughters of Bo- 
reas and Orithya. See Clcobula. 

Also, one of the Danaides. Of this name like- 
wise, was a daughter of Idas and Marpessa, 
who, being grand-daughter by her mother of 
Evenus, king of Aetolia, married Mcleager, 
son of king Oeneus. A fourth Cleopatra was 
daughter of Tros and Calirrhoe. 

CLEOPHYLUS, a man whose posterity preserv- 
ed tlie poems of Homer. 

CLEROMANTIA. See Divination, Ay /o/. 

CLEOSTRATUS, a young man of Thessaly. 
was chosen by lot to be sacrificed to a dragon 
which laid waste the country ; but his friend 
Menestratus pitying his fate, resolved to save 
him or die in the attempt. Having armed 
himself for the purpose, he slew the dragon, 
and delivered both his friend and country. 

Of this name, likewise, was an ancient astrono- 
mer of Tenedos, who lived five hundred and 
forty years before the birth of Christ, first 
foimd the signs of the Zodiac, and reformed 
the Grecian calendar. 

CLEOTHERA. See^rfo. 

CLETA, one of the Graces, accordmg to the 
Lacedemonians. They admitted but two, and 
Phaenna was the other. 

CLIAS. See Pyrodes. 

CLIMENE, oneoftheMineides. 

CLIMENUS, son of Archas, and descended from 

CLIO, one of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne, the goddess of Memory, pre-- 
sided over Hhlory. Her name is derived from 

Digitized by 






xXi^, glory, or from kXmw, to celebrate. She is 
generally represented under the form of a 
young woman crowned with laurel, holding in 
her right hand a trumpet, and in her left, a 
book : others describe her with a lute in one 
hand, and in the other a pleSrum, or quill. — 
Mr. Spence gives the following particulars re- 
lative to her : " Clio presided over the noblest 
kind of Poetry ; her office was to celebrate the 
anions of departed heroes : she, therefore, has 
a roll or book in her hand, or else the longer 
bolder pipe, as in the relievo of the Muses in 
the Justiniani palace at Rome. Horace, in 
speaking of this pipe, "seems to give it the 
shrillness of the trumpet, and, indeed, it is 
shaped much in the same manner with the 
trumpets which the modern artists give to 
their figures of Fame. As Pindar, and several 
other of the old lyric poets dealt so much in 
celebrating the aftions of departed heroes, this 
Muse may, perhaps, have been sometimes re- 
presented with a lyre too, though I do not re- 
member to have seen any instance of it in the 
remains of the old artists. Statius makes her 
descend to lower offices, as if she must preside 
over every thing written in heroic verse ; and 
his mistake, for it seems to be one, may be ea- 
sily accounted for, from their looking formerly 
on evei-y thing in hexameters as an epic poem." 
See Muses. 

CLITA, the daughter of Merope, and wife of 
Cyzicus king of the DoHans, strangled her- 
self for grief at the loss of her husband, who 
fell in a rencounter with the Argonauts.—— 
Her fate was lamented by the Dryads, whose 
tears became a fountain to commemorate her 

CLITOR: Lycaon had a son of this name, and 
also Azan. The latter founded a city in Ar- 
cadia, which was called from him, and con- 
tained temples to Ceres, Aesculapius, and o- 
ther divinities. It was also remarkable for a 
fountain, whose waters excited a disrelish of 

CLITUMNUS. SeeOracleofCUiumnus. 

CLOACINA, a goddess at Rome, who presided 
over the cloacae of the city. These cloacae were 
recepticles for the common filth, begun by 
Tarquin the elder, and finished by Tarquin 
the proud. They were carried under the 
Vol. I. 9 

whole of Rome, and though washed by vast 
torrents, were of sufficient strength to resist 
their force. In one of these sewers Titus Ta- 
tius is said to have found tl)e figure of awoman, 
which he consecrated as a goddess by the name 
of Cloacina, 

CLOANTHUS, one of the attendants of Ae- 

festival, mentioned by Hesychius, which seems 
to have been solemnized at the time when 
vines were pruned, the word signifying prun- 
ing books. 

CLODONES, names of the Bacchants amongst 
the Macedonians. 

CLOEIA. SeeCbloeia. 

CLOELIA, a Roman virgin, and one of the hos- 
tages given to Porsenna, king of Etruria; hav- 
ing escaped from her confinement, and swum 
across the Tiber, an equestrian statue was erect- 
ed to her in the Via Sacra. 

CLONIA, the mother of Nyfleus. 

CLONIUS, one of the leaders of the Boeotians tc 
the siege of Troy, killed by Agenor ; also, a 
leader in the Aeneid, who fell by Turnus. 

CLORIS. SeeCbbris: 

CLOSTER, son of Arachne, to whom is ascribed 
the invention of the distaff! 

CLOTHO, the youngest of the Fates, Destinies, 
or Parcae. It is her office to spin the thread 
betwixt her fingers j that is, to give life, and 
continue us in it She is represented holding 
the spindle, dressed in a long gown of several 
coloure, and a crown on her head with seven 
stars. See Fates. 

CLU ACINA^ an epithet of Venus, from the word 
duo, to bear, listen, or agree, according to some 
authors; but signifying tojigbt, according to 
others. Her image was erefted in the place 
where peace was concluded between the Ro- 
mans and Sabines. 

CLUSIUS, a name of Janus, from shutting, be- 
cause, in time of peace, his temple at Rome 
was shut. 

CLYMENE: of this name there were several. — 
One, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wa» 
mother, by lapetus, of Atlas, Prometheus, 
Menoetius, and Epimetheus, The second, a 
Nereid, and mother, by Jupiter, of Mnemo- 
syne. A tbirdt also said to have been dajighter 

uyuzed by Google 




ofOceanus> had by Apollo, Phaethusa, Lam- 
petia, Lampethusa, or Phoebe, and Phaeton. 
The fourth, mother of Thesimenus, by Partha- 
nopaeufl. AJiftb, daughter of Mynias, mother 
of Atalanta, by Jasus. The suclb, daughter 
of Crateus, and wife of Natiplius. The seventh, 
a woman of Troy. An eighth, an attendant on 
Helen, who accompanied her mistress when she 
went off with Paris. A nintb, the mother of 
CLYMENEIA PROLES, the (f spring ofClymne; 

that is. Phaeton. 
CLYMENEIDES, an appellative of the sisters 
of Phaeton, taken from the name of their mo- 
■ ther. 

CLYMENUS, a surname of Pluto. The father 
. of Harpalyce was likewise so called ; as was a 
king of Orchomenos, son of Presbon, who be- 
ing killed by a stone which a Theban had 
thrown, was succeeded by his son Erginus. 
One of the Heraclidae of this name, erefted a 
temple to Minerva of Cydonia. Another Cly- 
menus was son of Oeneus, king of Calydon; 
another, of Phoroneus ; and another, king of 
Elis. See Harpalyce, Eurydice, Games Olympic. 
CLYNDUS, son of Phryxusand Chalciope: A- 

pollonius calls him Cytisorus. See Pbryxus. 
CLYSONYMUSA, son of Amphidamas, was kill- 
ed by Patroclus. 
CLYTEMNESTRA, daughter of Jupiter, or of 
Tyndarus, king of Sparta, by Leda, was, with 
her brother Castor, the offspring of one of the 
eggs brought fbrth by her mother, after her 
visit from Jupiter in the shape of a swan. — 
Clytemnestra, according to some writers, was 
origmally the wife of Tantalus, son of Thy- 
estes ; but the more prevalent opinion makes 
her first marriage to have been with Agamem- 
non. On the departure of this hero to Troy, 
he committed his kingdom and family to the 
care of Aegisthus, but appointed at the same 
time, a favourite musician to inspeA the con- 
duft of his deputy, and demeanour of his wife. 
In the absence of Agamemnon both proved 
unfaithful, and intelligence of it being trans, 
mitted to him, he resolved, when at home, to 
take vengeance on both. But, in this, was 
prevented by the offenders themselves, who, 
on his arrival at Mycenae, killed him, either 
as he came from the bath, or sat down at the 

feast, to celebrate his return. Cassandra, who 
attended him, with their children, partook of 
his fate ; nor would Orestes have escaped, but 
for the caution of Eleftra, his sister. All ob- 
stacles being now removed, Clytemnestra mar- 
ried her paramour, and he, as sovereign, as- 
cended the throne. Orestes, however, still 
burning with revenge, after an absence of 
seven yeara, returned to Mycenae, and, the 
better to carry on his design, not only kept 
himself concealed, but occasioned a report to 
be spread of his death. This being a subjetS 
of joy to his mother and Aegisthus, they re- 
paired to the temple of Apollo with offerings 
of thanks. In this temple, Orestes having 
secreted himself with Pylades his friend, they 
both rushed forth unawares, and cut off the 
adtilterers whilst exulting in their guilt. Con- 
taminated by their crimes in the public opinion, 
they were both interred without the walls of 
the city. See Agamemnon, Aegisthus, Cassandra, 

CLYTIA AKD CLYTIE, daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, or Eurynome, and Orchamus, 
king of Babylon, was beloved by Apollo ; but 
the god having also an amour with Leucothoe, 
her sister, Clytia discovered the secret to her 
father. Apollo, in return, deserting her, she 
pined away, with continually gazing on the 
Sun, and was changed to the flower denomi- 
nated from him, which turns as he moves, to 
look on his light. See Leucothoe. 

There was another Clytia, daughter of Amphi- 
damas, and mother of Pelops, by Tantalus. — 
A third, concubine of Amyntor, son of Phr^- 
tor ; and a. fourth, daughter of Pandarus. 

CLYTIUS, one of the giants slain in the war 
against Jupiter, by Hecate ; or, according to 
ApoUodorus, by Vulcan. Also, asonofLao- 
medon, the father of Pireus, who attended 
Telemachus ; a son of Aeolus, who followed 
Aeneas into Italy, and was killed by Turnus ; 
and a youth in the army of Turnus, beloved by 
Cydon, were all of this name. There was also 
another Clytius, son of Alcmeon and Arsinoe, 
daughter of Phegeus, who, after his father's 
death, retired to Elis, where he left his de- 
scendants. From him Eperastus the diviner, 
who obtained a prize at the Olympic games, 
was deseeded. 

Digitized by 






CLYTONEUS. See Nauplius. 
CLYTORIS, a beautiful virgin of Thessaly, de- 
flowered by Jupiter, who, for this purpose, as- 
sumed the shape of an ant 
CLYTUS, one of the Centaurs. 
Aiso a Greek in the Trojan war, killed by Heftor. 
CNACALESIA, an anniversary solemnity cele- 
brated upon Mount Cnacalus, in Greece, by 
the Cophyatae, in honour of Diana, who had 
from that place the name of Cnacalesia. 
CNACALUS. See Cnacalesia. 
CNAGIA, a surname of Diana. 
CNEPH: so the ancient Egyptians, particularly 
the people of Thebais, called the sovereign in- 
telle6lual principle by which the world was 
framed. They represented him in the shape 
of a man of a dark-blue complexion, holding 
a girdle and a sceptre, with a royal plume on 
his head, and thrusting forth an egg out of his 
mouth, whence another god proceeded, whom 

they named Ptha, aiid tlie Greeks Vulcan. 

The reason of this hieroglyphic is thus given, 
viz. because this intelleifliial being is difficult 
to be found out, hidden and invisible, the giver 
of life, and the king of all things ; and because 
he is moved in an intelledlual spiritual manner, 
which is signified by the feathers on his head : 
the egg which proceeds from his mouth is in- 
terpreted to be the world. 
CNIDUS, OR GNIDUS, a city and promontory 
of Doris in Caria, over which Venus peculiarly 
presided. She there had an exquisite statue 
formed by the hand of Praxiteles. 
CNOSSI A, a mistress of Menelaus. 
CNUPHIS. See Cnepb. 

COBOLI, in the Russian language Colfy, in the 
German Coboldi, the name of certain spirits, 
genii, or demons, worshipped by the ancient 
Sarmatians, viz. the Borussi, Samogitae, Li- 
thuanians, Livonians, &c. These spirits, they 
believed, dwelt in the most secret parts of 
their houses, and even in the chinks of the 
wood. They presented to them the most dainty 
meats. When these spirits had a mind to take 
up their residence in any house, they took this 
method of declaring their intention to the mas- 
ter of the family : in the night time they heaped 
together chips of wood, and strewed the dung 
of several animals on the milk pails ; if the mas- 
ter of a house, the next morning, suffered the 

chips to continue in a heap, and made his fa- 
mily eat of the polluted milk, then the CoboU 
appeared, and stayed with him ; but ifhe dis- 
persed the chips, and threw away the milk, they 
looked out for another habitation. 
COCALUS, a king of Sicily, by whom Daedalus 
was hospitably treated when he fled from Mi- 
nos. On the arrival of Minos in Sicily, the 
daughters of Cocalus destroyed him. 
COCCOCA, a surname of Diana. 
COCYTUS, one of the rivers of hell. It lias its 
name from tunuttw, to weep and lament. It, with 
Phlegethon, was a branch of the river Styx, 
flowing by contrary ways, and re-uniting, to 
increase the vast channel of the Acheron. The 
Cocytus, according to Horace, moved on with 
a dull and languid stream. 
COCYTIA VIRGO, ibe infernal virgin, that is, 

Aleflo, oneof the Furies. 
CODRUS, the last king of the Athenians, fell in 
defence of his country against the Heraclides, 
descendants of Hercules. 
COELESTIS DEA, the heavenly goddess, a deity 
worshipped anciently in Africa, and supposed 
the same with the Mithra of the Persians, and 
Astarte of the Plioenicians. She had a splendid 
teinpie at Carthage, dedicated by one Aurelius, 
a Pagan high-priest, and destroyed by another 
Aurelius, created Bishop of Carthage in the 
year 390 of Christ, who converted the Pagan 
temple into a Christian church, and placed his 
episcopal chair in the very place where the sta- 
tue of the goddess had stood. There is still 
visible on a marble at Florence the following in- 
scription, Caelesti Aug Sac Q M-—Tius Pri- 
mus Act Ampliationem Templi et Grabvs 
DoKAViT )--"(. CXXV. Vox Sol Lib Ani. 
And at Rome, on the base of a stone on which 
the statue of this deity was pkced, is found this 
inscription, Invictae Caelesti. 
COELUS, by the Greeks called Uranus, was son 
of Aether and Dies, or Air and Day. Others 
make him the offspring of Titaea, or Terra, 
who had given him birth that she might be sur- 
rounded and covered by him, and that he might 
afford a mansion for the gods. She next bore 
Ourea, or the mountains, the residence of the 
Wood-nymphs ; and, lastly, she became the mo- 
ther of Pelagus, or the Ocean. After this she 
married her son Coelus, and had by him a nu. 
Bb 2 





meroiis offspring. TciTa, however, was not 
striflly bound by her conjugal vow, for by Tar- 
tarus she had Typhaeus, or Typhon, the great 
enemy of Jupiter. Coelus, liaving, for some 
offence, imprisoned the Cyclops, his wife was 
displeased at it, and inciting her son Saturn 
to revenge the injury of his brothers, she fur- 
nished him with an instrument to castrate his 
father. The blood which flowed from thewound 
is said to have produced the Furies,- Giants, and 
Wood-nymphs ; and the genital parts being 
thrown into the sea, the waters became impreg- 
nated with Venus. La£lantius reports that 
Coelus, or Uranus, was a powerful and as- 
piring prince, who, affecting to be a god, called 
himself the son of the ambient Sky, which title 
was assumed also by Saturn his son. Diodorus, 
however, represents him as the first king of 
the Atlantides, a nation inhabiting the western 
coast of Africa, and famous for commerce and 
hospitality ; and adds, that for his skill in as- 
tronomy, and his extraordinary beneficence to 
mankind, he was stiled the eternal king of the 
universe. But it seems more rational to con- 
clude, (as Hesiod begins his thcogony with 
Chaos, whose offspring was Gloominess and 
Night, from whom sprung Air and Day, and 
whose descendants were Coelus, or Heaven ) that 
the whole is no more than a figurative descrjp- 
tion of the creation, oliscured by fiflion. None 
of the actions of Coelus have been transmitted 
to posterity, but it is generally allowed that the 
supreme powet was conferred on him for his 
singular prudence and policy ; that his de- 
throning happened in the thirty-second year of 
his reign, and that he was buried in Oceania, 
supposed to be Crete, near the town called 
Aularia. His childrens' names are mentioned 
under the article THdea. 

COERANUS, a person killed by Ulysses. 

Also a charioteer of Merion, killed by He6tor- 

COESI A, an epithet of Minerva, from the colour 
of her eyes. 

COEUS, a Titan, son of Coelus and Terra, and 
father, by Phoebe, of Latona and Asteria. 

COLAENUS, king of Attica, prior to the reign 
of Cecrops. 

COL AXES, son of Jupiter, by the nymph Ora. 

COLCHIS AND COLCHOS, a country of Asia, 
lying southward of Asiatic Sarmatia,eastofthe 

Euxine, north of Armenia, and west of Iberia, 
This region was renowned in ancient fable as 
the birth-place of Medea, and the scene of the 
Argonautic expedition. It produced excellent 
i!ax, was renowned for its poisons, and supposed 
to have been colonized from Egypt. See Ar- 
gonauts, Cbrysomallus, Medea. 

COLCHIS, Medea, who was of Colchis, or Col- 

COLCHOS. See Colcbis. 

COLIAS, a surname of Venus, from the worship 
paid her on a promontory of Attica so called, 
which was shaped like the sole of the foot 

COLLASTRIA, according to St. Augustine, was 
gQddess of the mountains. 

COLLIN A, one of the inferior rural deities, sup- 
posed by the Romans to reign over the hills. 

COLOPHON, a city of Ionia, which had a tem- 
ple consecrated to Apollo, and contended for 
the honour of being the birth-place of Homer. 

COLOSSUS. See Seven Wonders of the World. 

COMAETHO, daughter of Pterelaus. See Am- 

Also priestess of Diana. 

COMAEUS, a surname of Apollo. 

COMANES, attendants on the sacrifices of Bcl- 
lona, in Comana, a city of Cappadocia. Their 
number of both sexes exceeded six thousand, 
and their chief priest was so powerful as to ac- 
knowledge no superior but the king ; whence 
the office was generally held by a person of 
royal descent. 

COMBADAXUS, a deity of the Japanese : he was 
a bonzee, or Indian priest, concerning whom 
the Japanese tell the following story : When 
he was about eight years old, he ordered a mag- 
nificent temple to be built, and pretending to 
be weary of life, gave out that he would retire 
into a cavern, and sleep ten thousand million 
of years, after which he would come to life a- 
gain : accordingly he went into the cavern, the 

mouth of which was immediately sealed up. 

The Japanese believe he is still alive, and in- 
voke him as a god. 

COMBE, daughter of Asopus, first invented a 
suit of armour. Her children having conspired 
to murder her, she escaped from them in the 
shape of a bird. 

COMETES, father of Aslerion, and one of the 

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Also one of the Centaurs, whom Hercules killed 
at the marriage of Pirithous. 

Of the same name likewise were aperson killed in 
the chace of the Calydonian boar ; the adulterer 
of Aegiale ; and a son of Orestes. 

COMEl'HO. See Comaetbo. 

COMMINUS, a name of Mars amongst the Ro- 

COMPITALIA, feasts held among the Romans 
in honour of the Lares. The word comes from 
the Latin compitum, a cross-way, because the 
feast was held at the interse«5tion of several 
roads. The Conipitalia are more ancient than 
the building of Rome. Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus and Pliny indeed say, they were insti- 
tuted by Servius Tullus, but this only signifies 

that they were then introduced into Rome. 

Notwithstanding the Compitalia are said by 
Dionysius to have been celebrated a little after 
the Saturnalia, and are fixed by the Roman ca- 
lendar to the twelfth of January, it appears 
that they had not any certain date, at least not 
in the time of Varro, as is observed by Casau- 
bon. The feast being thus moveable, the day 
for holding it was proclaimed annually, and it 
was ordinarily held on the fourth of the nones 
of February, that is, on the second of that 
month. Macrobius observes, that the Compi- 
talia were kept not only in honour of the Lares, 
but also of Mania, or Madness, the mother of 
the Lares. The priests who officiated at them 
were slaves and liberti, and the sacrifice a sow. 
They were re-established, after a long negleft, 
by Tarquin the Proud, on occasion or an an- 
swer of the oracle, that tbey should sacrifice beads 
for beads, that is, that for the health and pros- 
perity of each family, children were to be sa- 
crificed ; but Brutus, after expelling the kings, 
in lieu of those barbarous viftims, substituted 
the heads of garlic and poppy ; thus satisfying 
the oracle, which had enjoined cu^rfa, beads.— 
During the celebration of this feast, each family 
placed at the entrance of their house the statue 
of the goddess Mania ; they also hung up at 
their doors figures of wool, representing men 
and women, and accompanied' them with sup- 
plications that the Lares and Mania would con- 
sider them as substitutes for those within. The 
slaves, in lieu of the figures of men, ofl«red 
balls or fleeces of wool. Servius Tullus enjoin- 

ed that the slaves who assisted at the Compitalia 
should be free during the feast. 'Augustus or- 
dered the statues of the Lares, placed in the 
cross ways, to be twice a year crowned and or- 
namented with flowers. 

COMPITALITIA. See Compitalia. 

COMPLAINT, one of the children of Nox. 

COMPLICES, a name common to the Penates. — 
See Penates. 

COMUS, god of noftumal revels and festivals. 
Philostratus gives the following description of 
him. " He is very young, and full of wine, so 
that his face is red with it, and indeed so drunk 
that he sleeps standing : as he sleeps he hangs 
his head forward, and hides his neck : he rests 
his left hand upon a stake, but in his sleep he 
lets go his hold, and the torch in his right hand 
seems to fall from it : Comus, however, fearing 
the fire, claps his left leg close to the right, and 
inclines the torch towards the left, and to a- 
void the smoke of it he removes his hand from 
his knee. As he bends forward, he hides 
his face, but the rest of his body appears very 
plain. He has also a crown of roses on his head." 
Comus is generally represented as a young man 
crowned with roses or myrtle, holding in one 
hand a golden cup, and in the other a platter 
of fruit. 

CONCH. See Triton. 

CONCORDIA, OR CONCORD, a divinity of the 
Romans. To this blessing Tiberius, at the re- 
quest of his mother Livia, widow of Augustus, 
dedicated a temple at Rome. She had several 
other magnificent temples, besides in the portico 
of Livia, which probably was thaterefled by Ti- 
berius, there was one oif the descent of the Capi- 
tol, and one on Mount Palatine, built of brass, 
by Cn. Flavius, on account of a vow made for 
reconciling the Senate with the people. In one of 
these were deposited the richspoilsof the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem. Concordia is commonly re- 
presented on coins as a graceful female, hold- 
ing a cup in her right hand, and in her left 
sometimes a sceptre, and at others a cornuco- 
pia, to intimate that plenty is the result of una- 
nimity and friendship. Her symbols were two 
hands joined, as is seen on a coin of Aurclius 
Verus, and another of Nero ; also two serpents 
twistingrouodacffrfwcfw. Mr. Spencc observes, 
that " Concord is sometimes represented with 

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two cornucopias in one of her hands, a thing 
which, (says he) I do not remember to have 
seen in any other figure but her's, and as agree- 
ment often doubles the advantages we receive 
in the world, they seem to be given her with 
more propriety than perhaps they could be to 
any other." 
CONFUCIUS, the Chinese philosopher and deity, 
according to the best accounts, was born about 
450 years before the Christian era. The Chi- 
nese priests relate, that as soon as Confucius 
was bom, two dragons came to guard him from 
all harm, and that the stars bowed down to sa- 
lute him. When he was about twenty years old 
he married, and had a son, but soon after part- 
ed with his wife, lest she should interrupt him 
in his studies. Having acquired a large share 
of knowledge, he was solicited to a£t as a civil 
magistrate, but not relishing that employment, 
he opened a school for the instru6lion of youth, 
and we are told he had no fewer than five thou- 
sand disciples. He delivered excellent precepts 
for the regulation of their conduct, in the prac- 
tice of every duty ; and he prevailed on the wo- 
men not to wear any thing ungraceful, or un- 
becoming their sex. In study, and in the prac- 
tice of every virtue, public and private, this 
great man lived till he was seventy years of age, 
and at last died of grief, when he beheld the 
corruptions that had crept in among his disci- 
ples. The whole empire lamented his loss. It 
is generally allowed that the Chinese, like o. 
ther Heathens, acknowledge one universal Su- 
preme Being, but they admit that there are 
many demi-gods, who aft under him, of which 
Confucius is one. We shall therefore describe 
their manner of sacrificing to him. To this il- 
lustrious person many temples are erected, and 
all in the form of obelisks or pyramids. The 
governor of each city containing a temple, is 
always the ofiiciating priest, and the learned in 
the neighbourhood unite to assist him. The 
evening before the sacrifice, these meet in a 
body, and rice is provided, with all sorts of 
grain. A table being placed before the altar to 
receive them, and perfumes and fewel procur- 
ed, the temple is illuminated with tapers of wax. 
The priest then makes choice of the hogs, and 
such other beasts as are brought to be offered, 
by pouring out wine on their ears. If in this 

experiment they shake but their heads, they 
are deemed such victims as Confucius approves, 
but if not, they all are rejefted. Before these 
animals are slaughtered, the priest makes a re- 
verential bow, after which they are slain in his 
presence. When their throats are cut, a se- 
cond reverence is made, the hair is scraped off", 
and the entrails taken out, but the blood is pre- 
served till the following day. At cock-crowing 
next morning, a signal is made, and the priest, 
with his assistants, again light up tapers, and 
furnish their censers with perfumes. This done, 
the choir is directed to sing, and the priest 
standing before the altar, commands, " Let 
the hair and the blood of the dead carcase be 
offered up in sacrifice." Another priest imme- 
diately takes up the bason which contains the 
blood and the hair, and with the master of the 
ceremonies pronounces, " Let the blood and 
the hair be buried." Immediately the priests 
carry it out, and bury the bason with its con- 
tents, in a court before the chapel. This be- 
ing performed, they uncover the flesh of the 
sacrifice, and the master of the ceremonies says, 
" May the soul of Confucius descend upon it ! " 
The sacrificing priest then takes up a chalice 
filled with wine, and pours it upon the image 
of a man composed of straw. The image of 
Confucius is then placed on the altar, and the 
following ejaculation repeated, "O Confucius I 
thy virtues are god-like and inimitable ; our 
emperors themselves are obliged to thee, for 
it is by thy unerring precepts that they regu- 
late their conduit. All our oblations to thee 
are pure and perfeft : O ! let thy enlightened 
spirit descend upon us, and assist us by its pre- 
sence!" When the priest has repeated this 
short prayer, the people fall down on their 
knees, but in a few minutes rise up. When 
the priest washes his hands, and wipes them 
with a towel, or napkin, one of the inferior 
priests supplies him with a bason, a towel, and 
a chalice full of wine, the master of the cere- 
monies chanting aloud, " Let the priests go 
near the throne of Confucius." Upon which the 
sacrificing priest kneels down, and presents a 
piece of silk and a cup of wine to Confucius. — 
The silk is burnt in a fire-pan, while all 
the people kneel, and the priest addresses 
Confucius in the following words, " Thy vir- 

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tuea surpass those of all the saints that have 
ever lived before thee : our oblations are but 
trifles ; all we beg is, that thy spirit would 
vouchsafe to hear us." This part of the ce- 
remony being over, the master of the sacri- 
fice says, in a chanting tone, " Let us drink 
the wine of blessing and true happiness," or- 
dering, at the same time, all the people to 
kneel. After this, the officer attending puts 
into the hand of the priest a chalice full of 
wine, and the master of the ceremonies 
chants again, " Drink the wine of true hap- 
piness," and the priest drinks it. Then the 
officer puts into the hand of the priest a 
piece of the flesh, and the master of the cere- 
monies chants aloud, " Partake of the flesh 
of the sacrifice." This being over, the priest 
says, " When we offer this sacrifice, we live in 
expwSation of receiving thereby all the com- 
forts of this life." The remainder of the flesh 
is distributed among all the people present ; 
and, consistent with the ancient and general 
notion of sacrifices, all those who taste it be- 
lieve, that Confucius will be gracious to them. 
The last ceremony is that of re-condufting 
home the soul of Gjnfucius, which they ima- 
gine was present at, and assisted in the sa- 
crifice: this is done by the priests repeating 
the following prayer: "We have offered up 
our oblations to thee with the utmost reve- 
rence and respect ; we have implored thee to 
be present at our sacrifices of a sweet smelling 
savour, and now we accompany thy soul to 
Heaven." During this ceremony the people 
kneel ; and it is an established rule that those 
of the highest rank should be present. When 
the sacrifice is over, what remains of the food 
is distributed among the populace, and they 
are at liberty either to carry it home, or to eat 
it in the temple. These remains of the flesh 
are given to the children, in hopes the vir- 
tue it is endowed with will one day make them 
celebrated persons ; and the remains of the 
silk offered to Confucius are distributed among 
the girls to dress babies with, imagining that 
while they preserve those precious relics, they 
will be preserved from every danger. 

CONFUSIUS. See Confucius. 

the Athenians worshipped, with the same rites 

and ceremonies as the Lampsacans did Priapus; 
whence some are induced to think they were 
the same deity under different names. 

CONNIOAS, tutor of Theseus. I'o him the 
Athenians sacrificed on the day preceding the 
feast dedicated to Theseus : thus, says Plutarch, 
" Doing honour to his memory upon a much 
juster account than that which they pay to 
Silanio and Parrhasius, for having only made 
piflures and statues of Theseus." 

CONNIDEIA, a solemnity at Athens upon the 
day preceding the festival of Theseus, in which 
a ram was sacrificed to Connidas, tutor of that 

CONSECRATION: theGreeks and Romans had 
a consecration or dedication of animals. Sueto- 
nius mentions the consecration of a great num- 
ber of horses by Julius Caesar, when he passed 
the Rubicon; and Eustathius observes, that 
iC was customary among the Greeks to conse- 
crate whole herds of cattle, and several sorts 
of fowls, especially geese and peacocks, to their 
gods ; giving such animals their liberty, and 
forbidding all persons to touch or molest them. 
Athenaeus remarks, that they paid the 'same 
compliment to fishes, especially those of the 
most palatable and relishing kind ; and Pliny 
takes notice, that the dolphin of Oftavius Ani- 
cius had this favour conferred upon him. Ae- 
lian likewise relates, that they sometimes put 
neck-laces about the necks of their fishes before 
they turned them loose to their element. The 
Romans had also their magical consecrations ; 
it being customary for their emperors to offer 
sacrifices, repeat charms, and dispose statues 
in certain places, imagining that such magical 
operations would hinder Barbarians from en- 
tering their dominions. In this manner Mar- 
cus Antoninus endeavoured to fortify himself 
against the invasion of the Marcomanni ; and 
of this kind seems to have been both the Pal- 
ladium of Troy, and the vocal statue of Mem- 
non. There is a curious and particular de* 
scription of the consecration of the Roman 
Pontifft in Macrobius, to the following pur- 
port: They dug a pit In the earth, into which 
the person to be consecrated was let down, 
dressed in priestly vestments, and the pit co- 
vered with a plank bored almost full of holes j 
a bull, crowned with garlands of flowers, wa« 

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placed on this plank, and his throat being ciit, 
the blood poured through on the priest, who 
received it on his head and his face. On as- 
cending from the pit, all covered with blood, 
he received the salutation of Pontifex. — Conse- 
cration among medalists, is the ceremony of 
the apotheosis, a translation of an emperor to 
the order of the gods. [Sc^ Apotheosis.'] On me- 
dals the consecration is thus represented: one 
side presents the emperor's head, crowned with 
laurel, sometimes veiled, whilst the inscrip- 
tion intitles him Divus ; on the reverse is a 
temple, biistum, altar, or eagle, taking its 
flight towai'ds heaven, cither from off the al- 
tar, or from a cippus: at other times the em- 
peror is seen in the air, borne up by the eagle, 
the inscription always Consecratio. These are 
the usual symbols : yet, on the reverse of An- 
toninus is the Antonine column. In the apo- 
theosis of empresses, instead of an eagle is a 
peacock. The honours rendered these prin- 
ces after death, were explained by the words 
Consecratio, Pater Divus, and Deus. Some- 
times around the temple or altar are put me- 
nioria fdix, or memoriae eternae ; for princesses 
aetirnitas, and sideribus recepta ; on the side of 
the head Dea, or Qia.. The custom of conse- 
crating temples, altars, &c. is very ancient, 
and when confined tothe&s,'Kca\\cdDedication. 
See Apotheosis, Dedication. 
CONSENTES, an appellative given by the Ro- 
mans to the twelve superior divinities, who 
were supposed to have concurred with Jupiter 
in his coiincilg. Their names are thug given 
by Eqnius; 

June, Vtsia, Mintr^a, Ctrtt, Dlima, Peniu, 
Marl, Mtrcurim, Javi, Ntftunui, f^ultan-u, JfoUt, 

CONSERVATOR, a name of Jupiter on several 
of the coins of Dioclesian, which exhibit his 
effigies, with thunder in his right, find a spear 
in his left hand; the inscription, CcHJfryfl/pri. 
On others, instead of thun(3er, he holds forth 
a small image of Victory, with this inscrip- 
tion : Jovi Conservator! Orbis, to JupiUr the 
wnservator of the ivorld. 

CONSEVIUS, or rather CoNsuviug, a surnarne 
of Janus. 

CONSIVA, a surname of Ops. 

CONSTELLATION, an assemblage or system 
oS such stars as appear in the heavens to be 

near one another. Astronomers not only de- 
nominate them singly, but distribute them into 
asterisms or groups, allowing several stars to 
one Constellation, which, the better to distin- 
guish and observe, they reduce to the forms 
of animals; as men, bulls, bears, &c. or ima- 
ges of objefls familiarly known ; as a crown, 
a harp, a balance, &c." To some the names of 
those are assigned, who have rendered them- 
selves famous by illustrious afitions, or whose 
memories are consecrated to future veneration. 
The division of the stars by images and figures 
is of great antiquity, and seems to be as old aa 
astronomy itself. In the book of Job, Orion, 
Artfturus, and the Pleiades, are mentioned ; 
and in the writings of the first poets. Homer 
and Hesiod, the names of many constellations. 
The ancients, in their division of the firmament, 
took in only so much as came under their no- 
tice, distril>uting it into forty-eight constella- 
tions; on our globes, however, about seventy 
are included. The names of the whole arc as 
follow, viz. UrsaMinor,the LittleBear; Ursa 
Major, the Great Bear ; Draco, the Dragon ; 
Cepheus, Cepheus ; Bootes, Arflophilax, or 
the Bear-ward ; Corona Borealis, the Northern 
Crown ; Hercules kneeling ; Lyra, the Harp; 
Cygnus gallina, the Swan ; Cassiopea, in ber 
chair ; Perseus ; Auriga, the Waggoner ; Ser- 
pentarius ophiucus, the Snake-bearer ; Serpens, 
the Serpent; Sagitta, the Arrow; Aquillawi/- 
iur, or Antinous, the Eagle, or Antinous; 
Delphinus, the Dolphin ; Equulus equi se8io, 
the Horses Head; Pegasus equus, the Flying 
Horse ; Andromeda ; Triangulum, the Trian- 
gle ; Aries, the Ram; Taurus, the Bull ; Ge- 
mini, the Twins; Cancer, the Crab; Leo, the 
Lion ; Berenices Coma, Berenice's Hair ; 
Virgo, the Virgin; Libra (chelae) the Scales ; 
Scorpius, the Scorpion ; Sagittarius, the Arch- 
er ; Capricornus, the Goat ; Aquarius, the 
Water-bearer; Pisces, the Fishes; Cetus, the 
Whale; Orion, Orion; Eridanus Jluvius, Eri- 
danus the River; Lepus, the Hare; Canis Ma- 
jor, the Great Dog ; Canis Minor, the Little 
Dog ; Argo Navis, the Ship Argo ; Hydra, the 
Hydra; Crater, the Cup; Corvus, the Crow; 
Centaurus, the Centaur; Lupus, the Wolf; 
Ara, the Altar ; Corona Australis, theSouthern 
Crown ; Piscis Australis, the Southern Fishi 

Digitized by 






. The preceding were the ancient Constellations ; 
the new southern ones are: Columba Noachi, 
Noah's Dove ; Robur Carolinun), the Royal 
Oak; Grus, the Crane j Phoenix, the Phenix ; 
Indus, the Indian ; Pavo, the Peacock ; Apus, 
Avis Indica, the Bird of Paradise ; Apis, Mus- 
ca, the Bee, or Fly ; Chamaelon, the Cameleon; 
Triangulum Australia, the South Triangle ; 
Piscis volans. Passer, the Flying Fish ; Dorado, 
Xipbias, the Sword Fish ; Toucan, the Toucan ; 
Hydrus, the Water-snake, TheGreekand Ro- 
man poets gave wild and romantic fables about 
the origin of the Constellations, as may be seen in 
Hyginus, Natalis Comes, and Ricciolus ; hence 
some out of vain zeal, rather than out of any love 
for the science, have been led to alter either 
the figure of the Constellations, or at least 
their names ; butCie more judicious have re- 

■ jeded all such innovations, since they serve no 
good end; but occasion confusion. The old 
Constellations.therefore, are still retained, both 
because better could not be substituted, and 
likewise to preserve a correspondence and uni- 
formity between the old astronomy and the 

CONSU ALIA, feasts held among the ancient Ro- 
mans, in honour of the god Consus, i. e. Nep- 
tune, different from those other feasts of the 
same deity called Neptutialia : They were intro- 
duced with a magnificent cavalcade, or proces- 
sion, on horse-back, Neptune being reputed 
the first who taught men the use of horses: 
whence his name Hippiua, or equestrian. Evan- 
der is said to have first instituted this feast, 
which was re-established by Romulus under the 
name of Consus, to intimate that some god un- 
der the denomination of Consus, the god of 
counsel, suggested to him the rape of the Sa- 
bine women. It is said that the institution was 
planned with a view to this rape. But, however 
that might have been, it is certain the neigh- 
bouring people were not only invited to the 
feast, but to draw the greater concourse, he 
gave out that having found an altar under 
ground, he proposed to consecrate it to the god 
it was intended to honour. Those who pretend 
to explain the mysteries of Heathen theology, 
affirm, that the altar hidden under ground was 
simply a symbol of the secret design which Ro- 
mulus had formed. The Consualia were in the 
Vol. 1. 4 

number offcasts called sacred, being consecra- 
ted to a divinity. Originally they were not dis- 
tinguished from those of the Circus ; whence 
it is said by Valerius Maximus, tliat the rape of 
the Sabines was effected at the games of the 
Circus. Plutarch observes, that during the 
days of this solemnity, horses and asses were 
left at rest, and were dressed out with crowns^ 
&c. on account of its being the feast of Neptu- 
nuB Equestris. Festus reports that the caval- 
cade was performed with mules, it being an opi- 
nion that the mule was first used in drawing a 
car. Servius intimates that the Consualia fdl 
on the 13th of August ; Plutarch places them 
on the 18th, and the old Roman calendar on 
the 21st of that month. See Consus. 

CONSUS, a deity worshipped by the ancient Ro- 
mans, and supposed to be the god of Counsel. 
He was also called Neptuaus Equestris, and had an 
annual festival instituted to his honour, called 
Consualia, with likewise an altar under ground, 
in the great Circus at Rome, to shew that coun- 
sel ought to be kept secret. This god was sup- 
posed to have inspired Romulus with the design 
of ravishing the Sabine virgins. See Consualia. 

CONSYNA, the wife of Nicomedes, king of Bi- 
thynia, who, for her lascivious behaviour, was 
torn asunder by dogs. 

CONTUBERN ALES, a title given to those divi- 
nities who were worshipped in the same temple. 

adored by the Athenians, under the figure of 
partridges, from a supposed analogy of nature. 

COON, the eldest son of Antenor and Theano, 
was killed by Agamemnon, whose hand he 
pierced with a javelin, in attempting to revenge 
Iphidamas his brother. 

COOS : According to Ovid the Coan women, or 
women of Coos, were transformed into cows 
by Juno, whom they reviled ; being provoked 
because the Gorgonian herds, stolen by Her- 
cules, were, by her means, driven through their 

COPIA. See Abundantia. 

COPREUS, son of Pelops, on the death of Iphi- 
tus, fled to Mycenae. 

CORA, OR CORE, a name of Proserpine. See 

CORAS, brother of Catillus and Tyburtinu*, 
mentioned in the Aeneid. 

Digitized by 






CORCYKA, an island in the Ionian sea, so called 
from 'a Nymph beloved by Neptune, was fa- 
mous for the shipwreck of Ulyssesj and the gar- 
dens of Alcinous. 

CORE! A, a festival in honour of Proserpine, nam- 
ed Kofii, which, in the Molossian dialeft, signi- 
fies a beautiful -woman. 

CORESIA, a surname of Minerva, to whom Ci- 
cero ascribed the invention of the chariot drawn 
by four horses abreast. 

CDRESUS, priest of Bacchus, at Calydon. See 

CORETAS, the person who first delivered the 
oracles at Delj^i. 

CORIA, a surname of Minerva amongst the Ar- 

CORIPHAGENA, a name of Minerva, because 
she sprang from Jupiter's brain. This epithet 
is given her by Plutarch. 

CORNIGER, or the iwr«-t««r, a surname of Bac- 
chus. The same epithet is applied by the 
poets to several rivers, as by Virgil to the Tyber, 
zxxA by Ovid to the Numicias ; the figures of 
their divinities being piftured with horns. 

CORNIX. SeeCoronis. 

CORNUCOPIA, a horn out of which proceeded 
plenty of all things; by a particular privilege 
which Jupiter granted his nurse, supposed to 
be the goat Amalthea. The real sense (^ the 
fable is, that a small territory in Libya, shaped 
not unlike the horn of a bullock, and exceed- 
ingly fertile, was given by king Ammon to his 
daughter Amalthea, who, from first favouring 
the worship of Jupiter in that region, was fa- 
bled to have been his nurse. On medals the 
Cornucopia is assigned to all deities, genii, and 
heroes, to evince the bounty of the former, and 
the beneficence of the latter. 

COROEBUS, son of Mygdon and Anaximena, 
assisted Priam against the Greeks, and hoped 
to have obtainedjincMisequence of it, his daugh- 
ter Cassandra in marriage. Cassandra persuad- 
ed him to withdraw from the war, but in vain. 
He was killed either by Peneleus or Dlomedes, 
at the taking of Troy. 

Of the same name was a hero of Argolis, who hav- 
ing killed the serpent which Apollo sent to re- 
venge Argos, a plague ensued. The "oracle at 
Delphi being consulted on the means to appease 
itj answered that Coroebus must ereft a temple 

on the spot where a tripod which was given him 
should fall from his hand. 

Another Coroebus has been mentioned as killed by 
Neoptolemus; and a fourth by occupation a 
cook, who obtained the first prize in the Olym- 
pic games, for his superiority in running. 

CORONIDES, Aesculapius, son of Coronis. 

CORONIS, daughter of Phlegyas, kingofThes- 
saly, was beloved by Apollo, and, in conse- 
quence of the amour, became pregnant.—— 
The god being informed by a crow that she also 
favoured a young man of Thessaly, was so ex- 
asperated at her infidelity, that he shot her with 
an arrow ; but repenting of what he had done, 
delivered her of the child, and changed the tale- 
bearer from white to black. Others relate, that 
Coronis, though with child by Apollo, admit* 
ted the familiarities of Ischys, the son of Ela- 
tus, for which Diana slew her, in revenge of 
her brother. The god, however, in compassion 
to the infant, either by Mercury, or in his own 
person, delivered the mother, and committed 
the child to Trigio, who after having nursed, 
consigned him to Chiron. Aesculapius was the 
boy thus rescued, 

CoRONis, daughter of Coroneus, king of Phocis, 
shunning the importunities of Neptune, and fly- 
ing to Minerva for shelter, that goddess trans- 
formed her to a daw ; but Coronis rendering 
herself unworthy the proteflion of Minerva, 
was afterwards banished her presence. 

CoRONis, daughter of Atlas, by his wife Aethra, 
and one of the Hyades, 

CORONUS, son of Caeneus, one of the Argo- 
nauts, according to the first book of Apol- 

CORPREUS. SeePeripbes. 

CORTINA: It has been imagined by some, that 
the skin of the serpent Python, (with which 
the Pythoness had covered the tripod she sat 
upon, to deliver her oracles in the temple at 
Delphi) was thus named ; whilst others have 
taken it for the tripod itself. The Cortina, how- 
ever, was a bason either of silver or gold, so 
shallow as to resemble a hollow table, or waiter, 
and being placed on the sacred tripod, served 
the Pythoness to sit on. 

CORUS. See Catillus. 

CORUS. the Genius of the North-west Wind, is 
represented as elderly and with a beard. He is 





dressed so as to defend him from the cold, and 
carries a vase in his hand, as if pouring forth 
water. Stilus Italicus hath described him spread* 
ing out his dusky pinions, and driving on a tem- 
pest of snow, against the army of Hannibal, 
when passing the Alps : an image congruous 
to that of Lucilius, who stiles Corus king of the 
winds : Rex Corus ilk duos bos Ventos, jhistrum 
atque Aquilonenij novissime alebat, &c. 

CORYBANTES, priests of Cybele, who danced 
and capered to the beating of drums. They 
inhabited Mount Ida in the island of Crete, 
where they nourished the infant Jupiter, keep- 
ing a continual tinkling with their cymbals, 
that his father Saturn, who had determined to 
devour all his male oflspring, might not hear 
the cries of this child. As among all the religi- 
ous orders of antiquity we meet with none of- 
tener in authors, so none were so extravagant 
in their rites as these priests of Cybele. These 
we find under the different names of Coryban- 
tea, Curltes, Galli, and Idaei Daftyli, but can 
scarcely discover the etymology of either, or 
indeed little clear information about them, more 
than that they all were l^erly eunuchs ; by na- 
tion Phrygians ; and in their solemn proces- 

\ Bions danced in armour, making a confused 
noise with timbrels, pipes, and cymbals, howl- 
ing as insane, and slashing their flesh. Of 
these rites Catullus has left a most beautiful 
description. So powerful were the associations 
connefled with them that, according to Maxi- 
mus Tyrius, those who possessed the Coryban- 
tian spirit, upon hearing the sound of a flute, 
were instantly seized with enthusiasm, and lost 
theuse of their reason : hence among the Greeks, 
weiAarrt^tm, to Coryhontixe, was synoniinous with 
to be frantic, or possessed. Diodorus Siculus 
remarks, that Corybas, son of Jason and Cy- 
bele, passing into Phrygia with his uncle Dar- 
danuSj there instituted the worehip of Cybele, 
and gave his own name to her priests. Strabo 
relates it as the opinion of some, that the Cory- 
bantes were children of Jupiter and Calliope, 
as also were the Cabin. Others say, the word 
had its origin from their dancing, and phan- 
tastic gestures. See Curetes, Idaei Da3yli. 

Such are the accounts of the Corybantes in gene- 
ral, to which may be added the notices that fol- 


The Phrygians, notwithstanding their, boast of 
being the oldest of nations, did not emerge 
from barbarism till after many others. Their 
first efforts towards civilization were owing to 
the exertions of their jugglers, or diviners, who 
resembled indeed the Daftyli their neighbours, 
but from their attachment to their ancient su- 
perstitions, were looked upon as descended from 
Saturn and Rhea. The first art introduced a- 
mongst them was metallurgy, and Ovid de- 
scribes them as employed with the Curetes in 
fabricating armour. As th^ darkness of savage 
life can only be efieAually dissipated by the 
beams of literature, the Corybantes, or Phry- 
gian Diviners, discovering this truth, were not 
only zealous to receive it themselves, but also 
to reflefl it on their nation. Hence the notion 
of their origin from Apollo and Thalia. 

Their number at first was but three ; and for the 
same reason the Cabiri and Da£tyli were con- 
fined to that number^ which Julian states, in 
the language of mysticism, to have been in con- 
formity to the archie hypostasis. The names of 
the first, according to Nonnus, were Cyrbas, 
Pyrrcbus, and Idoeus. Diodorus reduced them 
to Corybas alone, the son of Jasion and Cybele, 
who is said to have denominated from himself, 
those who aided him in celebrating the mys- 
teries of his mother. 

Demetrius, of Scepsis, has mistaken their origin, 
having considered them as youths only, devoted 
to the worship of Cybele, who were chosen to 
dance in armour, and vault in cadence, at her 
feasts. The same opinion is adopted by Strabo, 
who supposed them to be simply the ministers 
of Rhea. But this is to confound, as Diodorus 
has done, the first Corybantes and those who 
succeeded. Besides, it is evident, from proofs 
out of number, that pre-eminence in the priest- 
hood was peculiar to them. r-They differ- 
ed not from the Galli, or Eunuchs, the chief of 
whom, notwithstanding the contrary is asserted, 
was the only one that suffered emasculation. — 
The Metagyrtes were membera of an inferior 
order, mendicants by profession, whose em- 
ployment was to beat the cymbals and drums ; 
which instruments they carried attached to their 
necks. At length their dissolute conduct con- 
siderably discredited the worship of their divi- 
nity, which, being ancient and considerably 
Cc 3 






extended, naturally became depraved in pro- 
portion. Hence, in process of time, the Co- 
rybantes not only deified their chief, but were 
regarded as divtnitiee themselves. See j4ttys, 
CybeU, Gain, iic. 

CORYBANTICA, a festival held in Crete, in 
honour of the Corybantes, proteftors of Jupi- 
ter, when he was concealed in that island from 
his father Saturn, who sought to devour him. 

CORYBAS. See Corybantes. 

CX)RYeiA, a Nymph beloved of Apollo, by whom 
she had the Corycides. 

CORYCIDES, Nymphs so called from the grotof 
Corycium, situate at the foot of Parnassus, This 
name is often applied to the Muses. See Corycta. 

CORYMBIFER, a name of Bacchus, in allusion 
to the whirls of ivy-berries which garnished his 
crown, and because the ivy was sacred to him. 

CORY NAEUS, a commander under Tumus, kil- 
led by Asylas. 

CORYNETA and CORYNETES.son of Vulcan, 
a celebrated robber. 

CORYPHAEA, a name of Diana, so called by 
Pausanias, from a mountain near Epidaurus. 

CORITALIA, a surname of Diana. 

CORYTHUS, son of Oenone and Paris. See 

COSINGAS, a Thracian, and priest of Juno. 

COITUS, one of the giants with a hundred 
hands, who, in the revolt against Jupiter, fell 
in the general overthrow of the conspirators. 

COTYS: Of this name there were several; one 
was king of Asia ; an^/ivr king of Maeonia, and 
son of Manes, by CalHrhoe ; a third conceited 
he should marry Minerva. 

COTYTTIA, a nocturnal festival in Greece, in 
honour of Cotytta, or Cotyttis, goddess of wan- 
tonness. It was observed by the Athenians, 
Corinthians, Chians, Thracians, and others; 
and celebrated with such rites as were most ac- 
ceptable to the goddess, who was thought to be 
delighted with libidinous excess. 

Another festival of this name was celebrated in 
Sicily, where the worshippers carried boughs, 
hung with cakes and fruit, which any person 
might pluck off, and devour. This last, ac- 
cording to Gyraldus, was in memory of the 
n^ of Proserpine, who is by some thought to 
be the same with Cotytto. The worship of this 
deity waa tianslated from Greece to Rome. — 

Her priests were named Baptae. See hap. 

COTYTTIS. See Cotytto. 

COTYTTO, the goddess of libidinous excesss— r 
See Cotyttia. 

COVELLA, a surname of Juno. 

CRABUS, an Egyptian divinity. 

CRANE, a Nymph. See Cama. 

GRANTOR, armour-bearer of Peleus, killed by 

CRATAIS. See Crateis. 

CRATEUS, son of Minos and Pasiphae, having 
consulted the oracle on his fate, was told he 
should be killed by Althemenes, his son. This 
youth, terrified at the prediction, to avoid be- 
ing the cause of death to his father, after kil- 
ling one sister, whom Mercuty had dishcmour- 
ed, and marrying the rest to princes at a dis- 
tance, departed himself into volimtary exile. 
Crateus, though secured by these expedients 
from the dread of danger, being unable to en- 
dure the dereliction of his son, equipped a fleet, 
and determined to find him. His fli-st course 
was direfled to Rhodes, and there unhappily 
Althemenes was. Crateus attempted to land, 
but was resisted by the natives, who took him 
for an enemy. In the combat Althemenes un> 
knowingly opposed him, and wounding him 
with an arrow, put an end to his life. A re- 
cognition took place before Crateus expired, 
and Althemenes, as he wished, sunk into thtt 

CRATEIS, a Nymph, the mother of Scylla, 

CRENAEUS, one of the Lapithae. 

CREON, son of Sisyphus, king of Corinth, pro- 
mised Jason, who had repudiated Medea,Glauce 
his daughter in marriage. To be revenged on 
her rival, Medea presented her a robe, which, 
being impregnated with poison, was no sooner 
put on, than it began to kindle on the wearer, 
who, with her father and his family, perished 
in the flames. See Creusa. 

CREON, son of Menoeceus, and brother of Jo- 
casta, the mother and the wife of Oedipus, on 
the death of Laius, her former husband, as- 
cended the Theban throne. But such was the 
havock of the Sphinx amongst the people of 
Thebes, that their new sovereign voluntarily 
o&ered both his sister and sceptre to any per- 
son who should solve the aenigma j^opoaed. 

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' and thereby terminate the mischief. Many 
candidates came forward, and all rued their 
temerity, till Oedipus, by exf^ning the rid- 
dle, occasioned the death of the Sphinx. Hav> 
ing taken possession of the kingdom, he un- 
knowingly married his mother, and .1^ her had 
two sons, who agreed, when the ttirone be- 
came vacant, to reign alternately, each for a 
year. Eteocles, as the elder, assumed the so- 
vereignty, but refusing to resign it at the ex- 
piration of his time, Polynices endeavoured to 
compel him, and led against him for that pur- 
pose an army of Argives. The contest, how- 
ever, being decided by a »RgIe combat, which 
was equally fatal to both, the government de- 
volved again upon Creon, till Leodamas, the 
Bon of Eteocles, should be of an age to reign. 
Creon espousing the party of Eteocles, forbad 
that Polynices or his adherents should be bu- 
ried, on pain to the offenders of being buried 
alive. Antigone, notwithstanding, in defiance 
of his threat, interred her brother Polynices ; 
and having suffered the punishment denounc- 
ed, Haemon, son of the Tyrant, for the love 
of her, killed himself on her grave. The pro- 
hibition of sepulture to the Argives, drew upon 
Creon the resentment of Theseus, by whose 
hand he in consequence fell. 

CREONTIADES, son of Hercules, by Megara, 
daughter of Creon, was killed by his father be- 
cause he had slain Lycus. 

CREOPHILUS, a Samian, whom Homer, from 
his hosjatality, is said to have rewarded with a 
a poem. Some pretend he was the poet's mas- 

CREPHAGENETES, a deity worshipped at 
Thebes in Egypt, and supposed to have been 
the same with Cneph. See Cnepb. 

CREPITUS VENTRIS, was even a divinity. 

CRESCENT. See Diaita, lo, (^c. 

CRESPHONTES, one of the HeracUdae, was ce- 
lebrated as a hero. 

CRETAN BULL ; the seventh labour of Hercu- 
les. See Hercules. 

' CRET A : In the island of this name, once famous 
for its hundred cities, the Corybantes were 
said 'to liave educated Jupiter. Human sacri- 
fices were here offered to him, and to Si^urn ; 
and greater psu-t of the Pagan divinities are 
said to have -been natives of it 

CRETE ; of this name were boUi a daughter of 
Deucalion, and the wife of Minos. 

OlETEUS. SeeCrateus. 

CRETHEIAVIRGO, HeUe, grand-daughter of 

CRETHEIS, wife of Acastus, king of Thessaly, 
was in love with Peleus, the husband of Eri- 
gone, but, not beiifg able to engage his affec- 
tion, she pretended to his wife that Peleus was 
unfaithful ; and Erigone, in consequence, put 
an end to her life. Cretheis. not satisfied with 
this revenge, accused Peleus with designs on 
her own virtue ; for which Acaetus exposed him 
to wild beasts and Centaurs. Peleus, however, 
returning viftorious, first killed Cretheis, and 
afterward, her husband. 

CRETHEUS, son of Aeolus, by Tyro, his bro- 
ther's daughter, was fath«" of Aeson, Pheres 
and Amithaon, and grand-father of Jason. He 
built the city of lolchos in Thessaly, the capi- 
tal of his dominions. His wife Demodice hav- 
ing persuaded him that Phryxus had attempt- 
ed her honour, Cretheus, in his fury, resolved 
to destroy him. Phryxus, however, saved him 
by flying with Helle. 

CRETHON, son of Diocles, was killed in the 
Trojan war with his brother, by the same 
stroke from Aeneas. It was with great diffi- 
culty that Menelaus could rescue their bodies 
from the Trojans. 

CRETIDES, %mph8 of the island of Crete. 

CREUS, son of Coelus, or Uranus and Terra. 

CREUSA, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, 
was married to Jason whilst his (first wife Me- 
dea was still alive ; this so enraged tlie rejeAed 
Medea, that, in revenge, she sent Creusa a 
present of a robe, and a golden crown tinged 
with naphtha, which set fire to her and the 

CREUSA, daughter of Priam, king of Troy, by 
Hecuba, was wife of Aeneas, but whom, though 
she escaped the conflagration of that city, he 
lost on their way to embark, she being carried 
away by the goddess Cybele. 

Another Creusa was daughter of Erechtheus, king 
of Athens,and mother of Janus, by Apollo ; but 
See Evadne. 

CRIASUS, son of Argos, king in Peleponne- 


CRINIS, jwiest of Apollo, who, for negle^in^ 

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the sacrifices of his god, was punished, by 
having his country over-run with rats and 
mice. Nevertheless, on making compensation, 
his offence v/as forgiven, and the vermin were 
destroyed by the arrows of the god; an ex- 
ploit which procured him the title of rat-hiller. 
See Smintbeus. 

CRINISUS. SeeAcestes,Egesta. 

CRINO, one of the Danaides. Also, a daughter 
of Antenor. 

CRIOBOLIUM, a sacrifice of rams. See Aegio- 

. bolium. 

CRIOPHAGUS, tbe ram-eater, a divinity so nam- 
ed from the multitude of rams which were sa- 
crificed to him. 

CRIOPHORUS, a surname of Mercury, 

CRITHEIS, daughter of Melanopus, became 
pregnant by a person unknown; and, after- 
ward, marrying Phermicis of Smyrna, was de- 
livered of Homer. 

CROCALE, daughter of the river Ismenus. 

CROCODILE, an amphibious animal, the sym- 
bol of Egypt, and one of its gods. 

CROCUS. SeeSmaax. 

CRODUS, orKRODO, a divinity of the ancient 
Saxons, supposed to be Saturn. 

CROEON, father of Meganira. 

CROESMUS, a Trojan chieftain, slain by Me- 

CROESUS, the fifth and last king of Lydia, of 
the family of the Meminades, succeeded Aly- 
attes, his father. He made the Greeks of Asia 
tributary, subdued the Phrygians, Mysians, 
Paphlagonians, Thracians, and Carians, amas- 
sed vast riches, and became one of the most 
powerful and magnificent of princes. He 
drew the learned to his court, and took a 
pleasure in conversing with them. When 
Solon came to Sardis, at the request of Croe- 
sus, and not being in the least affe£led by the 
pompofenibroidery,purple,andjewel8,in which 
Croesus was tricked out, he commanded his at- 
tendants to open his treasury, and shew himiihe 
stores he possessed. When Solon had retiHTied 
from viewing them all, Croesus asked him, 
" If ever he had seen a happier man ?" To 
which Solon answered, " He knew oneTellus, 
a fellow -citizen, who was an honest man, had 
good children, a competent estate, and end- 
ed his life in fighting for his country."—— 

Croesus looking upon him as void of judgment, 
for not measuring happiness by the extent of 
wealth, again asked him, " If, besides Tellus, 
he knew any man more happy f " Solon replied, 
" Yes, Cleobis and Bito, who were conspicu- 
ous for their fraternal affe<5lion, and filial duty ; 
for when the oxen which should have drawn 
their mother to the temple of Juno, were too 
long in coming, they themselves supplied their 
place to hasten her thither. The fond mother 
delighted with their pie^, was congratulated 
by the votaries of the goddess she served, and 
her sons having enjoyed the sacrifice and ap- 
plause, retired to rest, but awoke no more.'* 
" How!" cried Croesus displeased, "Dost not 
thou reckon us then among the number of the 
happy ?" Solon, unwilling either to flatter him, 
or to exasperate him more, replied: " King 
of Lydia! as God has ^ven us Greeks a mode- 
rate proportion of other things, so likewise <rf 
a free and popular wisdom, (not, perhaps, so 
well suited to the splendor of royalty, as to our 
less exalted condition), which, contemplating 
the vicissitudes of human life, forbids us to be 
elated at a present enjoyment, or greatly to 
admire the happiness of any, while liable to 
the changes of time, since futurity contains 
in it an unknown variety. Him only we es- 
teem happy, whose happiness God continues to 
the end ; but for him who has still all the hazards 
of life to encounter, we think he can jvith no 
more reason be pronounced happy, than the 
wrestler can be proclaimed and crowned as 
viftor, before he has finished the combat."— 
Solon, on this, was dismissed, and Croesus re- 
mained uninstruiled. Shortly after, the Ly- 
dian monarch made war upon Cyrus, but not 
being able to withstand the power he had pro- 
voked, his capital was sacked, and himself 
taken. Cyrus condemned him to be burnt, and 
a pile being kindled for the purpose, Croesus, 
when the flames approached him, three times 
apostrophized Solon. Cyrus surprized, inqui- 
red, what man or god he invoked. Croesus re- 
peated their conversation, and such was its 
efifeft upon Cyrus, that he not only remitted 
the punishment, but honoured Croesus with 
his friendship. 
In the assault upon Sardis, the son of Croesus, 
who had been dumb from his birth, observing 

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the weapon of a Persian soldier aimed at his 
fath»-, and being unable to ward off the blow, 
at once, through the impulse of terror, ex- 
claimed, "Kill not Croesus!" Plutarch men- 
tions that among the statues of gold which 
Croesus placed in the temple at Delphi, was 
one of a female baker, of which this was the 
occasion. Aljattes, father of Croesus, having 
married a second wife, who brought him se- 
veral children, she formed the design of secur- 
ing the crown to her own issue, by putting a 
^period to the life of her son-in-law. With 
that view she tampered with this baker to poi- 
son a loaf, which was to be served up at the 
table of Croesus ; but the woman, struck witlf 
horror at the idea of so criminal an a6t, ac- 
quainted the prince with the plot. Retalia- 
tion took place, and the loaf being served up 
to the children of the queen, their deaths se- 
cin-ed to Croesus the succession ; whilst he, on 
ascending the throne, in gratitude to his pre- 
server, erected to her memory this statue of 
gold : in honour to whom, the same author 
olwerves, she had a better title than many of 
those boasted heroes, who have risen to fame 
by murder and havock. 

CROMERUACH, the principal idol of the Irish 
before the arrival of St Patrick amongst them. 
At his approach it fell to the earth, whilst the 
lesser idols sunk chin-deep in it. According 
to the biographers of the Saint, the heads of 
the latter, in memory of this miracle, are still 
visible above ground in the plain of Moy-sIeu6t 
in Brefin. Cromeruach was of gold and silver 
carved, surrounded by the twelve other god- 
lings of brass. 

CROMUS : Both Neptune and Lycaon had sons 
of this name. 

CRONIA, an Athenian festival in honour of Sa- 
turn, who is called in Greek Kfwtt, It was ce- 
lebrated in the month Hecatonibaeon, which 
was formerly called Croniua. Another of Sa- 
turn's festivals was celebrated upon the 16th of 
Metagitnion, at Rhodes, where they offered in 
sacrifice a condemned criminal. 

CRONIUS, one of the Centaurs. 

CROTON, a man killed by Hercules, and after- 
wards honoured by him. 

CROTOPIAS, Linus, the grand-son of Croto- 



CROTOPUS, eighth king of the Argives, and 
father of Psamathe, the mother, by Apollo, of 

CTEATUS, one of the Molionides. See A^r, 

CTESIPHON, a Grecian architea, who planned 
the temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

CTESIPPUS: Of this name there are two ; one, 
son of Hercules and Deianira; the other, son 
of Astydimia. 

CTIMENE, the youngest daughter of Laertes by 
Anticlea, and sister of Ulysses. 

CUBA, the tutelary goddess of sleepers. ■ 

CUNIA,OR CUNINA, a tutelar deity of infante. 
She attended the cradle, and watched the young 
ones whilst they slept. 

CUPAVO, a son of Cycnus, who, for the sym- 
pathy he felt for Phaeton, was changed into a 

CUPENCUS, a chief on the partof Tumus, kil- 
led in the twelfth Aeneid. 

CUPIDO, CUPID, the God of Love. Some make 
him one of the most ancient of the deities, and 
say he had no parente, but succeeded immedi- 
ately to Chaos. Others report, that Nox or 
Night, produced an egg, and having hatched 
it under her sable wings, brought forth Cupid, 
or Love, who, on golden pinions, immediately 
flew through the whole world. Hesiod makes 
him the son of Chaos and Terra ; Simonides of 
Mars and Venus ; Alcaeus of Strife and Ze- 
phynis ; Sappho of Venus and Coelus; and Se- 
neca of Venus and Vulcan. Others imagine 
him to have been the ofepring of Porus, god 
of Counsel, and Penia, goddess of Poverty ; 
whilst, according to some, he was reputed the 
son of Zephyrus and Flora. The common opi- 
nion however is, that Cupid was descended 
from Mars and Venus, and the favourite child 
of his mother ; who, without his aid, as she 
confesses in Virgil, could do but little execu- 
tion. Indeed the poets, when they invoke the 
mother,' seldom fail to address the son ; and it 
was perhaps this consciousness of his importance 
that rendered him sometimes refraftory. This 
Cupid was called Anteros, or Lust. But the an- 
ciente mention another,son of JupiterandVen us, 
of a nobler character, whose delight was to in- 
spire refined sentiments of love and of virtue. 
His name was Eros, or properly Xot^. Eros bore 

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a golden dart, which caused real joy and afTec- 
tion, Anteros a leaden arrow, which raised a 
fleeting passion, ending in satiety and disgust. 
Venus being told by Themis, that her son E- 
roB could not grow to. maturity till she had an- 
other son, the goddess became the mother of 
Anteros, by Mara ; whence she is called by O- 
vid the parent of two Cupids, or Loves. To 
Anteros the Athenians erefled an altar and a 
statue, representing him naked, under the form 
of a beautiful youth, holding two cocks upon 
his breast, and endeavouring to make them 
peck his head. It is thought that the two wing- 
ed Cupids which draw the chariot of Venus, 
in a medal of thcjulian family, are Eros and 
Anteros. Cupid'was usually represented naked, 
to shew that love has nothing of its own : he is 
armed with a bow and quiver full of darts, to 
typify his power over the mind ; and crowned 
with roses, as emblems of the delightful but 
transitory pleasures he bestows ; sometimes he 
is depiAed blind, to intimate that Love can see 
no faults in the object beloved ; at others he 
appears with a rose in one hand, and a dolphin 
in the other: somrtimes he is seen standing be- 
twixt Hercules and Mercury, to signify the pre- 
valence of eloquence and valour in love ; at 
others be is placed near Fortune, to express 
bow much the success of lovers depend on that 
inconstant goddess : he is always ^rawn with 
wings, to denote that nothing is more fleeting 
than the passion he excites. In antiques he is 
seen leaping, dancing, idaying, and climbing 
trees ; he is iwftured in the air, on the earth, 
on the sea, and sometimes in the fire : he rides 
on animals, drives chariots, plays on musical 
instruments: he mounts panthers and lions, 
and uses their manes for a bridle, to denote 
that love tames the most savage ; and rides up- 
on a dolphin, to shew that his emjMre extends 
over the sea. He is generally described with a 
bow, arrows, and a torch ; sometimes with an 
helmet and a spear, to signify that love disarms 
the fiercest of men. Mr. Spence gives the follow- 
ing particulars relative to these little, though 
powerful deities: " As to the Cupids, they 
were supposed of old to be very nomeroim, but 
there were two which were the chiefs of all that 
number. One of these chief Cupids was looked 
.«n as the cause of love, and the other as the 

cause of its ceasing ; accordingly the anti^ba- 
rians now at Florence usu^Iy tall the two little 
Cupids atthefootof the Venus of Medici by tlie 
names of Eros and Anteros ; and there is some- 
thing not only in the air of their faces, but in 
their very make and attitudes, which agrees 
well enough with those names, the upper one 
being lighter, and of a more pleasing look, and 
the lower one more heavy and sullen : Ovid 
calls the latter Letbaeus Amor, and Cicero, An- 
teros. Were we to follow a figure that Father 
Montfaucon gives us for Anteros, we must make 
him an ol^ man ; his appearance in it is much 
more like that of a Hercules than of a Cupid. 
Ovid certainly speaks of this very Cupid as a 
boy, and 1 do not know any one of the poets 
tiiat ever speaks of Cupid as an old man. I for- 
merly used to think, from his name, that An- 
teros was looked on by the wicients as the cause 
of aversion ; but that, 1 believe, is a mistake too ; 
for Ovid, the great master in all aflairs relating 
to love, represents him only as makingthe pas* 
sion of love cease, but not as creating aversion* 
where he speaks most fully of this deity; and 
in another of his poems, shews that love and 
aversion were then supposed to proceed not 
from different Cupids, but from different ar* 
rows of the same Cupid. There are scarce any 
figures more common in the works of the an- 
cient artists than those of Cupids in general, 
and they always represent them as young, 
pleasing, and handsome. I remember a pretty 
statue of one at the Venevfe, a seat of the king 
of Sardinia, near Turin, in which he appears 
-like a youth of about seventeen or eighteen 
years old ; and Raphael, (who may almost pass 
for an authority, when we are speaking of Ro- 
man antiquities) represents him as about the 
same age in his marriage of Cupid and Psyche; 
but the most common way of representingCupid 
in the works of the ancients themselves is quite 
as a child, of not above seven or eight years 
old, and sometimes even younger than that : 
his look is almost always like that of a child ;' 
generally pretty, and sometimes a little idle or 
sly, according to the occasion. His hair, 
which is very soft and fine, in the best sta- 
tues of him, is sometimes dressed up too in a 
very pretty manner, as particularly, in that 
celebrated figure of him with Pysche, ia the 

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Great Duke's gallery ; a good copy of which 
begins now to be not uncommon in England. 
He is almost always naked, and of a good 
shape, rather inclining to plumpness, but not 
too much, it being usually only enough to ex- 
press the healthful and Uiriving air that be- 
comes his age. His wings are ornamental as 
well as useful, and were probably sometimes 
represented in the paintings of the ancients as 
of various and pleasing colours. His bow, 
his quiver, and his darts, are spoken of so vul- 
garly among our poets to this day, that they 
scarce need be mentioned here ; besides which 
the ancient poets sometimes give him, as well 
as Hymen, a lighted torch ; and some of them 
seem to speak of his arrows themselves as all 
burning, or pt least as tinged with fire. The 
ancient artists and poets represent their Cupids 
in general in two sorts of ways, that are very 
different from each other ; either as idle and 
playful, or as very powerful, and as governing 
all things: — hence, in gems, and other pieces 
of antiquity, wherever you meet with Cupids, 
you almost always meet with them concerned 
in some little diversion, or some little foolery 
or another. You see some of them driving a 
hoop, or playing with quoits, and others wrest- 
ling or fighting in jest, in a little sort of circus 
of their o\sn : sometimes they are got about 
their mother, or perhaps some Nymph, by the 
water-side, and are diverting themselves in their 
different manners. In some antiques two of 
them are very seriously employed about the 
catching of a butterfly ; in another, one is as 
intent to burn a butterfly with the torch he 
holds in his hand : though this indeed might be 
brought as an instance of their power, as well 
as of their idle tricks, for the butterfly is gene- 
rally used by the Greek artists as an emblem 
for the human soul ; and a Cupid fondling or 
burning a butterfly, is just the same with them 
as a Cupid caressing or tormenting the goddess 
Psyche, or the soul. It is remarkable enough 
that in the Greek language the same word is 
used indifferently for this little fluttering in- 
seft and the soul, (or the animula vagula blan- 
dula, as Adrian called it) and it is as remarka- 
ble that, though the old artists have represented 
Cupids playing with butterflies so many dif- 
ferent ways, there is scarce any one of them 
Vol. I. 

for which I could npt produce somo parallel in 
their representations of Cupid and Psyche. — 
There might have t>een a great deal of good 
sense, (and perhaps something above good 
sense) in the fixing on this emblem ; at least, 
nothing, I think, could point out the survival 
and !i berty of the soul, after its separation from 
the body, in a stronger and more argumenta- 
tive manner, than an animal which is first a 
gross, heavy, creeping inseft, and which, after 
dropping its slough, becomes, by an amazing 
change, a light, airy, flying, free, and happy 
creature. 1 remember to have seen an antique 
in which Ciipid was represented in a car drawn 
' by two Psyches, and another in which a Cupid 
was drawn by two butterflies: and this latter 
might yet have a further meaning, for as the 
car denotes triumph, and the drawing any one 
in a car is a mark of the utmost submission, 
this might be principally intended by the ar- 
tist to express the absolute power of love over 
all the beings of the air. In like manner they 
express his dominion over all the other ele- 
ments: thus you see him riding on a Hon, on 
a dolphin ; sometimes on a Centaur, sometimes 
on a Chimaera, to shew that love can conquer 
all the fiercest monsters that ever were suppo- 
sed to have been upon the earth. He rides or> 
the lion, playing on the lyre, and the savage 
creature he rides on looks as if he had quite for- 
got his nature, in listening to him. The moral 
of this gem is just the same with that of, the 
known story of Cimon and Iphigenia, in Boc- 
cace, and the artist in it tells us, at the first 
glance of the eye, what one must read so many 
pages to learn from the author." It has been 
already hinted, that a diversity prevailed a- 
mongst the ancients, in their representations 
of the divinity of love, in respe6t to the age of 
the figure attributed to him. On one of the 
most ancient cornelians, if we may judge from 
the letters in the name of Phrygillus, the ar- 
tist, he is represented not as an infant, but a. 
grown-up boy, with the expansive wings of an 
eagle ; such as were given to almost all the gods 
in the earlier exhibitions of them. After Phry- 
gillus, however, Solon, Tryphon, and others, 
in some sort, changed the charafter of Cupid, 
by representing him as niore infantine, and 
with shorter pinions ; accordingly he appears 







on a variety of gems to resemble the children 
of Flamingo, and particularly in the Hercula- 
neum piftures on black ground, of the size of 
the dancers. The most beautiful infants in 
marble at Rome are the sleeping Cupid in the 
villa Albani; that in the Capitol playing 
with a swan ; and an infant in the villa Ne- 
groni, mounted on a tiger, with two Loves, 
one frightening the other with a masque. 

The Abb^ la Pluche traces the origin of this lit- 
tle god from the Egyptian Horus, which at- 
tended the terrestrial Uis, or the Venus Popu- 
laris or Pandemos ; who was, according to the 
custom of the neomenia, represented with dif- 
ferent attributes, sometimes with the wings of 
the Etesian wind; at others, with the club of 
Hercules and arrows of Apollo, and at others 
riding on a lion, driving a bull, tying a ram, 
or inclosing in his net a large fish. These at- 
tributes, which pointed out the different sea- 
sons of the year, by the sun's entrance into 
those signs, gave rise to many fables, and the 
empire of Love was made to extend to heaven 
and earth, and even to the depths of the ocean, 
this little but powerful child disarming both' 
gods and men. 

CURA,/«9wieW^,adivinity to whom Fable attri- 
butes the formation of the human body, and an 
absolute power over it, through the whole of life. 

CURCHUS, a deity of the ancient inhabitants of 
Prussia, who was believed to preside over eat- 
ing and drinking, on which account they of. 
fered him their first fruits. In honour of this 
god they kept up a continual fire, and every year 
breaking his old statue, erefled him a new one. 

CUREOTIS, the third day of the festival Apaturia. 

CURETES, a sort of priests or people of the 
isle of Crete, called also Corybantes. This 
name, according to Strabo, was given them 
because they cut oflf" the hair on their foreheads 
to elude the grasp of an enemy ; xaftm, being 
a derivative of xb/kx, tonsure, from juipw, to crop. 
Others deduce it from xnforfn^M, feeding or edu- 
cating z child, as they are said to have educated 
Jupiter. They were also called Idaei DaStyli, 
and were, according to Diodorus Siculus, the 
first inhabitants of Crete, dwelling on Mount 
Ida. The Idaei Daftyli were originally of Phry- 
gia, from whom some of the Curetes were sup- 
posed to have descended ; whilst others were 

imagined to have sprung from the earth. Ovid 
says they had Uieir origin from a shower of 
rain. Lucian and Diodorus Siculus represent 
them as very expert in throwing darts, though 
other authors give them no weapons but buck- 
lers and pikes ; all, however, furnish them with 
tabors and castanets, and add that they danced 
much to the noise and clashing of them. In o- 
ther authors a different account of the Curetes 
is given : according to Pezron, in particular, 
they were not only contemporary with Saturn, 
&c. but in the countries of Crete and Phrygia, 
what the Druids and Bards were among the 
Gauls, &c. J. e. priests who had the careof re- 
ligious rites, and the worship of the gods:^ 
hence, as it was supposed, there was no com- 
munication with the gods but by divinations, 
auguries, and the operations of'magic, the Cu- 
retes passed for magicians and enchanters. To 
their skill in these arts they added the study of 
nature, the stars, and of poesy, and thus be- 
came philosophers, astronomers, and poets. 
Such were the Curetes, and, after them, the 
Druids, with this difference, that the Curetes, 
in the time of the Titans, were engaged in that 
war ; for which reason they are represented not 
only as armed, but as wonderfully dexterous 
at dancing in armour, and fantastically bran- 
dishing their bucklers and javelins. From this 
-circumstance Pezron conjeflures Curetes to 
have come, considering it as derived from the 
Critic euro, the same with xpiiu in the Greek, to 
strike or beat. Accorjling to Kircher, the Cu- 
retes were what the spirits are among theCabba- 
lists, the powers in Dionysius, the demons of the 
Platonists, and the genii of the Egyptians. — 
Vossius distinguishes three kinds of Curetes, 
those of Aetolia, of Phrygia, and of Crete, who 
were originally derived from the Phrygians. — 
The first, he says, took their name from msf*, 
tonsure, because from the time of a combat in 
which the enemy seized their long hair, they 
always kept it cut ; those of Phrygia and Crete 
he supposes were so called from xup^, a young 
man, in reference to their youth, or because they 
nursed Jupiter when he was young ; but these 
etymologies are frivolous at best. 
Various as these accounts of the Curetes are, it is 
in common agreed that Crete was their country, 
and that their origin was as ancient as this fabu- 

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I6us genealogy. In addition to the opinion that 
the Daflyli were their ancestors, and that they 
came from Phrygia, Ephorus subjoins that they 
were brought into Crete by Minos, and gave 
to that island their name. The President des 
Brosses, to cut off all difficulty, advances that 
the Curetes were the ancient priests of that part 
of Europe which borders on Greece and the 
East, and corresponded to the Druids of the 
Celts, the Salii of the Sabins, the Sorcerers and 
Jugglers of Lapon'a, or to those of the Savages 
of America, Siberia, and Kamtchatka ; and, 
adds he, it is in vain to squabble about their 
country, since priests of this kind are every 
where found where the rude faith of a savage 
superstition constitutes the basis of popular pre- 

It appears certain, that they first cultivated the 
island of Crete, and laboured to civilize its in- 
habitants. They taught the Cretans to collet 
their sheep into flocks, and the goats scattered 
over their rocks: to domesticate bees for their 
honey ; to flux iron and to forge i. A know- 
ledge of astronomy has been ascribed to them, 
and in stilingthem the offspring of Queen Me- 
lissa, who instrufted the Cretans in new rites 
and sacred pomps, no more is meant than that 
the introduction of these originated with them. 

Gegenes, or Earth-born and Ministers of Rhea, 
are titles sufficient to prove them the votaries 
of this ancient divinity, with whom they asso- 
ciated Ouranus, or Heaven, regarded in their 
theogony as the father of the gods. Hence it 
appears that their do6irine was consonant to 
that of all the Pelasgic hordes, and that they 
irritated against them the inhabitants of Crete, 
by attempting to innovate on their notions of 
religion. The partizans of the insular super- 
stition were the I'itans, that is, the Cretans, 
who adhered to their savage manners. At 
Gnossus, in a consecrated grove of cypress, 
they erefled an altar to Heaven and Earth, from 
whom they deduced their birth. Their Jug- 
glers being disposed to add a third divinity, 
it excited amongst the savages a violent com- 
motion, whence their opinion arose of the dis- 
membering the god. This event wasrepresented 
in the Gno^an mysteries, of which the sym- 
bols were dice, a ball, a wheel, the palm of the 
hand, a sandal, a mirrer, and a fleece ; which 

in the mystical sense were said to intimate that 
the Curetes had introduced the worship of Ju- 
piter. To assimilate still more these ceremo- 
nies to those of Sais or Eleusis, a person was 
introduced in the character of Horus, or lac- 
chus, named Jasion, one of the ancient ' Cu- 
retes, and in the language of the Ecletflicks, 
member of the Curetic Trinity. At length, 
like the Daayli, the Curetes had their name 
transferred to the divinity of their mysteries and 
country. These mysteries strikingly resem- 
bled those of Samothrace and Mount Ida, but 
perhaps were less scrupulously kept. The 
publicity of those at Gnossus is mentioned by 
Diodorus ; but in this instance we should be 
cautious in admitting the fa6l, as the relater 
had a favourite opinion to support. 

Homer and Hesiod both say that Ceres had an in- 
tercourse with Jasion in a new-ploughed field, 
which had born three crops, and that Plutus 
was the oflSpring of this casual rencounter.— 
Jupiter, according to Homer, being apprized 
of what had happened, struck Jasion with thun- 
der. Apollodorus pretends that the punish-, 
nicnt was merited by th? profane attempt to 
violate a goddess. Others add that he was the 
son of Jupiter, and incurred the resentment of 
his father, by attempting to enjoy a phantom 
or statue of the goddess. According to some 
authors, Ceres transferred him to heaven with 
TriptolemuB, and both became the constella- 
tions denominated the Twins. 

From Hesiod we learn, it was in a fertile distriA 
of Crete that Jasion was favoured by the god- 
dess of the earth. Diodorus Siculus attempt* 
to explain this fable by pretending that at the 
marriage of Cadmus and Hermione, Ceres made 
a present to Jasion of wheat ; and it is said that 
after a deluge which had destroyed the whole of 
this grain in Crete, a corn was discovered in 
his possession. The sense of this allegory is ob- 
vious, and the adventure of this hero has a re- 
ference only to the labours of husbandry. — 
They necessarily produce the true riches, here 
represented by Plutus, whom the Pelellides of 
Gnossus call the brother of Philomelus. The 
latter enjoying but a small portion of his fa- 
ther's possession, and being at variance with 
his elder brother, purchased oxen and invented 
the plough. Cultivating, by these means^ the. 






earth, he thence drew a subsistence, and thus 
merited the proteftion of Ceres, who, pleased 
with his discovery, and its eiFefls, placed him 
as a ploughman in the heavens. This recital 
is purely allegorical, and must have been easily 
comprehended by the Cretans, who were ini- 
tiated in the mysteries of the Curetes. 

It is however to the later times of Paganism that 
some of these fables appear to belong. The in- 
vention of them could not have been prior to 
the deification of the Curetes, who then ceasing 
to be irwftJfoi, or assistants to Rhea, they were 
not only regarded as subaltern divinities, to 
whom temples were reared, but placed by the 
Cretans in the rank of.the greater gods, by 
whom they mutually swore as a sanftion to 
their agreements. It appears from a passage 
in Pausanias, that, if we do not confound the 
Curetes with the Dioscouroi, it is at least diffi- 
cult to distinguish between them. 

CURIS, a name of Juno among the Romans, 
from the spear, in the Sabine language, called 
Quiris ; whence, in her statues and on medals 
she is found leaning on a spear. Hence sprung 
the custom of the bride combing her hair with 
a spear found sticking in the body of a gladi- 
ator, and taken out of him when dead, which 
spear was called Hasta celibaris. 

CURTIUS, the Roman youth, who devoted his 
own life to save his country. This hero, "after 
plunging on horseback into the cavern that 
opened in the forum, was supposed to become 
the presiding deity of that little lake on the 
spot where he performed so glorious an action 
it is just beside the Via Sacra, and still bears 
his name. Spence mentions him, as represent- 
ed in this aftion on a fine relievo, at the villa 
Borghese, near Rome ; and adds, *' I have seen 
the story on some gems, in which there are 
flames issuing out of the gulf. Statius has a 
description of him as the deity of this lake, and 
seems to have burrowed his ideas from some 
old statue of him, which, in his time, seems to 
have been all over-run with moss, or that sort 
of green which is observed on Bernini's Tri- 
ton-statue in the Piazza Barbarini at Rome. — 
He speaks of his wreath of oak, that sort of 
crown which the Romans gave to such as saved 
the life of a citizen, and which belonged much 
more justly to such as had saved the state.— 

Curtius wore it as the preserver of his country . 
he was a true patriot river god." 

CUSTOS, a name of Jupiter among the Romans. 
There is on the coins of Nero a figure of this 
god on his throne, bearing; in the right hand, 
thunder, and, in the left, a spear, with the in- 
scription, IVPITER CVSTOS. 

CYANA. Stebyanippus, 

CYANE, a Nymph of Sicily, endeavouring to 
prevent the rape of Proserpine, Pluto meta- 
morphosed her into a fountain, at which foun- 
tain the Syracusians used every year to cele- 
brate a festival, when, besides sacrificing lesser 
victims, several bulls also were thrown into the 
water. Ovid states Cyane to have been the pa- 
ramour of the river Anapis. 

CYANE, daughter of Liparu8,and wife of Aeolus. 
See Aeolus. 

CYANEA ANDCYANCE,daughterof Maeander, 
and mother by Miletus son of Apollo, of Byb- 
lis and Canis. 

CYANIPPE, daughter of Adrastus. 

CYANIPPUS, of Syracuse, despising the feasts of 
Bacchus, was punished by the god with a fit of 
drunkenness, in which he ravished his own 
daughter Cyane. Some time after the plague 
breaking out, and making extreme havock in 
the country, the oracle declared, that the gods 
would not be appeased till the incestuous were 
sacrificed; upon which Cyane prevailed on her 
father to ofier himself for his country, and to 
die with her. Adrastus, king of Argos, had a 
son also named Cyanippus. 

CYBEBE, a name of Cybele, from >.u|3i^«i., be- 
cause, in the celebration of her festivals, the vo- 
taries became frantick. 

CYBELE, or Vesta tbe Elder. It is highly ne- 
cessary, in tracing the genealogy of the Hea- 
then deities, to distinguish between this god- 
dess and Vesia tbe Younger, her daughter, 
because the poets have been faulty in con- 
founding them, and ascribing the attributes 
and actions of the one to the other. The Elder 
Vesta, or Cybele, she of whom we speak, was 
daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife of her 
brother Saturn, to whom she bore a numerous 
D^pring, and was commonly called by the 
Greeks Estia. Some, indeed, make the Phry- 
gian Cybele a different person from Vesta ; and 
^y, that she was daughter of Mofvnes and 

Digitized by 






Dindyma, anciently king and queen of Phry- 
gia ; and that her mother, for some reasons, 
exposed her, whilst an infant, on Mount Cy- 
behis, where she was nourished by lions, till 
discovered by some Shepiierdesses. Her pa- 
rents afterwards owned her, .and she fell in 
love with Attys, by whom conceiving, her fa- 
ther caused her lover to be slain, and his body 
thrown to wild beasts; Cybele, at this, seized 
with phrenzy, filled the woods and mountains 
with her lamentations. Soon after a plague 
and famine laying waste the country, the ora- 
cle, on being consulted, advised to bury Attys 
with great pomp, and worship Cybele as a god- 
dess; but, not finding hb body, they made a 
statue of him, which they followed with bow- 
lings and funeral ceremonies. A magnificent 
temple was erefled also to Cybele in the city of 
Pessinus, and lions placed at her feet, in me- 
mory of her having been nursed by these ani- 
mals. In the narrative of Ovid, there is more 
of the marvellous, as may be seen in the arti- 
cle j4ttys. The worship of the Earth is very 
ancient, and it is in Phrygia we are to seek 
for the origin of it, since it was not received 
in Europe till the time of Cadmus, who trans- 
ferred it from Asia ; and it was Dardanus, 
contemporary with that founder of the colony, 
who, after the death of his brother lasius, re- 
paired with Cybele, his sister-in-law, and Cory- 
bas, his nephew, into Phrygia, where they in- 
troduced the mysteries of Che goddess Earth, 
or Great Mother Goddess, to whom the name 
of Cybele was transferred, as was that of Co- 
ifybas to the Corybantes, her priests. This 
deity was unknown in Italy till Hannibal was 
in the bowels of it with his army ; when the 
Romans, consulting the Sibylline oracles, found 
the foe could not be expelled till they brought 
the Idaean Mother, or Cybele fo Rome, This 
.obliged the Senate to dispatch ambassadors to 
Attains, king of Phrygia, to request of him 
the statue of this goddess, which was of stone, 
at the city of Pewinus, in <jialatia. She was 
accordingly brought to Rome, and the ladies 
went to the Tybo- to receive her ; but the ves- 
sel which carried her being miraculously stop- 
ped, and remaining immoveable in the Tyber, 
the Vestal Claudia, whose chastity had been 
twiw^ed, evinoed her purity, by drawing the 

vessel on shore with her girdle; and the god- 
dess was introduced into the city, according 
to the Sibylline order, by the best man of 
Rome, whom the Senate had adjudged to be 
young Publius Scipio. This image was reputed 
to have fallen from heaven, and, therefore, 
was esteemed one of the pledges of the Roman 
This deity had a variety of names besides that of 
Cybele, under which she is most generally 
known, and which she obtained from Mount 
Cybelus, in Phrygia, where sacrifices to her 
were first instituted ; though others derive the 
word Cybele from a Cube, because the cube, or 
die; which is a body every way square, was 
dedicated to her by tlie ancients. Her other 
names, an explanation of which will be found 
in the course of the alphabet, are Berecynthia 
Mater, Bona Dea, Dindyme, or Dindymene, 
Fatua, Fauna, Idaea Mater, Magna Deorum 
Mater, Magna Pales, Mygdonia, Ops, Pasi- 
thea, Pessinuntia, Rhea, and Vesta. 
Her sacrifices and festivals, also, in the'order of 
the alphabet, were the Magalesia, Oportunea, 
Orgia, and Palilia. These, like those of Bac- 
chus, were celebrated with a confused noise of 
timbrels, pipes, and cymbals; the sacrificants 
howling OS if mad, and profaning both the 
temple of the goddess, and ears of their hear- 
ers with the most obscene language and abo- 
minable gestures. Her temple was opened 
not by hands, but by prayers, and none en- 
tered it who had tasted garlic : the animals 
commonly sacrificed to Cybele were, the sow, 
on account of its fecundity, the bull, and the 
goat ; and lier priests sacrificed sitting, touch- 
ing the earth, and offering the hearts of the 
viftims. The box and the pine were sacred to 
her; the first, because the pipes used in her 
festiv^s were of that wood ; and the latter, for 
the sake of Attys, or Atys, a Phrygian youth 
whom she much loved, and whom she made 
president of her rites, but who, having violated 
a vow of chastity, was turned b^ her into the 
Her priests, a full account of whom occur in al- 
phabetical order, were the Cabiri, the Cory- 
bantes, the Curetes» the Daflyli Idaei, the 
GalU, the Semiviri, and the Telchines, who 
were generally eunuchs. 4 

Digitized by 





Under the character of Vesta she is generally re- 
presented upon ancient coins, in a sitting pos- 
ture, with a lighted torch inone hand, and a 
sphere or drum in the other. Aa Cybele, she 
makes a more magnificent appearance, being 
seated in a lofty chariot drawn by lions, crown- 
ed with towers, and bearing in her hand a 
key. Cybele being goddess, not of cities only, 
but of all things which the earth sustains, was 
crowned with turrets, whilst the key implies 
not only her custody of cities, but also, that in 
winter the earth locks those treasures up, which 
she brings forth and dispenses in summer : she 
rides in a chariot, because (it is said, but too 
fancifully) the earth hangs suspended in the 
air, balanced and poised by its own weight ; 
and that the chariot is supported by wheels, 
because the Earth is a voluble body and turns 
round. Her being drawn by lions may imply, 
that nothing is so fierce and intra6tible, but a 
motherly piety and tenderness, can tame and 
subdue. Her garments are painted with di- 
vers colours, but chiefly green, and figured 
with the images of several creatures, because 
such a dress is suitable to the variegated and 
more prevalent appearance of the earth. The 
explanation given by Varro of the mysterious 
particulars of Cybele, are thus preserved by 
St. Austin : " She is called the Mother of the 
Gods ; the drum which is ascribed to her, re- 
presents the globe of the earth ; the turrets 
with which she is crowned,^the cities and towns 
of the earth ; the se£ts that surround her shew, 
that she only stands still while all things are in 
motion about her ; her eunuch priests denote, 
that the earth must be manured in order to 
produce corn ; their agitations and motions 
before the goddess, teach husbandmen, that 
they must not lie still ; the sound of cymbals 
denotes the noise of the instruments of hus- 
bandry ; and the tame lions give us to under- 
' stand, that there is no soil so wild and barren, 
but it may be manured." This Vesta is the 
same with the Egyptian Isis, and represented 
the pure ether inclosing, containing, and per- 
vading all things. Their symbols and attri- 
butes are alike. She was considered .as the 
cause of generation and motion, the parent of 
all the luminaries, and i% confounded with Na- 
ture and the World. According to Plato, she 

obtained the name of EsUa, as being the life 
or essence of all things. 

CYBELUS, a mountain of Phrygia, where Cybele 
was worshipped. 

CYBERNESIA, the feast of Pilots, a festival in- 
stituted by Theseus in memory of Nausithous 
and Phaeax, who were his pilots in the expedi- 
tion to Crete. 

CYCHREUS, son of Neptune and Salamis, who, 
after his death, was honoured as a god in Sa- 
lamis and Attica. He is said to have been de- 
nominated The Serpent, from the ferocity of his 
manners ; but rather, perhaps, from that ani- 
mal being sacred to Ceres, whose priest Cy- 
chreus is mentioned to have been. 

CYCLOPS. The Cyclops, by some are said, to 
have been the sons of Neptune and Amphitrite; 
by others, the sons of Coelus and Terra. The 
three principal were, Brontes, Steropes, and 
Pyraemon, though their whole number exceed. 
ed an hundred. They were of prodigious sta- 
ture, and had each but one eye, placed in the 
middle of their foreheads ; lived on such fruits 
and herbs as the earth yielded without cultiva- 
tion, and had no laws to controul them. 

They are reported to have built the walls of 
Mycenae and Tyrinthe with such massy stones, 
that the smallest required two yokes of oxen 
to draw it. The most ancient story is, that, 
as soon as they were born, Jupiter threw 
them into Tartarus, but that they were deli- 
vered thence at the intercession of Tellus, who 
had foretold his vii5tory over his father Saturn. 
Having slain Campe, their keepet, they came 
into the light of the upper regions, and fabri- 
cated for Pluto that helmet which renders him 
invisible; the trident for Neptune, with which 
he shakes the earth and sea ; and, for Jupiter, 
those thunderbolts which teirify both gods and 
men. They were labourers under Vulcan, and 
worked at his forges in the island of Lemnos.— 
Some mythologists maintain, that the Cyclope 
signify those vapours raised in the air which 
occasion thunder and lightning; for which 
reason they are represented as forging the 
thunderbolts of Jupiter: others represent them 
as the first inhabitants of Sicily, who were 
cruel, of a gigantic form, and dwelt round 
Mount Aetna. These monsters, notwithstand- 
ing, were accounted divine, and had a temt^e 

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at Corinth in which viAims were offered.— — 
Apollo is said to have destroyed him for hav- 
ing made the thunderbolts for Jupiter with 
which he killed Aesculapius. 

CYCNEIA Tempe. See the fourth Cycnus. 

CYCNUS, son of Sthenelus, king of Liguria, 
was so deeply affefted by the fate of Phaeton, 
his relative and friend, that, in the midst of 
his lamentations, he was changed to a swan. 

Of this name, two others are mentioned by the 
poets ; one, son of Mars and Pyrene, who was 
killed in a conflict with Hercules. The God 
of War was so provoked at the manner of his 
death, that he armed himself to revenge it, 
but before his contest with Hercules became 
decisive, the combatants were parted by a 

The other Cycnus was son also of Mars, by Cleo- 
bulina, or the Nymph Pelopaea. This prince, 
who reigned in Thessaly, is said to have pos- 
sessed so savage a temper, as to vow a temple 
to the honour of his father, to be built with 
the skulls of the strangers he should kill. Her- 
cules, however, in his African expedition, is 
reported to have met with and killed him. 

A fourth CYCtiv&, son of the Nymph Hyrie, dis- 
appointed of a bull he had requested from 
Phylius, his friend, threw himself into the sea, 
and was changed to a swan. It is in reference 
to him, as an inhabitant of Tempe, that Ovid 
applies to it the epitliet Cycnea. 

Another Cyckus, son of Neptune, whom Achilles 
finding invulnerable by a spear, threw upon 
the ground and strangled. Having stripped 
him of his armour, the body was re-animated 
in the form of a swan. 

Cycnus, in statues, is given as the name of a horse. 

CYDIPPE: Besides the mother of Biton and 
Cleobis, and the wife of Anaxilaus, there were 
several Nymphs of this name, particularly one 
beloved by Acontius. See Aconlius. 

CYDON, an adherent of Turnus, mentioned in 
the tenth Aenerd. 

CYGNUS. SeeCycnui. 

CYLIDNUS, son ofPhryxusand Calliope. 

CYLLABARUS, kingof Argos, succeeded Sthe- 
nelus, his father, and successfully united the 
parts of that kingdom which had been divided 
into three sovereignties, about 1312 years be- 
fore the Christian era. He seduced Egiale^wife 

ofDiomedes, during the absence of that prince 
at the seigeof Troy. Cyllabarus dying with- 
out issue, his crown passed into the family of 
Pel ops. 

CYLLARUS, one of the Centaurs, passionately 
fond of Hylonoma, and perished with her.— — 
Also, a famous horse belonging to Pollux. 

CYLLEN, son of Elatus, from whom Mount Cyl- 
lene in Arcadia, was named, and whence Mer- 
cury, being bom there, was called Cylleneius ; 
but see Cylleneius. 

CYLLENE, mother of Lycaon by Pelasgus. 

CYLLENIUS, CYLLIUS, names of Mercury. 
The words are derived from the Greek, and 
signify a man without bands and feet; the statues 
or images of Mercury called Hermae, from his 
Greek name Hermes, being busts only. Mer- 
cury, however, is said to have been named Cyl- 
leneius from Cyllene, a mountain in Arcadia, his 

CYLLENUS, son of Anchiala, brother of Tityas, 
and priest of Cybele. 

CYMODOCE, a sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus 
and Doris. According to Virgil, the ship of 
Aeneas assumed her form. 

CYMOTHOE, a sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus 
and Doris. 

CYNARAS. SeeCwyrfls. 

CYNISCA, daughter of Archidamus, obtained 
the first prize in the chariot-Face at the Olym- 
pic games. 

CYNOCEPHALI, a nation in India, reported to 
have heads like dogs. 

CYNOCEPHALUS, an Egyptian divinity, the 
same with Anubis, of whom, perhaps, the Cyno- 
cephali were also votaries. 

CY NOPHONTIS, a festival observed in the Dog- 
days at Argos, and so called ato rev Kwof ^m»t 
from the killing of dogs ; it being usual on this 
day to kill all the dogs that came in the way. 

CYNOS, the city in Thessaly where Pyrrha, the 
wife of Deucalion, is said to have been buried. 

CYNOSARGES, a surname of Hercules. 

CYNOSSEMA, a promontory of the I'hracian 
Chersonesus, .where Hecuba, being changed 
to a dog, was buried. 

CYNOSURA, one of the Nymphs of Mount Ida, 
by whom Jupiter was nursed, and who, in re- 
turn for her good offices, was changed to the 
star so called. 

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CYNTHIA, a nameof Diana, from Mount Cyn- 
thiis, in the island of Deles. 

CYNTHIUS, aname of Apollo, froniMountCyn- 
thus, in the island of Delos. 

CYPARISSUS, son of Amycleus, of the island 
of Caea, a beautiful youth beloved by Apollo, 
being excessively grieved for the death of a 
fawn or deer which he highly valued, and which 
was sacred to the Nymphs, he became melan- 
choly, constantly bewailed his loss, refused all 
comfort, and would have laid violent hands on 
himself had not Apollo prevented him. Having 
before his death begged of the gods, that his 
grtef might be made perpetual, Apollo chang- 
ed him into the Cypress tree, the branches of 
which were always used at funerals; and thus 
granted his request. 

CYPRA, a name of Juno upon the coast of Italy. 

CYPRIA, CYPRIS, an appellative of Venus 
from the island of Cyprus, which was sacred to 


CYPSELIDES, the patronymic of the three sons 
of Cypselus. 

CYPSELUS. SeeLabda. 

CYRENE, daughter of Hypseus, king of the La- 
pithae, or, according to others, the river Pe- 
neus, attracted the notice of Apollo, who hap- 
pened to see her encounter a lion. Becoming 
enamoured of her, he carried her into Lybia, 
to a city which afterwards took her name, she 
having there brought him a son called Aris- 
taeus. SeeAristaeus. 

CYRNO, mother of Cymus by Jupiter. She gave 
her name to the island formerly called Tbe- 

CYRNUS, -son of Hercules, whose name was gi- 
ven to the island of Corsica. See also Cyrao. 

CYRRHA,acityof Phocis, at the foot of Mount 
Parnassus, where Apollo was particularly ho- 

CYRUS, his palace. SttSeven Wonders of the World. 

CYSENIS, daughterof Diomedes,king of Thrace, 

who cut men up alive, and dressed children as 
food for their parents. 

CYTA, a capital city of Colchis, famous for its 
poisonous produftions, the country of Medea, 
who thence was cdWeA. Cytaeis, and theCyfacaa 

CYTAEIS. SeeCy/a. 

CYTHERAEA. SttCytbera. 

CYTHAERON, an amiable youth, was beloved 
by Tisiphone, one of the Eumenides, or Furies, 
who, fearing to affright him by her form, got 
a third person to disclose her flame. He was 
so unhappy as to rejeft her suit,on which, pluck- 
ing a sn^e from her head, she threw it at him. 
The snake writhing round his body, strangled 
him. At his death he was changed to a moun- 
tain, which still bears his name. 

of Venus, so called fromCythera, an island (rf 
Greece, where she was said to have been pro- 
duced- from the froth of the sea. A magnifi- 
cent temple was there consecrated to her, un- 
der the title of Venus Urania. 

CYTHEREIUS HEROS, Aenas, son of Venus. 

CYTHEREIUS MENSIS, the month of April, 
so called from being sacred to Venus. 

CYTHERIS. SeeCytbera. 

CYTHORUS, son of Phryxus, who gave his 
name to a city and mountain in Galatia. This 
country was over-run with box. 

CYTISORUS. See Clyndus. 

CYZICUS, kmg of the Dolians, a people inha- 
biting the peninsula of the Propontis, most 
hospitably treated the Argonauts in their way 
to CoIchis,for the Golden Fleece. These heroes, 
after parting from him, and being a day at sea, 
were driven back on his coast, at night, by a 
storm. Cyzicus supposed them to be pirates or 
enemies, and resisting their landing, was killed 
in the engagement. His wife Clita, being told 
of his imtimely death, found the means of pro- 
curing her own. See Clita. 

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DAAE, DAHAE, or DAI, a people of Scythia, 
mentioned by Virgil, inhabiting the borders of 
the Caspian. 

DABAIBA, an idol of the inhabitants of Pana- 
ma. This goddess was of mortal extra^ion, and 
having led a virtuous life on earth, was deified 
after her death, and called by those idolaters 
tbe mother of God. When it thunders or light- 
ens, they say Dabaiba is angry. They burn 
slaves by way of sacrifice to their deity, and 
worship her by fasting three or four days to- 
gether, and by petty afts of devotion, such as 
sighs, groans, ecstacies, and the like. 

DABIS, a Japanese deity : a colossus, or large 
image of this deity made of brass, stands in the 
road from Osacia to SorungO. They make an 
oiftring to it every year, of a spotless virgin, 
who is instrufted to ask the god such and such 
particular questions, to which the idol, (or ra- 
ther some bonze or priest inclosed within the 
idol, which is hollow) returns an answer. The 
sacred interpreter of this deity seldom fails to 
impart to the inquisitive virgin that initiatory 
communication which makes her a woman, as 
demonstrative of the god in a human shape. — 
An Egyptian priest of Saturn formerly carried 
on an imposture of this kind with great success. 
He informed the male devotees, who came thi- 
ther to pay their vows, that the deity expefted 
a personal interview with their wives, among 
whom he always pitched upon the handsomest 
for his favourite. The dame thus honoured, 
was condufled into the temple, and the priest, 
after he had shut her in, conveyed himself 
through a subterraneous passage into the cavity 
of the idol, and from the mouth of it asked his 
devotee such questions as failed not to end 
(though not till the lights were extinguished) 
in a conciliatory embrace. 

DACTYLl IDAEI, literally ibe fingers of Mount 
Ida. Concerning the personages so stiled my- 
thology and fable give different accounts. The 
Cretans paid divine honours to them for having 
nursed and brought up Jupiter ; whence it ap- 
Fol. I. 


pears they were the same as the Corybantcs and 
Curetes ; nevertheless Strabo makes them dif- 
ferent, and says the tradition in Phrygia was, 
that the Curetes and Corybantes were descend- 
ed from the Daftyli Idaei ; that there were ori- 
ginally an hundred men in the island who were 
retes, and each of the nine produced ten men, 
as many as the fingers of a man's two hands; and 
that this gave the name to the ancestors of the 
Daflyli Idaei. He relates another opinion, 
which is, that there were but five Daflyli Idaei, 
who, according to Sophocles, were the inven- 
tors of iron ; that these five brothers had five 
sisters ; and that from this number they took 
the name o^ fingers of Mount Ida, because they 
were in number ten ; and that they worked at 
the foot of this mountain. Diodorus Siculus 
reports their story differently : he says the first 
inhabitants of the island of Crete were the Dac- 
tyli Idaei, who had their residence on Mount 
Ida ; that some said they were an hundred, o- 
thers only five, in number equal to the fingera 
of a man's hand, whence they had the name 
of Daftyli ; that they were magicians, and ad- 
difted to mystical ceremonies ;. that Orpheus 
, was their disciple, and carried their mysteries 
into Greece ; that the Dadtyli invented the use 
of iron and fire, and that they had been recom- 
pensed with divine honours. Diomedes the 
Grammarian says, thepafSyli Idaei were priests 
of Cybele, called Idaei, because that goddess 
was chiefly worshipped on Mount Ida, in Phryr 
gfa ; and Daftyli, because, to prevent Saturn 
from heai'ing the cries of the infant Jupiter, 
whom Cybele had committed to their custody, 
lest he should be destroyed by Saturn, they 
Osed to sing certain veraes of their own inven- 
tion, in the Dactylic measure. Strabo oply 
gives the names of four of the Da(5lyli Idaei, 
Salaminus, Damnanaeus, Hercules, and Ac- 
mon. As these Daftyli were benevolent to 
mankind, they received divine honours ; their 
very name was looked on as an infallible pre* 

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Bcrvative, and was always pronounced in terror, 
or danger. There were likewise stones called 
Daflyli Idaei, which were of a sovereign vir- 
tue, and of which they made amulets, and 
wore on their thumbs. See Cvrybantes, Cu- 
The conformity between their religious ceremo- 
nies, together with their vicinity, have caused 
the Daftyli and Cabiri to be mistaken for each 
other ; and the former, though considered as 
originally from Crete, have been looked on as 
part of the latter ; an error derived from the 
term Idaei, which had respefl to Mount Ida in 
Phrygia, and not to that of the same name in 
the isle of Crete, where the Datftyli were 
never established. The combined authority of 
Sophocles, Ephorus, Strabo, Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, and Clement of Alexandria, will not ad- 
mit a doubt on this head. The Daftyli of Asia, 
like the conjurors in America, first thought to 
render themselves necessary by exercising a- 
mong savages, the healing art ; and to such 
skill liad they attained in Greece, that their 
name long signified the bealers. Frequent fires 
in the forest of Mount Ida having discovered 
' to them vdns of ircm, they gradually acquired 
the art of working them. At least general tra- 
dition has attributed to them the invention of 
this art, and settled the date of it, under Pan- 
dion, king of Athens, 1492 years before the 
Ouistian era. The fabrication of iron and 
-other discoveries of this kind, could not fail to 
enhance their fame as enchanters and jugglers. 
According, therefore, to Pherecydes, and the 
author of the Phoronis, they were renowned 
from their magical skill: a qualification to 
whicfa fheiy owed their consequence amongst 
the Phrygians and people of Samothracia. Dio- 
doruC Sicutui relates, that the latter were ex- 
ceedingly surprised at the displays they exhi- 
f)ited in their mysteries of initiatory rites. — 
The same historian adds, that Orpheus himself 
became their disciple, and learned these c«-e- 
numicsfrom th«n, which, however, must have 
^eneomething beyond those (rf'simplejugglers 
«r eav^ge conjurers, white initiatim crawisted 
in trials more «r leas strong, adapted to the 
powers of the aspirants. The conquests t^ Se- 
•ostrk m Asia and in Thrace, had there dlfiuaed 
t^ Efjpkian ritual. The Cabin and DaAyli 

could not avoid conforming to it, and adopting 
the concomitant doctrines. 
Till then the Daayli, like the other Pelasgi, had 

been worshippers of Heaven and Earth. 

Crowned with branches of oak, they sacrificed 
to the latter under the name of Rhea ; hence 
they were deemed to be mx^t/^ei, or assistants to 
the mother of the gods. Their altars were 
stones artlessly heaped in honour of Kelmis, the 
great Danmanuneus and the powerful Acmon, 
who afterward were taken for Daftyli, as the 
divinities of Samothrace had been for Cabiri. — 
Of this these three names, when explained, are 
a proof. In the ancient language of the Greeks 
Acmon signifies heaven. The word Damname- 
mus remains in part in Damia, the name of Ce- 
res at Epidaurus, and of Domna, that of Pro- 
serpine at Cysicus. This city was- at no great 
distance from Mount Ida, the residence of the 
Da£tyli, where they honoured the Earth, pro- 
bably under the epithet Davma, or Dumname- 
nea, powerful, which occurs in the fragment of 
the Phoronis. It is sufficiently known that a- 
mongst the earliest writers the genders of words 
are sometimes compounded, this perhaps has 
happened in the last- mentioned work, since we 
learn from Varro, that Heaven and Earth were 
represented in the mysteries of the Cabiri, as oF 
diflerent sexes. 
In Hesychius it is evident that Kelms equally sig- 
nified one of these Daffyli Idaei, or a child. — 
Kelmas signified the skin of a fawn. These 
, words then related to the tender youth of the 
CadmilluB of Safliothrace, and the lacchus of 
Eleusis, both representing the Horus of E- 
gypt, to which Kelmis might with both corre> 
Bpond. This conjecture is the better founded as 
amongst the other names given by PausAnias 
to the DaAyli, that of Jasion occurs, which 
corresponds to the lacchus of the Cretans ; 
to PriapuB, on account of the Phallus consecra- 
ted to him, and to Paeonius the same with lac- 
chus, <xr, in the language of the prophane, jDi- 
onysius. Hercules and Epimedes were ad- 
mitted in the list, but as expressive only of 
strength and prudence, attributes of Acmon, 
or Heaven. Idas and Accsidas are merely' epi- 
thets or surnames from places inhabited by tiic 
DaCtyli. It was only On the intr.Qdu6Uon of fo- 
reign worship that Kilim was ranked amongst 

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theDa^ylic divinitieSj as was Cadmillus with 

those of Sainothrace. 
To this era succeeded a thirds that of the Apo- 
theosis. Acmon, Damnameneus, and Kelmis were 
then regarded, according to Stesimbrotus in 
hi; book on the mysterieSi as the son of Ji.ijs- 
ter and the Nymph Ida, because the god hav- 
ing ordered his nurses to throw behind them 
some dust from the mountain, caused the Dae- 
■ tyli Idaei to be formed of it. This allegoric 
fable which was explained to the initiated, was 
not the only on^. A second represented these 
Daftyli as produced by the imposition of the 
hands of Ops upon Mount Ida, when the god- 
dess betook herself to Crete. The allegory is 
obvious and easily explained. In gratitude for 
their inventions, the first inhabitants of Ida at- 
tained at length to divine honours, and were 
regarded as Lares and particular divinities. — 
But their worship was never so extended as that 
of the Cabiri, who at last were considei'ed as 
Dioscouroi. The condition of the Da^yli cor- 
rcsjionded more nearly with tliat of the Cii- 
DACTYLOMANTIA, a species of divination or 
enchantment effefted by means of a ring, like 
the ring ofGyges. 
DADES. See Daidit. 

DADUCHI, priests of Ceres. That goddess hav. 
ing lost her daughter Proserpine, began to 
search for her at the beginning of the night, 
and in order to do this with success, she lighed 
torches at Mount Aetna, and thus set forth on 
the discovery ; for which reason Ceres is al- 
ways represented with a lighted torch in her 
hand. In commemoration of this exploit, it 
became a custom with her priests, in the feasts 
and sacrifices of this goddess, to run about in 
her temple with torches after this manner ; one 
of them took alighted torch from off the altar, 
and holding it in his hand, ran with it to a cer- 
tain partof the temple, where he gave it to an- 
other, saying to him, Tibi trade ; this second 
ran after like manner to another place of the 
temple, and gave the torch to a third, he to a 
fourth, and so of all the rest From this ce- 
remony the priests became denominated Dadu- 
chi, that is, torcb-bearers, from ^, an unEtuous 
and ris'mout wood, as pine, fir, &c. whereof the 
ancients made torches, and tjff*, I have, I bold. 

DAEDALION, son of LuciPer, brother to Ceyx, 
and father of Philtmis, was so afflidledi at the 
death of Philonis, who was killed by Diana, 
that he threw himself from the top of Parnassus, 
and was changed by Apollo to a falcon. 
Daedalus, son of Hymetlon, grandson of 
Eumolptis, or Eupalamus, and great-grandson 
of Erectheus, king of Athens, or swi of Eupa- 
lamus, according to Ovid, was, without con- 
troversy, the most skilful artist Athens or 
Greece ever produced ; an able architeft, an 
ingenious statuary, who invented several in- 
struments in those two arts, such as the hatchet, 
level, wimble, &c. To him is also ascribed 
the glory of having first made sail-yards for 
ships, and of introducing sails instead of oars ; 
but nothing signalized him so much as his ex- 
cellence in statuary, in which he arrived to 
such a pitch, that his statues were said to be 
animated, to see, to roll their eyes, to walk, 
nay, would fly away unless they were chained. 
But his misfortunes, as remarked by Pausanias 
and Diodorus Siculus, rendered him not less 
conspicuous than his celebrated works. He had 
liberally educated Talus, son of his sister Per- 
dix, and the young man made such proficiency 
under him, that he likewise invented several 
very useful instruments, the first of which was 
the potter's wheel. Next, having found a ser- 
I)ent'3 bojie, and cut with it a small piece of 
wood, he tried to imitate the ruggedness of its 
edge ill iron, and thus discovered the saw. In 
a word, from Talus is derived the turning- 
wheel, and a number of other inventions. — 
These successes of the nephew raised the jea- 
lousy of Daedalus, who, fearing his reputation 
would one day be eclipsed, caused Talus to 
be secretly put to death ; some say he threw the 
youth over a window ; and having told one of 
his friends that he had been burying a serpent, 
his crime was thereby detefted, as we learn 
from Diodorus Siculus, who remarks, that the 
same animal which had given Talus occasion to 
invent the saw, the object of his uncle's jealousy, 
served also to detect the author of his death. — 
This Talus is by many authors called Perdix, 
and under this name Ovid says that Minerva 
pitied him, and, before he fell to the ground, 
turned him into a partridge. Both Diodorus 
and Apollodorus relate, that the Areopugus 

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of Athens condemned Daedalus capitally ; but 
Servius says it was only to perpetual banish- 
ment Be this how it may, Daedalus secretly 
withdrew from Athens, and retired to the 
island of Crete, (carrying with him his son Ica- 
rus) where, king Minos, overjoyed to have a 
mafl so celebrated, gave him a very favourable 
reception. It was during his retreat in this 
island that hebuilt inGnossus the famous Laby- 
rinth which has been so much talked of, and in 
which he and his son are said to have been shut 
up, because he had assisted Fasiphae, wife of 
Minos, in her base amours ; he, however, made 
himself and his son wings, with wax and fea- 
thers of birds, and fastening these wings to his 
shoulders, effefted his own escape from Crete ; 
but his son not observing his directions, fell 
into the sea, and was drowned. Some say Dae- 
dalus fled to Sicily, others to Cocalus, king of 
Egypt, who caused him to be suffocated in a 
stove, to avoid, on account of him, the resent- 
ment of Minos. He executed at Memphis some 
extraordinary works, where, after his death, 
the inhabitants paid him divine honours. 
Pausanias speaks of some wooden figures by this 
artist, existing in his time, which, though rude 
as to manual execution, had notwithstanding a 
commanding aspeft, and divine expression ; 
and Lucretius, to describe the plastic powers 
of vernal vegetation, forms an epithet from his 
name, and applies it to the E^rth. 

'-'Hbi suaveis daed. 

Suoimittit flores 

For Thee, her fragrant flowers the JaeJal Earth 

DAEMOGORGON, an imaginary divinity, under 
whose name the ancients worshipped the system 
of Nature. But see Demogorgon. 

DAEMON, a name assigned by the ancients to 
certain spirits, or genii, which are either be- 
neficent or injurious. The first notion of Dae- 
mons was brought from Chaldaea, whence it 
spread among the Egyptians, Persians, and 
Greeks. Pythagoras and Thales were the first 
who Introduced Daemons into Greece: Pluto 
imbibed the notion, and explained it more fully 
than the preceding philosophers. By Daemons 
he understood spirits inferior to gods, yet su- 
perior to men, which inhabiting the middle re. 

gion of the air, kept up the communication be< 
tween the immortals and mortals, carrying the 
oflTerings and prayers of men to the gods, and 
delivering the will of the gods to men. He, how- 
ever, allowed of none but good and beneficent 
Daemons, though his disciples afterwards, un- 
able to account for the origin of evil, adopted 
the other class, tcho were enemies to men. — 
There is nothing more common in Heathen 
theology than these good and evil genii, and 
the same superstitious notion gained admission 
among the Israelites, by their intercourse with 
the Chaldaeans. By Daemon, notwithstanding, 
they did not mean the devil, or a wicked spirit, 
they never took the word Daemon in that sense, 
till after perhaps the Babylonish captivity, if so 
soon. The word JW/LMw is Greek. These Dae- 
mons were called by the Phoenicians Baalim ; for 
they had one supreme being whom they called 
Baal and Moloch, and various inferior deities 
called Baalim, which are often mentioned in the 
Old Testament. The first Daemon of the E- 
gyptians was Mercury, or Thaut. The same 
author finds some resemblance between the se- 
veral offices ascribed to the Daemons and those 
of the Messiah. The Platonists distinguish be- 
twixt gods. Daemons, and heroes. The gods 
are those whom Cicero calls Z>« majorum gen- 
tium, and Daemons those whom we call angels. 
Christians use the word in a bad sense, and un- 
derstand by it only evil spirits, or devils ; and 
the reason of this, as assigned by Minucius Fe- 
lix and others, is, because good spirits refuse 
the adoration of men, and evil spirits alone are 
the objefts of idolatrous and false worship, A- 
puleius, defining the nature of Daemons, says, 
they have a rational soul, and an aerial body ; 
that they are immortal, and obnoxious to the 
same passions with men ; that prediftions, au- 
guries, divinations, oracles, dreams, and ma- 
gii, belong to them. Justin Martyr speaks of 
thenature of Angels and Daemon as if bethought 
them not absolutely spiritual and incorporeal, 
for which reason he attributes such aiSions to 
them as cannot be performed without the in- 
tervention of a body. He says that some of the 
angels, having received from.God the govern- 
ment of the world, soon became prevaricators 
of his law, and by the commerce which they 
had with the posterity of Adam, engendered 

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what we call Daemons or devils ; in which sen- 
timent he was followed by many of the Fathers 
end ancient writers of the church. It was a 
fabulous notion among the ancient Hel»'ews 
that Adam begot Daemons and spirits. It be- 
mg difScult to obtain a satisfactory account of 
the Jewish Daemonology in its full extent, an 
explanation of what was meant by the worship 
of Daemons^ will be liable to some embarras- 
mcnt. According to the division of the Rab- 
bins, this was the last species of idolatry. 

There was a particular species of Daemons, 
as some learned men have imagined, to whom 
the Israelites offered sacrifice, and these were 
a sort of evil spirits which appeared in desart 
places, in the form of goats, and denominated 
in Scripture Seinm, which properly bo signifies: 
but it is doubted whether the Israelites were 
really guilty of this kind of idolatry: if they 
were, it seems borrowed from the praftice of 
the Egyptians, among whom the goat was held 
a sacred animal. " The poets," says Minucius 
Felix, ''acknowledge the existence of Daemons; 
the philosophers make it a matter of dispute : 
Socrates was convinced of it, forhe had a Dae- 
mon always at hand, by whose advice he go- 
verned himself in all his aftions. The Magi 
are not only acquainted with Daemons, but 
perform every magical operation by their aid. 
These impure spirits lie concealed under sta- 
tues and images, and by their influence acquire 
the authority of a present deity, whilst they in- 
BjHre the priests, dwell in the temples, direft 
the entrails of beasts and the fiight of birds, 
and give out oracles involved in falsehood and 

ambiguity." As to Socrates's Daemon, it 

was nothing more, according to Plutarch, but 
his own sneezing, and that of others. Accord- 
ing to the doctrine of the Mahometans, there 
are several kinds of Daemons : one sort is cal- 
led Gmn and Peri, and are the same as we call 
Hobgoblins and Fairies ; others are called T«- 
couin, and are the Parcae or Destinies of the Pa- 
gans ; others are a kind of Medusae, Furies, 
and Speftres ; and, lastly, others are the Scbai- 
atbin, i. e. the devil, and his infernal troop. — 
The miners of Hungary pretend, that while 
they are at work in those subterraneous places, 
they often see Daemons or spirits in the shape 
of little negro boys, but that they do them no 

other mischief but now and then extinguishing 
their lamps. As these Daemons are supposed 
so necessary in the concerns of the deities, the 
article will not be deemed foreign to the pur- 
pose of this work. See Genii. 

DAEMON BONUS, an appellative of Bacchus, 
to whose honour, in all feasts, the last glass was 

DAETOR, a Trojan slain by Teucer. 

DAGGIAL, the false Messiah, or Anti-christ of 
the Mahometans, who believe he will make 
his appearance mounted on an ass, in imita- 
tion of the true Messiah, who made his entry 
into Jerusalem seated on that animal. The 
word signifies a person who has but one eye 
and one eye-brow, such, as they suppose Anti- 
christ will be. They pretend he will come at 
the end of the world, and that Jesus Christ, 
who is not yet dead, will then fight with him, 
and put him to death, 

DAGON, the false god of Ashdod, or, as the 
Greeks call it, Azotus. He is commonly re- 
presented as a monster, half man and half fish ; 
whence most learned men derive his name 
from Dag, a Jisb : those who describe him as 
the inventor of bread-corn, derive his name 
from the Hebrew Dagon, which signifies Jru- 
mentum; whence, Philo Biblius calls him Zw 
AfoiTfi«i, Jupiter Aratrius, Dagon, according 
to some, was the same as Jupiter; according 
to others, Saturn ; and, to others, Venus. It 
is certain the Egyptians worshipped Venus un- 
der the shape of a fish, because, in the war of 
Typhon £^ainst the gods, she lay hid in that 
form: and Diodorus Siculus relates, that at 
Askelon, a famous city of the Philistines, Der- 
ceto, Dercetis, or Ater^atis, (the same as Venus) 
was worshipped under the form of a woman, 
whose extremities terminated in a fish's tail.^ 
There is an ancient fable, that Oannes, a crea- 
ture half man and half fish, rose out of the Red 
Sea, and came to Babylon, and having taught 
men several arts, returned again to the sea. — 
Apollodorus relates, that four such, in seve- 
ral ages, had arisen from the Red Sea, of whom 
one was named OEiacon, whence the learned Selr 
den derives the appellative Dagon. Asitispast 
dispute, that the gods of the Greeks and Latins 
came from the East, and particularly from 
Phoenicia, it is very probable that Dagon and 

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Neptune are one and the Mine deity. When 
the Philistines had taken the ark of God from 
the Hebrews, and brought it to the city of 
Ashdod, they traced it in the temple of Da- 
gon, close by the image of that deity ; but the 
next morning, on entering the temple, they 
found the idol fallen on its face, with it* head 
and hands broken off. This deity continued 
to have a temple at Ashdod, during all the ages 
of idolatry to the time of the Maccabees ; for 
the author of the first book tells us, that " Jo- 
nathan, one of the Maccabves, having defeated 
th« army of Apollonius, general of Demetrius, 
they fled to Azotus, and entered into Beth- 
Dagon, the temple oftbetr idol, but that Jona- 
than set fire to Azotus, and burnt the temple 
of that god, and all those who fled into it." — 
Bochart is of opinion, that the god Dagon was 
Japhet, the third son of Noah, and that they 
made him the divinity of the sea, because his 
lot, and that of hit descendants, included the 
islands, peninsulas, and countries beyond the 
«ea, or, according to La^tantius, the continent 
of Europe. Neptwio maritima omnia cum insulis 

■ etwHenmt. jurieu adds, that probably Noah 
himself may be concealed under Dagon, or 
Neptune, because the empire of the sea agrees 
perfcftly well with him, who floated several 
months on the waters of the deluge, and who 
alone escaped from the flood, by which the 
rest of mankind were destroyed. Other au- 
thors, however, give a diiftrent account. Ac- 
cording to them Dagon was one of the most 
celebrated divinities of the Philistines ; if we 
may believe Sanchontatho, of a very early ori- 
gin. CoeluSfSays that author, had many sons, 
and among the rest Dagon, so called from the 

. word Dagon, which, in the Phoenician, signi- 
fies wbeat. As he was inventor of the plough, 
and taught men the use of corn for bread, he, 
after his death, was sumamed Jupiter Agrotis, 
or The Labourer. Saturn, when at war with 
Coelus, or Uranus, having made one of his 
wives prisoner, compelled her to marry Dagon, 
who, conformably to this idea, is no longer a 
god, half man and half fish, as the Rabbins 
imagined, but the god of corn, the inventor 
of agriculture, who, on that account, was dei- 
fied after his death. His name then comes not 
from the Hebrew word Di^, ».jisb, but is Phoe- 

nician, and in that language signifies Tuibfirt.— 
Some of the Rabbins confounding Dagon with 
Atergates, Derccto, or Dercetis, say, he was 
represented as a man in the upper parts of his 
body, and as a fish from his waist downward ; 
while othiers contend^ that he had the form of 
a fish above, and an human figure below. Some 
again allege, that he was all fish ; others, that 
his figure was human from head to foot, and 
coincides with the account of him in Scripture, 
which mentions his head, his hands, and his 
trunk ; and if we add/r//, as in tl e Septuagint: 
" The bead, the handa, and feet ofibe idol were 
found together, apart from the body, "~yi/€ still 
have a human figure in all its parts. The 
Philistines had a great veneration for Dagon, 
and his temples were magnificent: that which 
he had at Gaza must needs have been of consi- 
derable extent, since Sampson, pulling down 
the pillars that supported it, buried in its ruins 
more than three thousand men. The temple 
at Azoth was not less famous, where the mi- 
raculous overthrow happened. The head of 
Saul having been placed in a temple of the 
same god, and his arms in one of Astaroth, is 
an additional proof that Dagon and Astaroth 
were different deities. 
DAlBOfH, an idol of the Japanese, has many 
temples ere€led to his honour, to which vast 
crowds of devotees and worshippers resort. — 
The access to the chief temple of this deity is 
through a kind of gateway, on either side of 
which two monstrous figures are erected, with 
several arms, holding arrows, swords, and 
other ofliensive weapons. In the centre of the 
pagoda the idol is seated, after the Oriental 
fashion, on a table-altar, raised but a little 
from the ground. He is of a monstrous height, 
and touches with his hand the roof of the tem- 
ple. ; Some idea of his enormous bulk may' be 
fbrmed from his hands, which are longer tlian 
the body of an ordinary man. This idol has 
the breasts and face of a woman, and black 
locks, woolly, and crisped like a negro's. He 
is encircled on all sides with gilded rays, on 
which are placed a great number of images re- 
presenting the inferior idols of the Japanese. 
On either hand are several others placed on 
pedestals, and crowned witha nimbus or glory. 
The altar he sits on is furnished with a pro- 

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fusion of lighted lamps. The tevn^t is sup- 
ported by wooden pillars-, foriited not accord- 
ing to any of the rules of architeflure, but by 
trees in their natural state, as cut down in 
their woods or gardens, which gives the whole 
a romantic appearance. The frame work of 
the temple is painted red, and adjoining to it 
is a chapel, varnished all over without, where 
the sacrifices are prepared, and where the peo- 
ple resort to worship, except on the greater 
festivals. The idol itself is described byKemp- 
fer as gilt all over, with ears very expan- 
sive, curled hair, a crown on its head, ajid a 
large stain or blaze on its forehead ; its iieck 
and breasts are naked, its right hand is extend- 
ed, pointing to the hollow of its left, which rests 
supported on its belly. 
DAIDALA, twofestivalsinBoeotia, one of which 
was observed by the Plataeans at Alalcomenos, 
wlierewas the largest grove of any in Boeotia. 
Here assembling, the people exposed in open 
air pieces of -sodden flesh, carefully observing, 
whither the crows that came to prey upon them 
directed their flight. After this, the several 
trees upon which any of the birds had alighted, 
were hewed do^rn, and formed into statues ; by 
the Greeks called Daidala, from the artificer 
Daidalus of Athens. The other solemnity was 
far the greatest and most remarkable, being 
celebrated not only at Plataea, but in all tlie 
cities of Boeotia, once in sixty years, to com- 
memorate, and, as it were, compensate the in- 
termission of th< lesser festival for that space 
of time, during which the Plataeans were in 
exile. ~ in this solemnity there were always 
prepared fourteen Daidala, to be distributed by 
lot among the Plataeans.Coroneans, Thespians, 
Tanagraeans, Chaeroneans, Orchomenians, Le- 
badeana, andThebans; because they promoted 
a reconciliation with the Plataeans, and were 
not only desirous of their recal from banish- 
ment, but contributed offings to celebrate 
the festival, about the time when Thebes was 
restored by Cassander; nor did these cities 
only unite, but others of less note also joined 
in die solemnity, which was kept in the follow- 
bg manner .- A statue, habited like a woman 
oa the banks of the Asopus, was appointed to 
be carried by a second, dressed like a bride- 
maid^to the top of Mount Cithaeron* (followed 

by a train of Boeotians, who had places assign- 
ed them by lot), where an altar was erefted of 
square pieces of timber. Upon this, large quan- 
tities of combustible matter being laid, each of 
the cities, and wealthy individuals, ofl^red up 
a bull to Jupiter, and an ox or heifer to Juno, 
with p!enty of wine and incense, whilst others 
less able to purchase such costly oblations, 
contributed victims of sheep. The whole, to- 
gether with the Daidala, being raised in a 
heap, were set on fire, and not extinguished 
till the altar itself was consumed. Theorigin 
of the custom is said to have been a quarrel 
between Jupiter and Juno, in cimsequence of 
which the goddess retired to Euboea. The god, 
troubled at her departure, endeavoured, by all 
the arts of persuasion, to obtain her return, but 
finding his own attempts ineffeAual, he con- 
sulted Cithaeron, king of the Plataeans, who 
had the greatest reputation for wisdom, on the 
means most likely to succeed. The expedient 
suggested was, that Jupiter should dress a 
statue in woman's apparel, and having i^aced 
it in a chariot, report her to be Plataea, the 
daughter of Asopus, with whom he had con- 
traced a marriage. The artifice succeeded, 
and Juno returned. See CUbaeronia. 

DAIDIS, an ancient Grecian solemnity, of three 
days continuance, during which torches, called 
in Greek 4«Jif^ were burnt, and which gave 
occasion to the name. On the first day were 
commemorated the labours of Latons,and birth 
of Apollo. The second was in memory ofGly- 
con and his nativity. The third was observed 
in honour of the marriage of Podalirius, and 
the mother of Alexander. 

DAIKOKU, a Japanese deity, to whom they 
hold themselves indebted for all the riches 
they enjoy. This idol is seated on a bale or 
sack of rice, holding a hammer, with which 
he strikes whatever he chooses, and whenever 
the stroke falls it is attended with (denty, such 
as immense riches, gay habits, an^ all the con- 
veniencies of life. The bale of rice is the Ori- 
ental symbol of plenty itself. 

DAIPHANTU«.thePbocensian. Ste Etepbetclia. 

DAIPHRON, son of Aegyptus, kUIed by his 

DAIRA, one of the Opcaoidcs, mother of Elcuais^ 
by Mercuiy. 

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DAMAEUS, a sumame.of Neptune, of the same 
signification with Hippius, expressive of his e- 
questrian chara<5ler. 

was killed by Apollo and Diana. He was first 
shot in the leg, and, whilst stooping to extract 
the dart, received a mortal wound in the 

DAMASISTRATUS, king of Plataea, buried 
Lai us. 

DAMASTES, the same with Procrustes. See 

DAMASTORIDES, one of Penelope's suitors, 
killed by Ulysses. 

DAMASUS, a Trojan killed by Polypoetes. ■ 

DAMATER. See Demeter. 

DAMIA, a Pagan divinity so called. Her sa- 
crifice, which was always offered in private 
houses, with windows and doors shut, was call- 
ed Damium. No man, nor pifture of a male, 
was suffered to be present, nor women to re- 
veal what passed. They spent nine days and 
nights in this festival, magnificently apparel- 
led i danced, sung, and took what liberties they 
pleased. This Damia was said to be the wife 
of Faunus, and so chaste, that she never saw 
nor heard any other man than her own husband. 

DAMIUM. See Damia. 

DAMNAMENEUS. See DaByli Idaei. 

DANAE. See Acrisius Perseus. 

DANAEIUS HEROS, Perseus, son of Jupiter 
and Danae. 

DANAI, a name given to the people of Argos, 
and the Greeks at large, from Danaus. 

DANAIDES. SeeBelides. 

DANAUS, king of Argos, was, according to 
some authors, an Egyptian, and brother of Ra- 
masses ; or, according to others, of Aegyptus. 
After having reigned nine years jointly with 
his brother, he, it is said, was forced to seek 
an asylum in the country of Argos, where, ex- 
pelling Sthenelus, king of the Argives, he ru- 
led that people, about 1476 years before the 
Christian era. Danaus had fifty daughters, 
and his brother Aegyptus as many sons. A 
quarrel having subsisted between the two bro- 
thers, which had forced Danaus to retire to 
Argos, it was proposed to bring about a re- 
conciliation, by marrying the daughters of Da- 
naus to the sons of Aegyptus. The nuptials 

were accordingly celebrated ; but Danaus be- 
ing informed by the oracle, that he should be 
dethroned by one of his sons-in-law, ordered 
each of his daughters to murder her husband 
on the night of their wedding. This was ac- 
cordingly done, except in the instance of Hy- 
permnestra, who, by saving the life of her hus- 
band Lynceus, was the means of fulfilling the 
prediftion of the oracle. 

DANAUS, son of Pilumnus and Danae, and fa- 
ther of Tumus. SeePilumms. 

tae, Corybantes, DaByli Idaei, £Sc. Under this 
article it may be remarked, that nothing is 
more conspicuous in the representations of 
female dancers by the ancients, {the Bacchae 
excepted, as the subjeft precludes it) tlian an 
air of decent and graceful modesty. It hju 
been thought by some, that the earliest artists 
caught the attitudes and action of their figures 
from the ancient dances, whilst the dancers 
of later times, in their turn, made statues their 
models. The justice of this observation may 
be seen in many statues of women lightly 
clothed, most of which, without girdle or at- 
tribute, are represented as executing a modest 
dance ; insomuch, that those which want arms 
discover by their attitudes, that hand 
they gently held the drapery on their shoulders, 
whilst, with the other, they prevented its ex- 
posing their hips. Compositions of this kind 
gives expression and significance to figures ; 
and as several of these statues have an ideal 
head, they may represent ^ra/o andTerpsicbore, 
the two Muses which more particularly preside 
over dancing. Statues of this sort may be seen 
in the Villas Medici, Albani, &c. Two such . 
figures of the natural size are preserved in the 
Villa Ludovici, and several statues of Hercula- 
neum, but with heads which are not ideal ; an- 
other over the entrance of the Caraffo Colo- 
brano palace at Naples, hath a head of sublime 
beauty, crowned with flowers. These statues, 
according to a custom which prevailed amongst 
the Greeks, were probably erefted to beautiful 
dancers. Amongst the most beautiful pictures 
of Herculaneum are those of the Dancers, 
Nymphs, and Centaurs, on a black ground, 
which seem to have been caught by it in all the 
fire of creative genius. - 3 

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DANIUS. SeeTAy«i(!r. 
DANUBIUSj the Danube, a river deity^ on a me- 
dal of Trajani is exhibited sitting with his urn, 
and distinguished by a large veil floating over 
his head ; but the finest figure of him is on the 
Column of Trajan at> Romev ft' He. is/' says 
Mr. Spence, " one of the first figures on that 
column, very near the base, and appears there, 
from the w^st upward, rising out of his stream, 
to shew .his duty to thje Romans, and to sup. 
port the bridge of boats they had laid over it. 
' . This is not expressed ixi Biartoli's edition of lh6 
Columna Trajana, but on the column itself 
you may discern : the hand .of the god, though 
partly covered .with the wjUer, is stretched 
quite to the bridge, and uaas. way under it^as 

...wUliag to support it." , , 

DAOLA, a Tonquinese idol, who presides over 

DAOULIS, a solemnity at Ai^os, in which was 
rspresented the combat of Praetus and Acri- 
DAPALIS, an epithet of Jupiter, fix>m the great 

festivals in honour of him. 
DAPHNAEUS, a surname of Apollo. Diana 

was also fiurnamed Dapbnaea, ovDapbnia. 
DAPHNE, daughter of the river Peneus, a vir- 
■ gin of Thessaly, was beloved of Apollo, but 
prepossessed in favour of Lucippus, a youth of 
her own age. Apollo, to be revenged on his 
rival, induced him to disguise himself as a 
virgin, and attend them when they bathed ; 
but they, oh a detection of the deceit, stabbed 
him. After this, the god pursued Daphne, 
who fled to preserve her chastity ; but finding 
herself unable to escape, and being exhausted 
with fatigue, on supplicating the other divi- 
nities, she was. sjiddenly changed to a laurel. 
Apollo immediately consecrated its leaves to 
bind' his tem|des, and ajqiointed -'that tree the 
reward of poetry.— A story has been trans- 
mitted of the laurel, which deserves admiration ' 
rather than credit : it is, that a certain painter , 
attempted to paint the picture of Apollo upon 
a taUe of this wood, but that the laurel would i 
not sufi%r the colours to stick on it, as abhor- 
rent of the violence the god had intended, no 
less, than if animated by Daphne herself. Some 
authors maintain, that the etymology of 
Dai^me's nanie^ which in Greek signifies a 
Vol. I, 

was the foundation of this fable; whilst 
Gyraldus and others contend, that Daphne was 
so called from Aofwiu, toctyout ; because the 
laurel, as it burns, makes a crackling noise ; 
and this tree being consecrated to Apollo, 
, thence gave rise to the fable. 
PAPHNEPHAGOI, laureUaters, a tide of those 
diviners, who, before they render their respon- 
ses, eat laurel leaves, to obtain a communica- 
tion from Apollo, the laurel being sacred to 
DAPHNEPHORIA, a novennial fesUval, cele- 
brated by the Boeotians in honour of Apollo. 
The solemnity consisted in adorning an olive 
branch,, with garlands of laurel, and various 
■sorts c^ flowers, upon the top of which was 
placed a globe of brass, whilst other less globes 
hung from it. About the middle of it were 
, fixed purple crowns, with a globe smaller than 
{that acthetop, whilst- the bottom was covered 
i*:it(i a safl'ron-coloLir^ garmoit. The upper- 
most globe was an emblem of Apollo, or the 
Sun;that ploced diametrically under it, sig- 
nified the Moon i the lesser globes represented 
the. Stars ; and the crowns, being sixty-five in 
number, were types of the Sun'.s annual revo- 
liition. The bough, thus adorned, was carried 
in {HXKession by a boy of a beautiful counte- 
nance, and good family, whose parents were 
living: he was apparelled in a sumptuous gar< 
ment reaching down to his ant'en, his hair 
loose and dishevelled, on his head a crown .of 
gold, and upon his feet shoes called Iphicra- 
tidae, from Iphicrates, the Athenian, who in- 
vented them : it was his duty to execute, at that 
tiiAe, the priest's office ; and he was honoured 
with the title of Daphnephoros, that is, the lau. 
rel-bearer. Before him went one of his nearest 
relations, bearing a rod adorned with garlands ; 
after ■ him followed a choir of virgins, with 
branches in their hands; and in ttiis order they 
proceeded to the tem]^ of Apollo, surnaoied 
IsmenfliS and Galaxius, where they sung sup. 
plicatiory hymns to the god. This solemnity 
was instituted on the following account : The 
Aeolians inhabiting Ame and the adjacent ter* 
ritory, beingadvised by an oracle to relinquish 
tl^ir ancient seats, and seek their fortunes, 
made an invasicm upon the Thebans, who, at 
the same time were besieged 1^ the Pelasgiuis; 
4 Ff 





this happening near the time of Apollo's festi- 
val, which was religiously observed by both 
nations, a cessation of arms was agreal to ; ac- 
' cordingly, one party having cut down laurel 
boughs on Helicon, and the other near the ri- 
ver Melas, mutually bore them in the custo- 
mary manner to the temple of Apollo. On 
the same day there appeared in a dream to 
Polemetas, General of the Boeotian forces, a 
young man who presented him with a complete 
suitof armour, and commanded that every ninth 
year the Boeotians should make solemn pray- 
ers to Apollo, with laurel in their hands. A- 
bout three days after this vision, the General 
sallied forth wi his assailants with such success, 
that they were forced to quit their enterprize ; 
hence the festival was instituted In honour of 
Apollo. The Jews have something like this in 
their celebration of the feast of Tabernacles ; 
they carry boughs in their hands during the 
performance of the sacred songs ; a ceremwiy, 
no doubt, derived to them from their ances- 
tors, who, as Maimonides informs us, when 
they celebrated that feast, entered into the tem- 
ple with dances, rods sbeketit songs, cymbals, 
and psalteries. 

DAPHNIS : of this name there were several : — 
One, a Sicilian shepherd, son of Mercury and 
a Nymph, who was brought up by the Nymphs 
her companions, taught to sing and play on the 
pipe by Pan, and inspired with the love of poesy 
by the Muses. He was supposed to have been 
the first who excelled in pastorals, and so 
thorough a sportsman, that his dogs died for 
grief at his death. 

Another, according to others, though Ovid says 
the same, being in love, and having obtained 
that whether himself, or the objeft of tus pas- 
^on might first break their vow, the ofibider 
should be punished with blindness, forgetting ' 
his oath, was deprived of his sight, and, be- 
tides turned into a rock. 

Another Dapbn'ts was son of Paris and Oenone. 

DARDANIA : Troy at first obtamed this name 
from Dardanus, its foundo:, and first king. 

DARDANIDES, a patronymic of the Trojans, 
from DardanuB the founder ofTroy. 

DARDANUS, son of Jupiter and Eleara, flying 
from his country, came into the region border- 
ing on the Hellespont, where he buUt the ci^ 

Dardanus, or Troy, and to the country gave 
the name of Dardania. He is said to have in- 
troduced the Samothractan rites into Phrygia, 
where Cybele was admitted into the order ^the 
gods. See Cybele. 

Of this name also was a son of Priam, who was 
killed before Troy by Achilles. 

DARES, a priest of Vulcan, father of two Tro- 
jan chiefs. 

Also a boasting Trojan, whom Entellus beat, and 
Turn us killed. 

DARKNESS, one of the children of Nox and E- 

DARON, a festival of which nothing remains but 
the name, preserved by Hesychius. If the cfm- 
jefiure of Meursius deserve &ny credit, it is 
not improbable that it belonged to one Darron, 
who, as the same Grammarian informs us, was 
worshipped by the Macedonians, and thought 
to restore health to uck persons. 

DASCYLUS, son of Lychus, king oftheMari 
andyni, conducted the Argonauts ii^ their 
voyage towards Colchis, as far as the river 

DAULIS, a Nymph from whom the city of Dau- 
lis, in Phocis, is said to have been called. It 
was here that Philomela and Procne fed Terens 
with the ilesh of his son, whence Philomela ob- 
tained the surname of Daulias. 

tuma and Tiimus, daughter and son of IHu. 

DAUNUS, son of Pilumnus and Dance, came 
fVom Illyricum to Apulia; and reigned over 
port of the country which from him was called 
Datmia. He had^a son of the same name, who 
married Venilia, by whom he was fatho* of 
Tumus, king of the Rutiljans. 

DAY. " The Day," says Mr. Spence, " and 
perhaps every day in the year, was looked tm 
as a divinity, and represented personally, and 
that sometimes like Sol, in a chariot. There 
was, a distin£Hon that prevailed very early a- 
mong the Romans, of the civil and the natural 
Day. The natural Day was most commonly 
reckoned from sun-rise to sun-set ; the civil 
Day from midn^ht to midnight again. Vh-gil, 
in speaking personally of the latter, calls it 
Oriens, a name that was. not much used in his 
time, but which he, as a professed lover of an- 

Digjtized by 



tiquity, and of their ancieut words, chose to 
use, where it was more proper than Sol, or 
eren Dies, would have been. 

D£A SYRIA, a name of Venus among the Si- 
donians, who worshipped her under this appel- 
lation, in the figure of a star : they also called 
her Astarte. See Astarte. 

DEATH, OR MORS. Nox, or Night, was the 
most ancient of the deities, Orpheus ascribing 
to her the generation of gods and men. She 
was even reckoned older than Chaos, with 
whom Hesiod b^ins his genealogy ofthegods. 
She had a numerous oflspring, many of whom 
she bore without a father, and among these 
Mors, or Death, who is the most powerful mi- 
nister of the infernal deities, as he brings all 
mortals down to the river Acheron. It is said 
that her mother Nox bestowed peculiar care on 
her education, and that Death had a great af- 
fcftion for her brother Somnus, or Sleep. A- 
mong the Eleans there was a temple with the 
«taiue of a woman holding in either hand a 
sleeping boy, with their legs distorted ; that 
in her right was white, to signify Sleep ; that 
in her left black, to represent Death ; whilst 
the female that fostered them was Night. No 
sacrifices, no temples, no ceremonies, no priests, 
were appointed for Death, because she was 
looked upon as an inexorable deity, whom no 
■prayers could move, no sacrifices pacify. This 
goddess, however, was considered as sent to 
mankind to terminate all their evils ; and is as 
much to be deified by the good, when the laws 
of nature permit her approach, as dreaded by 
those whom she surprizes involved in their 
guilt " The figures of Mors, or Death," says 
Mr. Spence, " are very uncommon, as indeed 
those of the evil and hurtful beings are in ge- 
neral : they were banished from all medals ; on 
seals and rings they were probably considered 
as bad omens, and were perhaps never used. — 
As for jMilures, they might be introduced there 
On many occasions, but we have so few remain- 
ing to us of the ancient paintings, that we can 
exped but little assistance from that quarter. 
Among the very few figures of Mors I have 
ever met with, that in the Florentine gallery 
is, 1 think, the most remarkable : it is a little 
figure, in brass, of a skeleton, as sitting on the 
ground, and resting (Hie of his hands on a \oa% 



nm. I fancy Mors was common oiough in 
the paintings of old, because she is so frequent- 
ly mentioned in a descriptive manner by the 
Roman poets, who, by the way, sometimes 
make a disdn£Uon between Lethum and Mors* 
which the poverty of our language will not al- 
low us to express, and which it is even difficult 
enough to conceive ; perhaps they meant by 
Lethum that general principle or source of mor- 
tality which they supposed to have its proper 
residence in hell, and by Mors, or Mortes, 
(for they had several of them) the immediate 
cause of each particular instance of mortality 
on our earth. The face of Mors, when th^ 
gave her any face, (and the painters probably 
represented her sometimes with a very meagre 
body, as well as like an absolute skeleton) seems 
to have been of a pale, wan, dead colour. The 
poets describe her as ravenous, treacherous, and 
furious. They speak of her roving about open 
mouthed, and as ready to swallow up all that 
comes in her way : they seem to give her black 
robes and dark wings, and represent her often 
as of an enormous size : Statius gives her arms 
too, and in particular asword, like a destroy- 
ing angel, for it is where he is describing a pes- 
tilence. As the ancients had more horrid and 
gloomy notions of Death than we have at pre- 
sent, mostoftheirdesctiptionsof Morsareofa 
most frightful and dismal turn. They some- 
times describe her as coming to the doors of 
mortals, and thundering at them, to demand 
the debt which they owe her j sometimes as ap« 
proaching to their bed-sides, and leaning over 
them ; and sometimes as pursuing her prey* 
or as hovering in the air, and ready to make a 
stoop upon it She is also represented by them 
as pursuing men with a net, as catching them, 
and as dragging them te their tombs. St^us 
speaks of Mors like Quies ; but of all his pic- 
tures of this deity the most particular, I think* 
is where he represents her as standing by the 
bed-side of a youth just in the flower rfhis age, 
accompanied by Envy and Vengeance. These 
horrid deities shew a great deal of friendship to 
one another in the execution of their cruel of- 
fices, and Vengeance, in particular, after hav- 
ing embrftced the goddess of deaths seems, ac> 
cording to his account, to take the fatal net 
outof her hand,and to perform herofficefor her.'* 
Ff 2 





DEBIS, a Japanese idol, represented in the hu- 
man form of gigantic stature, in an image <rf' 
brass, but without a temple or pagoda ; for he 
is placed on the most conspicuous part of a 
high road. This idol is visited by young wo- 
men, to inquire when they shall have husbands, 
and as the image itself is hollow, a priest within 
answers the questions proposed. The inquirer, 
who is seldom suffered to depart in despair, ge- 
nerally leaves some gratuity to acknowledge 
her gratitude, as she doubts not having had a 
communication with the god. 

DECEIT, one of the children of Nox and Erebus. 

DECELUS, a person who informed Castor and 
Pollux that Helen, who had been carried off 
by Theseus, was concealed at Aphidnae. 

DECEMVIRI. See Qum&ecemmn. 

DECENNALIA, ancient Roman festivals, cele- 
brated by the emperors every tenth year of 
their reign, with sacrifices, games, largesses 
to the people^ &c. Augustus introduced these 
solemnities, and his successors followed the ex- 
ample. At the same time the people offered up 
vows for the emperor, and the perpetuity (rf" 
his em]nre, called Vola Decennalia. From the 
time of Antoninus Pius we find these ceremo- 
nies marked on medals, Primi Decemnales. Se> 
cuNDi Decennales. Vota Sol. Decen. II. Vo- 
tA SrscEp. Decen. III. These vows must have 
been made at the beginning of every tenth 
year, for on a medal of Pertinax, who reigned 
scarcely four months, we find Vota Decen. 
and VoTis Decennalibvs. Struvius is of opi- 
nion that these vows took place of those which 
the Censor used to make in the times of the re- 
public, for its prosperity and preservation — 
They were not only offered in behalf of the 
prince, but also of the state, as may be obser- 
ved from Dio, and Pliny the Younger. The 
aim of Augustus in establishing the Decenna- 
lia, was to preserve the empire and the sove- 
reign power, without offence to, or restraint 
fVom, the people ; for, during the celebration 
of this feast, that prince used to surrender all 
his authority into their hands, and they, in re- 
turn, delighted at his goodness, immediately 
restored it to him. 

DECIMA, the name t)f one of the Fates among 
the Romans. 

DEDICATION, the aft of consecrating a tem- 

ple, altar, statue, place, &c. to the honour of 
some deity. The pra^ice of Dedications is very 
ancient, both amcmg the woi'shippers of the 
true God, and the Heathens. The Hebrews 
call it bbanucbab, initiation, which the Greek 
translators render EJiuima and tStuatKrfMt, renova- 
tion. In Scripture we meet with Dedications of 
the tabernacle, of altars, of the first and se- 
ccmd temple, and even of the houses of private 
persons. There are also Dedications of ves- 
sels ; the garments of the priests and Levitea* 
and even of their persons. Under the Christian 
dispensation we call the like ceremonies Conse- 
crations, Benedidions, Ordinations, 8cc. not 
Dedications. Among the Romans, the Dedi- 
cation of temples belonged to the greater ma- 
gistrates, the consuls, praetors, or censors, in 
the time of the commonwealth ; and to the em- 
perors, during the monarchial government.— 
According to the Papyrian law, the Dedication 
was to be authorised by the senate and people, 
with consent of the college of Augurs. The 
ceremony consisted in surrounding the temple, 
&c. with garlands of flowers, whilst the Vestal 
virgins, bearing olive branches, sprinkled the 
outside of the temple with lustral or holy wa- 
ter : the magistrate then held with one hand 
the side-post of the gate, and the pontiff, calling 
him by his name, repeated these words : jides, 
Ades, dum dedico templum boc, ut mbi praeeatis, 
postemque teneatis : whence this part of the cere- 
mony was called postern tenere, or apprebtndere. 
When the pontiff had pronounced alou^ the 
form of Dedication, the consecrating magis- 
trate repeated it after him : hence the phrase 
Solemnia verba, prauunte pontijice, ^ari. The 
court of the temfJe was next consecrated, by 
sacrificing an animal, whose entrails were laid 
on an altar of green turf. The temple thus de- 
dicated, acquired the appellation of Augustum, 
and it was usual to fix up an inscription ex- 
pressing the name and quality of the person de- 
dicating, and the year of the dedication. The 
statue of the god or goddess to whom the tem- 
ple was dedicated, being anointed with some 
rich ointment, was laid upon a bed of state. — 
The populace, on this occasion, were enter- 
tained with plays, games, and feasts ; and the 
solemnity was annually commemorated, like 
the birth-days of princes, or the building of 

Digitized by 





towns. Tacitus gives an account of the cere- 
. niony of the Dedication of the Capitol^ made 
by order of Vespasian, which is here quoted as 
a particular instance of the general praftice. — 
" In clear and serene weather," says he, " they 
surrounded the scite of the temple with gar- 
, ]ands and sacred fillets, and caused those sol- 
diers whose names were of good omen to enter 
it, with branches from such trees as were ac- 
ceptable to the gods : then the Vestal Virgins, 
attended by children of both sexes, whose pa- 
rents were living, purified the place with spring 
and river-water ; the Praetor, preceded by the 
Pontiff, next offered a swine, a sheep, and a 
bull, and having laid the entrails of the victims 
upcm turf, prayed to Jupiter, Juno, Miner- 
va, and the other tutelary gods of the em- 
pire, to bless and complete the habitation which 
the piety of men was dedicating to their glory: 
he then touched the sacred fillets with which 
the first stone was ornamented, and the rope 
fastened to draw it, whilst the priests and ma- 
gistrates, with the whole senate, the eques- 
trian order, and the greatest part of the people, 
all uniting, drew it to its place, with acclama- 
tionsof joy ; having covered the ground beneath 
it with coins of silver and gold, and pieces of 
unfused ore." Selden says the practice of de 
dicating was derived from the Jews to the Hea- 
thens ; Spenser, on the contrary, ascribes the 
Dedications of the Jews to Pagan original ; and 
he remarks, that the former were more sparing 
in these religious ceremonies before the Baby- 
lonish captivity than after it. The justice, 
however, of the latter position, will by no means 
establish the former. The priority of these de- 
dicatory rites may, in some measure, be in- 
i5erred from comparing the Jewish with the 
Heathen. The dedications of their temple by 
the former were/«(r ; the first on its comple- 
tion by Solomon ; the second, on its re-edifi- 
cation by Zorobabel, after the return of the 
nation from Babylon ; the third, on its purifi- 
cation by Judas Machabaeus (which was the 
origin of their anniversary festival), and the 
fourth, on its reparation by Herod. The ce- 
remonies observed on these occasions may be 
Been 1. Kings, viii, 2. Ghron. vii. I. Ezra>vi. 
1. Mac. iv. 2. Mac. x. Joseph. Antiq. xv, 14. 
t Consecration. 

DEIANIRA OR DEJANIRA, daughter of Oe- 
neus, king of Aetolia, was betrothed to Ache- 
lous, but won from him, in a wrestling match, 
by Hercules, who immediately made her his 
wife. 'To him she bore several children, of 
whom the most known is Hylljis. Travelling 
through Aetolia with Hercules, they were stop- 
ped in their progress by the river Evenus, but 
Nessus the Centaur offering his service to carry 
them over, she was committed to his care. No 
sooner, however, had the monster arrived, than 
he attempted to violate her, in the sight of her 
husband. Hercules, to revenge the insult, drew 
on him from the opposite bank, and pierced him 
with an arrow dipped in the blood of the Hy- 
dra, the poison of which^was incurable. Nessus 
pretendingcontrition,gaveDeianira his garment 
stained with blood, as a sure remedy, if worn 
by her husband, against his proving unfaitiifiil', 
Hercules, some years after, having subdued 
Oechalia, fell in love with lole, daughter erf" Eu- 
rytus the king, a fair captive, whom he brought 
to'Euboea, and whence, whilst he was raising 
an altar to Jupiter from his viftory, he despatch- 
ed Lichas, or Lycus, to carry Deiuiira the 
news, and inform her